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Devoted to Connecticut in its Uarious 

Phases of fiistory, Literature, 

Scenic Beauty, Art, 

Science, Industry 




Nineteen Hundred and Seven 

The Connecticut Magazine Company 

Hartford and New Haven 

Herbert Randall, President 

Edward B. Eaton, Vice-President 

Edward O. Dorman, Treasurer 

Francis T. Miller, Secretary 


C ontents of U o l it m e XT 


Hotchkiss, born in 1716 at Cheshire, Connecticut — His good works in War and 
Peace By Reverend Sherrod Soule of Naugatuck, Connecticut 409 

AMERICAN FLAG — THE EMBLEM OF LIBERTY — Story of its Evolution from Dis- 
covery of New World to Present Age when the Sun Never Sets on the Stars and 
Stripes — Accompanied by Silk Memorial Flag- made by Cheney Mills at South Man- 
chester, Connecticut, and Seven Silk Tissue Reproductions in Original Colors 

Mrs. Henry Champion 3 

AMERICA'S KNIGHT ERRANT — Thirteen Rare Engravings from the Originals in the 
True Travels, Adventures and Observations of Captaine John Smith in Europe, 
Asia, Africke, and America Beginning About the Yeere 1593, and Published in 1629 314 

THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD IN AMERICA — Originals in possession of Mr. 
Charles Eben Jackson of Middletown, Connecticut 

ANNIVERSARY OF AMERICAN COMMERCE — Ter-Centenary of the Building of the 
"Virginia," the First Ship Constructed on the Western Continent — Centennial of 
the "Clermont" — Rise of the American Merchant-Marine and the Development of 
Navigation since John Fitch of Connecticut and Robert Fulton 

By C. Seymour Bullock 361 

ARMS CONFERRED FOR CHIVALRY — Translations from the Original Latin Memo- 
rials Issued to John Smith and Recorded in His Narrative of the Wars of the East 
in 1603 322 

AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF JOHN SMITH — Recorded by Him in His Owne Adventures and 

Observations in 1629 — Relating His Birth, in 1579, Apprenticeship and Youth 313 

1807-1907 — JOHN GREENLEAF WHITTIER — The Seventeenth Day of December marks 
the Centenary of a Beloved American Poet whose contributions to American Lit- 
erature have Endeared Him in the Hearts of the American People — Whittier was 
\born December 17, 1807, at Haverhill, Massachusetts — Died September 7, 1892, at 
Hampden Falls, New Hampshire — His own lines in his own handwriting are here 
re-dedicated to his memory 568 

EX LIBRIS — Four Old Book Plates of Distinguished Americans Made by the First 

Engravers in America 260 

EXPERIENCES ON JOURNEY TO AMERICA— Accurate Transcript from the Booke 
of Proceedings and Accidents of the First Permanent English Settlement in 
America by William Simons, "Doctour of Divinitie" 315 

FIRST PHYSICIANS IN AMERICA— Governor John Winthrop, Jr., of Connecticut— His 
Correspondence with Patients Revealing many Customs and Practices of the Early 
Doctors — Illustrated with Portrait from Oil Painting 

Walter R. Steiner, M.A., M.D., Member Connecticut Historical Society 25 
Transcripts from Letters of John Winthrop by Mrs. Abbie Fosdick Ransom 38 

FIRST SILHOUETTISTS IN AMERICA— Earliest Extant Type of Pictoriology— 
Brown's Notable Collection of Portraits of Distinguished Americans With four . 
Quaint Reproductions from Brown's Original Silhouettes, by Howard Marshall 255 

World the First Promoter of Trans-Atlantic Service, Junius Smith, Born in Ply- 
mouth in 1780 — Development of Steam Navigation — Illustrated with Eight Prints 
from Rare Engravings C. Seymour Bullock 49 


photo engravings of the magnificent homes, historic shrines, and foremost men of 

the township By Elisha J. Edwards, LL.D. 

Former Editor of the "New York Evening Sun" 61' 

MUSIC IN AMERICA — Struggles of the First Composers Against Public Condemnation 

Clara Emerson 14| 
PAINTERS in AMERICA — Rare Canvasses of First Artists are preserved in Connecti- 
cut — Illustrated with three Reproductions from Old Masterpieces. .. .Stuart Copley 135| 

cation of the Indian Girl who led the Lewis and Clark Expedition over the Rocky 
Mountains in their Unparalleled Journey into the Mysteries of the Western 
World — Recognition of Sacajawea as the Woman who Guided the Explorers to the 
New Golden Empire — With nine reproductions from sculpture and rare prints — 
By Grace Raymond Hebard, Ph.D., of the University of Wyoming 459 

PUBLIC LIBRARIES IN CONNECTICUT— The Benefaction of a Pioneer Alaskan Trader 
in New London — With Reproduction of Medallion by St. Gaudens, Photograph 
of the New London Library, and Book Plate 

By Courtesy of Helen Kilduff Gay, Librarian 139 

a Plot to Force the Slavery Question to an Issue more than Twenty Years before 
the Final Outbreak in the Civil War, with Portrait of "Cinque, the Fugitive Slave 
Leader," from Oil Painting by Nathaniel Jocelyn 

Reverend Alonzo N. Lewis, M.A., Society of the Cincinnati 125 

CUT — Pioneer Life on the American Frontier — Crossing the Continent from Con- 
necticut to Montana under Orders of President Lincoln to Establish Law and Order 

in the Great Northwest Judge Lemuel E. Munson 81 

Several illustrations bearing the lines "Old prints in possession of Judge 
Munson" should be credited to Honorable William Henry Milburn's work "In the 
Valley of the Mississippi." Judge Munson wishes it fully understood that these 
illustrations are from Mr. Milburn's original work, a copy of which was presented 
to a member of his family by the author. The work is published by the N. D. 
Thompson Publishing Company of New York and St. Louis and should be read by 
all who are interested in American pioneer life. 

THE DAWN OF THE NEW WORLD — First Permanent English Settlement in America 
Foundation of a People Who in Three Hundred Years Have Stretched Their 
Dominion and Millions Across the Continent — Its Influence Permeates the Earth — 
Nations of the World Extend Tribute — Illustrated with Sixteen Reproductions 
from Old Paintings, Engravings and Sculpture. .. .Honorable H. St. George Tucker 

President of the Jamestown Exposition 297 

American Full-rigged Steamship, Ran from New York to New Orleans via Havana 
as Early as 1819 — Brief Resume of First Steamships Running to Old Virginia — 
Notes Preliminary to Story of Robert Fulton — Illustrated with four Reproductions 
from Old Engravings and Paintings C. Seymour Bullock 246 

THE LETTERS OF EARLY AMERICAN WARRIORS— Personalities of great Ameri- 
cans of a century ago as shown by their correspondence — General Jackson and his 
intimate friends in the days of the American Republic 

By Mabel Cassine Holman of Saybrook, Conn. 439 

Connecticut holds Seven Thousand original negatives taken on the battlefields dur- 
ing the Civil War First known collection of its size on the Western Continent — 

Believed to be the first time that the camera was used so extensively and practi- 
cally in war — By Francis Trevelyan Miller — Editor of "The Journal of American 
History," "The Connecticut Magazine," "The Eaton Photographic Histories of the 
Civil War" and other works 585 


from East Guilford to New Haven — Stage to Bridgeport — Steamboat to Albany — 
Canal to Buffalo — Steamer to Cleveland — Cross country in wagons and on horse- 
- back — Memories of old log-cabin days in the wilderness 

By Annie Kelsey Maher, Niece of the Narrator of the Journey 533 ; 

ALONG THE CONNECTICUT RIVER — Historic shores of one of the most beautiful 
waterways in America which is now spanned by the largest masonry bridge in the 
world — Entertaining anecdotes of the old days — By Mabel Cassine Holman, Say- 
brook, Connecticut — Author of "Letters of Early American Warriors," "A Story 
of Early American Womanhood," and many other articles in the "Connecticut 
Magazine" 561 

AMERICAN ACHIEVEMENT — Recent Public Utterance by 

Honorable Theodore Roosevelt, President of the United States 188 

AMERICAN CIVILIZATION — Excerpt from Address at Jamestown by 

Honorable Rollin S. Woodruff, Governor of Connecticut 187' 

Stephen Jarvis, Born in 1756 in Danbury, Connecticut, Revealing the Life of the 
Loyalists who Refused to Renounce Allegiance to the King and Fought to Save 
the Western Continent to British Empire — Original Manuscript now in Possession 
of Honorable Charles M. Jarvis, New Britain, Connecticut 191 

of the American Revolution — Most Important Documentary Evidence of its kind in 
Existence — Accurate Transcript from Recently Discovered Journal of Colonel 
Stephen Jarvis of Danbury, Connecticut — Original Manuscript Now in Possession 
of Honorable Charles M. Jarvis of New Britain, Connecticut 477 

AN AMERICAN'S OATH OF ABJURATION IN 1763— Sworn to by Colonel Henry Lud- 
ington when Appointed to the Office of Sub-Sheriff — Accurate Transcript from 
Originals in the Collection of the Poughkeepsie, New York Literary Club 263 

gallant Frenchman who was fighting for American Independence — By Susan E. 
M. Jocelyn, of New Haven, Connecticut, a daughter of Nathaniel Jocelyn and lineal 
descendant of the heroine 425 

AN EARLY CONNECTICUT GENIUS — First American astronomer to observe transit 
of Venus — First white man to reach summit of Mt. Washington — Manasseh Cutler, 

engineer, lawyer, physician, statesman By William Elroy Curtis 

In "Chicago Record-Herald" 583' 

ANECDOTE OF AN OLD-TIME MINISTER — Reverend Samuel Eells of Branford, who 
acted as village doctor and marched his congregation to Washington's headquar- 
ters when call came for troops to fight for American Independence 

By George S. Roberts, 
Author of "The Connecticut Valley" and other Historical Works 609" 

ANECDOTES OF GOOD OLD FATHER TAYLOR— Born in 1793— He Gave His Life to 
the Cause of His Fellowmen and His Simple Homely Words Were Heard Around 
the World — He Was One of the Most Vigorous Orators in America, by 

Alfred T. Richards 285 

Connecticut, and Her Noble Sacrifices of Comfort and Luxury in Old England to 
Accompany Her Husband to New World by Mabel Cassine Holman 251 

AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF JEREMIAH HOLMES— Born in 1782 at Stonington, Connecti- 
cut — His Experiences in South America and in the Ports of the Old World during 
the First Years of the American Republic and in the War of 1814 

Captain Jeremiah Holmes 65 

Uncas upon whose Hunting Ground is To-day reared the City of Norwich, Con- 
necticut John Spier, Now in his Eighty-third Year 145 


CENTENNIALS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE — Nine Hundredth Anniversary of Thor- 
finn's Discovery of the "Western Continent — Four Hundredth Anniversary of the 
Christening- of the New World as "America" — Three Hundredth Anniversary of 
the Call of the Wilds to the Anglo-Saxons and the Daring- Men Who Heard 325 

inal Order Issued in New England in 1765 and Contributed hy. . . .Benjamin C. Lum 284 

sublime courage of the men who offered their lives to their country 

By L. D. Emmert, Torrington, Connecticut 614 

ESTATE OF A WELL-TO-DO AMERICAN IN 1689 — Transcribed by 

M. Augusta Holman 11 

fering of Rebecca Foote of Branford, Connecticut, who married a clergyman whose 
zeal in the cause of American liberty subjected her to brutality of the Hessians — 
With her children huddled about her she watched the battle in front of the par- 
sonage — By Reverend Roderick Terry, D.D., Manuscript contributed by Frederick 
T. Peet of Auburn, N. Y 523 

Journal of Samuel Hoyt of Connecticut — Born in 1744 — Struggle for Existence 
During the War for Independence — Founding the Nation and the Beginning of 
Trade with Foreign Lands — Setting Sail from Guilford with Cargoes of Merchan- 
dise — Transcript from Almost Indecipherable Document Contributed by 

Julius Walter Pease 275 


Benjamin F. Trueblood, Secretary American Peace Society 133 

FIRST COURT TRIALS IN CONNECTICUT— First case tried in New England was 
John Billington, of old Plymouth, in 1621 — First General Court on record in Con- 
necticut convened at Hartford in 1636 in which constables were sworn to protect 
the peace of the colony — Jury system is revealed in 1637 — Investigation 

By Joel Nelson Eno, M.A., Yale University Library, New Haven, Connecticut 577 

FIRST DENTAL COLLEGE IN THE WORLD — Its development from the Ancients and 
its foundation as a part of the Great American Educational System — The Works 
of Dr. Horace Hayden of Windsor — By Dr. James McManus of Hartford, Connecti- 
cut, an authority on the surgical science of dentistry 429 

FIRST NEWS OF AMERICAN VICTORY IN 1782 — This is an Account of the Joy that 
Reigned Throughout America on the News of Victory, Told by an Eye Witness, 
Stanton Sholes, Who Was Born March 14, 1772 — Contributed by 

Sarah Elizabeth Sholes Nighman 293 

scendant of King of Connaught who struck the fatal blow which saved Northern 
New York and Vermont from being annexed to Canada — Memories of the gallant 
Commodore in Middletown where the body was buried after his death on the 
Mediterranean By Emma C. Gilman, of Middletown, Connecticut 553 

LICENSE TO MAKE BOOTS AND BOOTEES IN 1815— Quaint Document Transcribed 

from Original by Benjamin C. Lum 138 

MARRIAGE CONTRACT IN CONNECTICUT IN 1675— Transcribed from original by 

Mary R. Woodruff 110 

MEMOIRS OF A CONNECTICUT PATRIOT— Life story of James Morris as told in his 
own manuscript — Experiences of a Litchfield County man in American Revolu- 
tion — His Eminence as a Lecturer and a Pioneer in the Education of Women — 
Original Manuscript now in Possession of His Great-Granddaughter, Mrs. Wash- 
ington Choate of Greenwich, Connecticut 449 

ICA — Born in Wilton, Connecticut, in 1780, and became the Father of Biblical 
Learning — He found Theology under Dominion of Iron-Bound Metaphysics and 
Disenthralled it from Slavery 

John Gaylord Davenport, D.D., Connecticut Historical Society 111 
Memories of Moses Stuart by His Daughter Mrs. Sarah Stuart Robbins 123 


OATH OF ALLEGIANCE TO KING GEORGE III— Sworn to by Colonel Henry Luding- 
ton on March 12, 1763, in Dutchess County in the Province of New York, Before 
He Was Allowed to Take Office as a Sub-Sheriff — Accurate Transcript 263 

OLD BOOKS PRINTED IN CONNECTICUT— Connecticut has given to American Litera- 
ture more authors in prorata to population than any other state in the Union — A 
new volume from a private bookshelf bearing- the imprint of Hartford as a pub- 
lishing center — Bibliography ..By W. E. Grumman, Georgetown, Connecticut 574 


Original by Ella S. Duncan 143 

PLEA FOR PROTECTION FROM THE ENEMY— Accurate Transcript from Original 
Letter Written by Colonel Henry Ludington After He Had Espoused the Cause of 
American Independence and His Oaths to the King 264 

PLEDGE OF THE PATRIOTS TO FREE AMERICA— Signed by Americans in 1776— 
Accurate Transcript from Original in Possession of the Misses Patterson of Pat- 
terson, New York — Colonel Henry Ludington Renounced His Former Oaths and 
Signed this Document at the Beginning of the American Revolution 264 

PUBLIC CARE OF THE POOR IN EARLY AMERICA— Accurate Transcript from Rec- 
ords by M. Augusta Holman 292 

S. Foster, of Norwich, President of the Senate after the Assassination of Lincoln 

By John Philo Trowbridge 
Author of "The First American Satirists — The Hartford Wits" 611 

ington of Connecticut — Born 1739 — Incidents in Which Imminent Defeat Was 
Turned to Glorious Victory — Suppressing the Ravagers of Property on the Out- 
skirts of the Army — Heroism of the Daughter of Colonel Ludington — Narrative by 

Louis S. Patrick 265 

SERMON BY A CONNECTICUT CLERGYMAN IN 1693— The Philosophy of Death in 
Early America — Manuscript of the Reverend Joseph Webb, Born in 1666, Occa- 
sioned by the Demise of Major Nathan Gold of Fairfield, Connecticut, who was 
Foremost in Political, Ecclesiastical and Military Affairs — Transcribed by 

Mrs. Elizabeth Hubbell Schenck 103 

ness — Written by the Editor of the "Wall Street Journal," an authority on Amer- 
ican Finance — Serano D. Pratt 351 

Joseph Webb, born in 1666, occasioned by the demise of Major Nathan Gold of Fair- 
field, Connecticut — He characterizes a politician as "a Father of the People — A Pro- 
tector from Evil" — Transcribed by Mrs. Elizabeth Hubbell Schenck 

Author of "The History of Fairfield, Connecticut". . 601 

THE FIRST PATENT IN AMERICA— Granted in 1646 to the Inventor of "An Engine 
of Mills to Go By Water" and Recorded as "Jenkes Mopolye" by 

Emeline Jenks Crampton 295 

THE FRIENDSHIP OF A THEOLOGIAN — Recollections of Dr. Leonard Bacon, one of 
the most Eminent Clergymen in America half a century ago — His influence over 
Lincoln — A Founder of the "New York Independent" — Established the "New Eng- 
lander" — Fifty-seven years a Pastor in New Haven, Connecticut — Contributed by 
Franklin S. Bradley 399 

dore Roosevelt, President of the United States 515 

TRADE OF A MULATTO BOY FOR "PORK" IN 1765 — Accurate Transcript of Original 

Document in Possession of Mary R. Woodruff, Orange, Connecticut 245 

Jabez Brainard of Haddam, Connecticut, in 1773-1775 — Serious Crimes Included 
"Profane Cursing and Swairing" for which the "Gilty" were sentenced to the 
Stocks — Debtors were frequently bound over to their Creditors in Servitude, and 
the Whipping Post was also employed Reverend Bert Francis Case 43 


VOTE TO PROSECUTE NON-CHURCH GOERS IN 1644 — Record of an Election at a 
General Town Meeting in 1644, at which John Porter and Jacob Barney Are 
Appointed to Preserve the Sabbath Day — Transcript from Original Record Con- 
tributed by Mrs. S. L. Griffith 296» 

first real insight into world of men and affairs was when he left his home scenes 
and came among strangers in a strange commonwealth — Whittier's literary career 
found its first impetus for national greatness in the literary atmosphere of Hart- 
ford By Sarah Gertrude Pomeroy 569* 

WILL OF MART WASHINGTON IN 1788 — Mother of the First President of the United 
States — Transcribed from Clerk's Office at Fredericksburg, Virginia, by 

Mrs. Helen Cook Porter, of Baltimore, Maryland 21& 


ART COVER — Autumn in the Connecticut Hills — Sunset at Castle Craig on the Peaks 
of Meriden — Photographed by John Gudebrod 

ART COVER — Blossom-time in the Norfolk Hills Mrs. J. C. Kendall 

ART COVER — Seasonable Design in Black and Red on Onyx Art Paper by Harold 

ART COVER — Monument erected in 1907 at Andersonville Prison in Georgia to the 
memory of the Connecticut patriots who there gave their lives to the nation dur- 
ing the Civil War By Bela Lyon Pratt 

A TRIBUTE TO PEACE — Lunette on McKinley Memorial at Canton, Ohio 

By Charles H. Niehaus, Sculptor 537 

CENTENARY OF AN AMERICAN POET— Centennial Bas-Relief to Henry Wadsworth 

Longfellow By Louis A. Gudebrod, National Society of Sculpture 17 

COUNTRY LIFE IN CONNECTICUT — Portfolio of Seven Photographic Reproductions 

of Connecticut Scenery in Sepia Tint 18 

ODE TO AMERICA Donald Lines Jacobus 12 

WASHINGTON — Ancient Engraving Dedicated to Her Memory — The Original is in 
the Collection of John M. Crampton, and is known as "Washington's Last Inter- 
view with His Mother" 552 

PROSPERITY — Pediment for Kentucky State Capitol.. By Charles H. Niehaus, Sculptor 537 

SCULPTURE IN AMERICA — One of the First Native Sculptors was Hezekiah Augur 
of New Haven, Connecticut — With two illustrations by Horatio Greenough, the 
First Native-Born American Sculptor Bickford Cooper 130 

SCULPTURE IN AMERICA — A Symposium of the Finest Pieces of Sculpture erected 

during the year of 1907 537 

TO THE MEMORY OF THE AMERICAN SOLDIER— For the monument to Soldiers and 

Sailors at Webster, Massachusetts By Finn H. Frolich, Sculptor 538 

TO THE MEMORY OF THE AMERICAN SAILOR— For the monument to Soldiers and 

Sailors at Webster, Massachusetts By Finn H. Frolich, Sculptor 539 

Erected in bronze in front of the National Memorial at Canton, Ohio 

By Charles H. Niehaus, Sculptor 540 

"Buckey" O'Neill, killed in battle — Erected at Prescott, Arizona 

By Solon H. Borglum, Sculptor 54-1 

ling, First Engineer of Brooklyn Bridge — Builder of the Great Span across Niagara 
Falls — For erection at Trenton, New Jersey By William Couper, Sculptor 542 


Riverside Drive, New York City By Karl Bitter, Sculptor 543 


TO THE MEMORY OF AMERICAN SACRIFICE— Erected at the old Andersonville 

Prison Grounds, in Georgia By Bela Lyon Pratt, Sculptor 544 

TO THE MEMORY OF AN AMERICAN WARRIOR— General George Brinton MeClellan 

— Erected at "Washington, District of Columbia. By Frederick MacMonnies, Sculptor 550 

TO THE MEMORY OF A SOUTHERN WARRIOR — General John B. Gordon — Erected 

at State Capitol Grounds at Atlanta, Georgia By Solon H. Borglum, Sculptor 547 

INDEPENDENCE — Erected at Orange, New Jersey 

By Frank Edwin Elwell, Sculptor 545 

TO THE MEMORY OF THE FIRST AMERICANS— Statue of the Indian Chief, Mahaska 
— Now being exhibited in the Salon at Paris — To be erected at Oskaloosa, Iowa 

By S. E. Fry, Sculptor 551 

Ensign Worth Bagley, U. S. N., the only Naval Officer killed during that war — 
Erected in Capitol Square, Raleigh, North Carolina By F. H. Packer, Sculptor 546 

TO THE MEMORY OF THE HEART OF THE SOUTH— An Allegorical Figure bearing 
a Palm of Peace and Branch of Laurel covering the Sword, an Emblem of Glory 
— For erection at Houston, Texas By Louis Amateis, Sculptor 548 

TO THE MEMORY OF THE TEXAS RANGERS— Erected at the State House in Austin, 

Texas By Pompeo Coppini, Sculptor 549 

TRAVEL IN AMERICA — Series of Western Landscape Views 421 


AMERICA'S TRIBUTE TO FRANCE — Ode to Comte de Rochambeau by 

John Gaylord Davenport, D.D., of the Connecticut Historical Society 261 

A VIOLIN'S SONG — Poem by Katherine Gilman Grou of Hartford, Connecticut 490 

A WOMAN'S PRAYER — Poem By Kate Woodward Noble, Waterbury, Connecticut 616 

'BEHOLD, HE LIVES! THEN WEEP FOR HIM"— Poem By Frank P. Foster, Jr. 608 

CONSOLATION — Poem by Henry Sherman Smart 504 

DAYS — A Poem Edith Turner Newcomb 160 

HOME — Poem by William Tyler Olcott, Norwich, Connecticut 438 

"I KNEW THERE WAS A SPOT LIKE THIS"— Poem by Anna J. Granniss of Plain- 

ville, Connecticut 428 

MY OLD HOME — Poem By S. Ward Loper, Curator at Wesleyan University 584 

NEW ENGLAND — A Poem Anna Hunt Moore 149 

ON THE CONNECTICUT SHORE— Poem By Elizabeth H. Jocelyn Cleaveland 

New Haven, Connecticut 610 

SONNET — "Alas for All Old Cities of the Dead" Horace Holley 80 

SONNET — By Horace Holley 215 

SONNETS — "Two travelers thrust upon a stormy way" and "And on, and on, with 

eagerness we press" John B. Opdyke 128 

STABILITY — Poem by Frank Lorenzo Hamilton, Meriden, Connecticut 420 

THE BUILDERS — An American Poem by Judge Daniel Donahoe, of Middletown, Con- 
necticut, Author of "The Message" 345 

THE CHARTER OAK — Poem by Lydia Bolles Newcomb of New Haven, Connecticut — 

Illustrated with drawing by Charles L. N. Camp 417 

THE DARK RIVER — A Poem by Elizabeth H. Jocelyn Cleaveland— Mrs. Cleaveland 
is Eighty-Three Years of Age and the Daughter of the Distinguished Portrait- 
Painter, Nathaniel Jocelyn 476 

THE HEARTS OF CHILDREN— Poem By Melicent Eno Humason 

New Britain, Connecticut 613 


THE LAW OF LIFE — AN ELEGY— "Search then thyself, O Heart, for in thy beat- 
ing the meaning of the Universe lies hid" — Poem by Honorable William Franklin 
Henney of Hartford 505 

THE MANGER CHILD — Christmas, 1907 By Henry Sherman Smart 659 

THE MESSAGE — A Poem, by Judge Daniel J. Donahoe, Middletown, Connecticut 

Author of "The Rescue of the Princess" 189 

THE NOBLER RACE — A Poem, by Frank P. Foster, Jr. 250 

TO OUR ANCESTRESS, HUMILITY — Poem by Sarah E. L. Case of Hartford, Con- 
necticut 448 

TRUE LIVING — Poem By George Warren Parker 607 

VISION OF THE CONNECTICUT — Poem '. By William Francis Andross 559 

"WE ALL AS LEAVES DO FADE" — Poem by Lewis Sprague Mills of New Haven, 

Connecticut 456 


and Respected Family Deriving its Name from the River Humber in England and 
from which Descends the American Humberstons, Humerstons, Humastons, and 
the Humistons — Ancestral Lines Established by Wallace Dwight Humiston 161 

L. N. Camp — Records of the Ashford (Connecticut) Congregational Church — 
Transcribed and Verified from the Copy in Possession of the Connecticut Society 
of Colonial Dames by Mary Kingsbury Talcott 150 

TRY — Genealogical Department — Conducted by Charles L. N. Camp 338 

Genealogical Department By Charles L. N. Camp 617 

TRY — Self-helps in studies in ancestry — Valuable information to genealogical 
researches — Department conducted by Charles L. N. Camp 660 

TRY, GENEALOGICAL DEPARTMENT— Conducted by Charles L. N. Camp 499 

Original Sources of American Genealogical Data — Department Edited by Charles 
L. N. Camp — Arranged by Louise Tracy 329 

STUDIES IN ANCESTRY — Perplexing Problems of the Genealogists — Department Con- 
ducted by Charles L. N. Camp 178 

THE DIMOCKS IN AMERICA — Results of recent investigations in which important 

data is added to the printed records , By Joel N. Eno, M.A. 

Yale University Library 662 

THE LINSLEYS IN AMERICA — The results of recent investigations in which the 
first four John Linsleys are here authentically recorded 

By Frances Harrison Corbin, New Haven, Connecticut 664 

from Egbert, First King of all England, 800-838, to William Tracy of Hayles Abbey 
who Came to America in 1620 — Royal Lineage Sustained Through Thomas Tracy 
of Connecticut, 1636 — Illustrated with eighteen Rare Reproductions from Ancient ^ 
Documents Dwight Tracy, M.D., D.D.S. *217 

THE THOMAS FAMILY IN AMERICA— Researches into the New Haven Probate 
Records — New Haven Land Deeds — New Haven County Court Records — New 
Haven Vital Statistics — Records of the First Congregational Church — Investiga- 
tions By Donald Lines Jacobus, New Haven, Connecticut 649 

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Please Mention The Connecticut Magazine when patronizing our Advertisers. 

The Kind of Rugs to Buy and Where to Buy Thet 

Sectional view of showroom where the finest assortment of Oriental rugs in the country can be found. 

In the purchase of your Oriental Rugs, it is a wise precaution to select a firm of the best rep 
tation and of the widest experience, and make your selection from a large and varied assortment. 

By experience, acquaintance and study, people have come to value Oriental rugs for their wor 
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Moreover, rug connoisseurs are proud of their possessions and want them protected against t 
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All the rugs in my stock, no matter how old or antique, are put in perfect condition before goii 
on sale. The general color scheme of the rugs I keep are in soft tones, and mostly small and harm 
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from falling, slipping, or tripping; keep your rugs flat and straight; preserve their wear 
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Address SAMUEL B. DONCHIAN, Fastener Dept. 75 Pearl St., Hartford, Com 

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An Illustrated Quarterly Magazine devoted to Connecticut in its various 
phases of History, Literature, Genealogy, Science, Art, Genius and Industry. 
Published in four beautiful books to the annual volume. Following is con- 
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partment in Cheney Tower, 926 Main Street, Hartford — Business department 
at 671-679 Chapel Street, New Haven. 

ART COVER— Seasonable Design in Black and Red on Onyx Art Paper by Harold Douglas 
AMERICAN FLAG— THE EMBLEM OF LIBERTY— Story of its Evolution from Discovery of New 
World to Present Age when tbe Sun Never Sets on the Stars and Stripes— Accompanied by Silk 
Memorial Flag made by Cheney Mills at South Manchester, Connecticut, and Seven Silk Tissue Re- 

productionsin Original Colors Mrs. Henry Champion 3 

ESTATE OF A WELL-TO-DO AMERICAN IN 1689 -Transcribed by M. Augusta Holman 11 

ODE TO AMERICA - Donald Lines Jacobus 12 

MUSIC IN AMERICA— Struggles of the First Composers Against Public Condemnation Clara Emerson 14 

CENTENARY OP AN AMERICAN POET— Centennial Bas-Relief to Henry Wadsworth Longfellow 

By Louis A. Gudebrod, National Society of Sculpture 17 
COUNTRY LIFE IN CONNECT f CUT— Portfolio of Seven Photographic Reproductions of Connecticut 

Scenery in Sepia Tint 18 

FIRST PHYSICIANS IN AMERICA— Governor John Winthrop, Jr„ of Connecticut— His Correspond- 
ence with Patients Revealing many Customs and Practices of the Early Doctors— Illustrated with 

Portrait from Oil Painting Walter R. Steiner, M.A., M.D., Member Connecticut Historical Society 25 

Transcripts from Letters of John Winthrop by Mrs. Abbie Fosdick Ransom 38 
of Haddam, Connecticut, in 1773-1775— Serious Crimes Included "Profane Cursing and Swairing" for 
which the "Gilty" were Sentenced to the Stocks— Debtors were frequently bound over to their 

Creditors in Servitude, and the Whipping Post was also employed Reverend Bert Francis Case 43 

FIRST STEAMSHIPS TO CROSS THE ATLANTIC OCEAN— Connecticut gave the World the First 
Promoter of Trans- Atlantic Service, Junius Smith, Born in Plymouth in 1780— Development of Steam 

Navigation— Illustrated with Eight Prints from Rare Engravings C. Seymour Bullock 49 

AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF JEREMIAH HOLMES-Born in 1782 at Stonington, Connecticut- His Experiences 
in South America and in the Ports of the Old World during the First Years of the American Republic 

and in the War of 1814 Captain Jeremiah Holmes 65 

SONNET— 'Alas for All Old Cities of the Dead" Horace Holley 80 

Life on the American Frontier— Crossing the Continent from Connecticut to Montana under Orders 

of President Lincoln to Establish Law and Order in the Great Northwest Judge Lemuel E. Munson 81 

Several illustrations bearing the lines "Old prints in possession of Judge Munson" should be 
credited to Hon. William Henry Milburn's work "In the Valley of the Mississippi." Judge Munson 
wishes it fully understood that these illustrations are from Mr. Milburn's original work, a copy of 
which was presented to a member of his family by the author. The work is published by the N. D. 
Thompson Publishing Company of New York and St. Louis and should be read by all who are inter- 
ested in American pioneer life. 
SERMON BY A CONNECTICUT CLERGYMAN IN 1693-The Philosophy of Death in Early America 
—Manuscript of the Reverend Joseph Webb, Born in 1666, Occasioned by the Demise of Major Nathan 
Gold of Fairfield, Connecticut, who was Foremost in Political, Ecclesiastical and Military Affairs- 
Transcribed by Mrs. Elizabeth Hubbell Schenck 103 

Entered at the Post-Oflioe at New Haven, Connecticut, as Mail Matter of the Second Class.— This Edition for FIRST 
QUARTER of 1907— January, February, March. 

The Connecticut Magazine 


This second decade begins with preparations for larger achievements in 
the valuable work it has so long pursued. In collaboration with the recently- 
inaugurated "Journal of American History" extensive researches will be 
made and the results published simultaneously in both publications. By this 
co-operation and concentration, investigations will be made that would other- 
wise be impossible undertakings. It is essential that all sons and daughters 
of Connecticut should secure these invaluable researches through The Con- 
necticut Magazine. 

MARRIAGE CONTRACT IN CONNECTICUT IN 1675— Transcribed from original by Mary R. Woodruff 110 
in Wilton, Connecticut, in 1780, and became the Father of Biblical Learning— He found Theology under 
Dominion of Iron-bound Metaphysics and Disenthralled it from Slavery 

John Gaylord Davenport, D.D., Connecticut Historical Society 111 

Memories of Moses Stuart by His Daughter Mrs. Sarah Stuart Robbins 123 

RECOLLECTIONS OF THE AMISTAD SLAVE CASE IN 1839-40— First Revelation of a Plot to Force 
the Slavery Question to an Issue more than Twenty Years before the Final Outbreak in the Civil War 
With Portrait of "Cinque, the Fugitive Slave Leader," from Oil Painting by Nathaniel Jocelyn 

Reverend Alonzo N. Lewis, M.A., Society of the Cincinnati 125 
SONNETS— "Two travelers thrust upon a stormy way" and "And on, and on, with eagerness we press" 

John B. Opdyke 128 
SCULPTURE IN AMERICA— One of the First Native Sculptors was Hezekiah Augur of New Haven, 
Connecticut— With two Illustrations by Horatio Greenough, the First Native-Born American Sculptor 

Bickford Cooper 130 

Benjamin F. Trueblood, Secretary American Peace Society 133 
PAINTERS IN AMERICA— Rare Canvasses of First Artists are Preserved in Connecticut— Illustrated 

with three Reproductions from Old Masterpieces Stuart Copley 135 

LICENSE TO MAKE BOOTS AND BOOTEES IN 1815— Quaint Document Transcribed from Original 

by Benjamin C. Lum 138 

PUBLIC LIBRARIES IN CONNECTICUT— The Benefaction of a Pioneer Alaskan Trader in New Lon- 
don—With Reproduction of Medallion by St. Gaudens, Photograph of the New London Library, and 

Book Plate.. By Courtesy of Helen Kilduff Gay, Librarian 139 


Ella S. Duncan 143 
A VINDICATION OF THE AMERICAN ABORIGINAL— Pencillings at the Grave of Uncas upon 
whose Hunting Ground is Today reared the City of Norwich, Connecticut 

John Spier, Now in his Eighty-third Year 145 

NEW ENGLAND— A Poem Anna Hunt Moore 149 

Records of the Ashford (Connecticut) Congregational Church— Transcribed and Verified from the Copy 

in Possession of the Connecticut Society of Colonial Dames by Mary Kingsbury Talcott 150 

DAYS— A Poem Edith Turner Newcomb 160 

HENRY HUMISTON— EMIGRATED FROM ENGLAND IN 1644— Genealogy of an Old and Respected 
Family Deriving its Name from the River Humber in England and from which Descends the American 
Humberstons, Humerstons, Humastons, and the Humistons— Ancestral Lines Established by 

Wallace D wight Humiston 161 
STUDIES IN ANCESTRY— Perplexing Problems of the Genealogists— Department Conducted by 

Charles L. N. Camp 178 


Address manuscript to The Connecticut Magazine Company, Hartford, Connecticut— Address all business communications 
to publication office at New Haven, Connecticut— Copyright 1907— By The Connecticut Magazine Company 

fiere Beginnetb the first Part of the eleventh Book 

1 — i 

Showing the manner of Eife and the 

Attainment thereof in the 

gommonwealth of a 

Diligent People 


V^t^c^ /^t^tA^a^^^i^^t^ 


Connecticut Magazine 



American flag — Cbe ensign of Ciberty 



Author of the Brochure " Our Flag " 
Revised for this publication and copyright assigned to the author 

THE sun never sets on the 
American flag! The trium- 
phant proclamation of the 
British Empire that night 
never mantles her domain is now the 
exultation of the American people. 
The Lion has its compeer ! 

It is but two generations ago that 
the American Nation, like a black 
knight, entered the tournament of the 
Nations unarmored and unskilled 
with the unwieldy commercial lance. 

Well might the Old World look 
upon it as brazen effrontery. Impov- 
erished by the War for Independence 
and facing a financial crisis more seri- 
ous than any of its experiences on the 
battlefield, the knight of the west 
looked to the east for the loan of suf- 
ficient funds to secure the bare suste- 
nance of life — but without sympathy. 

The aged monarchies proclaimed it 

a hazardous risk and forecasted short 
life to the bold knight, pronouncing 
self-government as the vision of irre- 
sponsible theorists. 

The tournament of the Nations has 
been swift. From thirteen scattered 
states in the wilderness the Ameri- 
can Republic has swept from ocean to 
ocean. It has pushed the light of lib- 
erty to the far ice-bounds of Alaska. 
With a leap it has carried the dawn of 
a new day into the Hawaiian Islands 
and into the Philippines; it has ex- 
tended its arm to struggling Cuba and 
Porto Rico as the champion of free- 
dom, until to-day the American 
knight holds the commercial suprem- 
acy of the world, and with a wealth 
estimated at one-tenth of a trillion 
dollars, and increasing at the rate of 
twelve millions a day, it is the richest 
Nation on earth— in Men and gold. 

American flag— tbe Ensign of Eiberty 

OUR flag, whose one hundred 
and thirtieth birthday we 
celebrate this June 14, 1907, 
was, like everything in na- 
ture or history, a growth, and to trace 
that growth takes us back to the Na- 
tional flag of the Mother Country. 

One naturally asks, what flag 
floated over the early settlements of 
our country? What over its battle- 
fields previous to that June day in 
1777, when by an act of Congress it 
was resolved "that the flag of the na- 
tion be thirteen stripes, alternate red 
and white, and thirteen stars, white 
on a blue field?" 

Answering our question in order of 
time, we take first the earliest settle- 
ments of the country. 

Tradition tells us that the Norse- 
men, or Northmen, and • the Danes 
landed between the years 986 and 
1300 at several points at the extreme 
northeast of the continent, and even 
as far down the coast as the New 
England shore. 

Tradition also relates that an expe- 
dition from Iceland in 1347 landed 
near what is now Newport, Rhode 
Island — at which time the "Round 
Tower" was built. These expedi- 
tions no doubt planted some ensign or 
standard, as they took temporary pos- 
session, but no record of its design is 
left us. 

In 1492, Columbus planted the 
Spanish flag on the Island of San Sal- 
vador, one of the Bahama group, and 
again in 1498 at the mouth of the Ori- 
noco, South America. He supposed 
he had then reached the coast of Asia. 
According to Humboldt, Sebastian 
Cabot landed at Labrador in 1497, 
and planted the "Red Cross of St. 
George," the royal ensign of Henry 
the Seventh. If so, the English flag 
then for the first time floated over 
North American soil. But we nar- 
row down our field of inquiry to what 
is now the United States and as we 
remember that for one hundred and 
sixty-nine years from the settlement 
of Jamestown, Virginia, or the one 

hundred and fifty-seven years, from 
the wintry day when the Mayflower 
landed at Plymouth Rock, to the June 
day in 1777 when the stars and stripes 
were adopted — for this more than a 
century and a half the flag of Eng- 
land was our flag, we ask with inter- 
est, what was the flag of the Mother 
Country in those years? 

About the year 1192, Richard 
Cceur de Lion had asked the aid of St. 
George, Bishop of Cappadocia. He 
gave the king as a banner what is 
now called the "Red Cross of St. 
George," and Edward III, about 
1345, made St. George the patron 
saint of the kingdom. 

Under this flag Sir Humphrey 
Gilbert, Bartholomew Gosnold and 
others sailed with grants of land 
from Queen Elizabeth to found colo- 
nies in the new world, 1 578-1 587. 

The generous, even reckless way, 
in which land was disposed of by 
these charters is shown by the boun- 
daries given. 

All the land between the latitude of 
Cape Fear, North Carolina, and Can- 
ada was given by the Queen and to be 
called "Virginia." It was to be 
divided into two districts; the south- 
ern part, from the latitude of Cape 
Fear to the mouth of the Potomac, 
and running back indefinitely into the 
wilderness, was given to the "London 
Company," and to be called Southern 
Virginia ; the land from about the lat- 
itude of New York to Canada was 
given to the "Plymouth Company," 
and to be called Northern Virginia. 

The strip of country between these 
two grants, about one hundred miles 
of coast, was to be a dividing line to 
avoid disputes as to territory, and 
neither company might make settle- 
ments more than fifty miles from its 

All these efforts to plant colonies 
proved failures. Lack of supplies 
and cold winters led the settlers to 
give up the project and return to 

This "Red Cross of St. George" 

tfee Sun newer Sets on tfte Stars and Stripes 

was England's flag until the year 
1606, over two hundred and fifty 

In that year, 1606, Scotland was 
added to England, and King James I, 
in honor of the union, placed the 
"White Cross of St. Andrew" on the 
national flag, changing the field from 
white to blue. This diagonal "White 
Cross of St. Andrew" had been the 
badge of the Scots since the Crusades. 

The union of the two crosses was 
called the "King's colors," or "Union 
colors," and the first permanent set- 
tlements in this country were made 
under its protection. It was the flag 
of the Mayflower in 1620. 

Massachusetts records speak of it 
as in use in that colony in 1634. 

In November of that year a Mr. 
Endicott of Salem defaced the King's 
colors. Much excitement followed, 
a trial was held, when it was proven 
that it was not done with ill-intent to 
England, but the red cross was a relic 
of anti-Christ, having been given to 
England by a pope, and so was a 
cause of offense. After referring the 
matter to an assembly of ministers, 
and then to one court after another, 
it was proposed that the colony show 
no flag, and none was displayed. 

Then arose a question. If captains 
of vessels returning to Europe were 
asked what colors they saw here, the 
truth might cause trouble. The mat- 
ter was referred to Reverend John 
Cotton, who wisely suggested a way 
by which the growing spirit of inde- 
pendence might be satisfied and yet no 
offense be given. He said, "As the fort 
at the entrance of Boston harbor with- 
out doubt belongs to the King, the 
'King's colors' should be used there." 
This was done, to the extent of show- 
ing them on the staff at the fort when 
a vessel was passing, but only then, 
and they were not used elsewhere in 
the colony. This was in 1636. 

In 1643, tne three colonies of Ply- 
mouth, Massachusetts and Connecti- 
cut united, under the name of "The 
United Colonies of New England," 
but no flag was adopted. 

In 1 65 1, fifteen years after the 
Salem episode, the Court of Massa- 
chusetts ordered that the "Cross of 
St. George and St. Andrew" be used 
in the colony. 

Under Cromwell and Charles II, 
various minor changes were made in 
the flag of the Mother Country, but 
later the color was changed to crim- 
son and the two crosses, which had 
covered the entire flag, were placed in 
the upper corner. 

This was called the "Cromwell 
flag," and in that form was not 
accepted by the colonies; we contin- 
ued to use the "King's Colors" till 
1707, when we adopted the red flag, 
but substituted a device of our own 
in place of the crosses. 

All the pictures of New England 
flags from 1707 to 1776 show a red or 
blue ensign, field white, with a pine 
tree or globe in the upper corner, 
sometimes covering the entire field. 
The pine tree was oftener used. 

Massachusetts had used the pine 
tree as her symbol for some time. It 
is on the silver coins of that colony, 
the die for which was cast in 1652, 
and used without change of date for 
thirty years. Trumbull, in his cele- 
brated picture of the "Battle of Bun- 
ker Hill," in the rotunda of the Capi- 
tol at Washington, represents the red 
flag, white corner, green pine tree. 

The Connecticut troops who took 
part in the exciting times that fol- 
lowed Lexington and Bunker Hill 
had a state banner with the state 
arms and the motto, "Qui transtulit 

The troops of Massachusetts adopt- 
ed the words, "An Appeal to 

Early New York records speak of 
different standards; indeed, the regi- 
ments from various states, hastening 
to the aid of Washington or his gene- 
rals, carried flags of various devices; 
many having only a local interest and 
only used on the occasion that origi- 
nated them. 

The men at Lexington had neither 
uniform nor flags, but at Bunker Hill, 

American flag— the ensign of Liberty 

two months later, the Colonial troops 
had more the appearance of an army. 

Among the flags described, the pine 
tree is most frequently mentioned, 
also a serpent coiled, ready to spring, 
with the motto, "Beware!" "Don't 
tread on me," or "Come if you dare !" 
The snake flag was used by the 
Southern states from 1776, to June, 
1777. A chain of thirteen links, a 
ring, a tiger, and a field of wheat 
were also used as devices. 

In October, 1775, Washington 
writes to two officers who were 
about to take command of cruisers: 
"Please fix on some flag, by which our 
vessels may know each other." 

They decided on the "pine-tree 
flag," as it was called. This is fre- 
quently mentioned in the records of 
1775 and 1776 as used by vessels. 

The first striped flag was flung to 
the breeze and "kissed by the free air 
of Heaven," at Cambridge, Massa- 
chusetts, Washington's headquarters, 
January 1, 1776. 

Washington says : "We hoisted the 
Union flag in compliment to the 
United Colonies, and saluted it with 
thirteen guns." 

It had thirteen stripes, alternate 
red and white, and the united crosses 
of St. George and St. Andrew on a 
blue field. Similar flags were used 
later in the year. 

When reported in England, it was 
alluded to as "the thirteen rebellious 

In 1775 a navy of seventeen ves- 
sels, varying from ten to thirty-two 
guns, was ordered. Says Lieutenant 
Preble: "The senior of the five first 
lieutenants of the new Continental 
Navy was John Paul Jones. He has 
left it on record that the 'Flag of 
America' was hoisted by his own 
hand on his vessel, the 'Alfred,' the 
first time it was ever displayed by a 
man-of-war." This was probably 
the same design as the Cambridge 
flag, used January 1, 1776, and was 
raised on the "Alfred" about the 
same time. No exact date is given. 

We come now to the time when the 

crosses of St. George and St. Andrew 
were taken from the striped Union 
flag, and a blue field with white stars 
was substituted for the symbol of 
English authority. 

Thirteen states had bound them- 
selves together as the "United States 
of America." They were: 

New Hampshire, Pennsylvania, 

Rhode Island, 
New York, 
New Jersey, 

North Carolina, 
South Carolina, 

and Georgia. 

One hundred and thirty years ago 
this June fourteenth, 1907, the Amer- 
ican Congress in session at Philadel- 
phia resolved, "that the flag of the 
thirteen United States be thirteen 
stripes, alternate red and white; the 
union to be thirteen stars, white on a 
blue field, representing a new constel- 
lation, the stars to be arranged in a 

Here we may ask, what suggested 
the "Stars and Stripes?" 

It has been said in answer, that the 
words "representing a new constella- 
tion" refer to the constellation Lyra, 
symbol of harmony; that this sug- 
gested the stars. As to the stripes, 
some writers refer us to the stripe 
which, in the absence of uniform, 
marked the rank of Continental sol- 
dier, by orders from headquarters at 
Cambridge, July 24, 1775. 

Says another writer, in answer: 
"The flag of the Netherlands.'^ It 
had become familiar to the Puritans 
during their twelve-years' sojourn in 
Holland, and its triple stripe, red, 
white and blue, suggested the stripes 
and the three colors. 

Another answer has been, that 
Washington found in the coat of 
arms of his own family a hint from 
which he drew the design for the flag. 

The coat of arms of the Washing- 
ton family has two red bars on a 
white ground, and three gilt stars 
above the top bar. A careful search 
among the records of that family 

Cbe Sun never Sets on the Stars and Stripes 

fails to discover any connection. Says 
one of their genealogists : "There are 
several points of resemblance between 
our coat of arms and the flag of the 
country." The three stars are ex- 
plained as meaning in heraldry that 
the estate passed to the third son. 

In an English genealogy of the 
family, the author refers to the mat- 
ter as entirely without foundation, 
and adds: "At this time Washing- 
ton was only commander-in-chief of 
the army, and Congress arranged the 
flag; besides, he was not at all popu- 
lar, then, there being a strong move- 
ment to supplant him with Sir Hora- 
tio Gates, fresh from the victory of 

Certainly, Washington himself 
never referred to any connection be- 
tween his coat of arms and the flag, 
and his pride of family might have 
led him to do so, had any connection 

It has seemed to me, from a care- 
ful study of the subject, that to no 
one thing, but to a blending of seve- 
ral, especially of several flags, are we 
indebted for the design of our own. 

It is said that a committee had been 
appointed, three weeks before the 
June fourteenth when the stars and 
stripes were adopted, who were to 
consider the subject and report on a 
general standard for all the troops of 
the colonies; that the committee, 
consisting of General Washington, 
Robert Morris and Colonel Ross, 
called on Betsy Ross, widow of John 
Ross, who kept an upholsterer's shop 
on Arch street, Philadelphia, and 
passing into the back parlor to avoid 
public view they asked Mrs. Ross if 
she could make a flag after a design 
they showed her. She said she would 
try. She suggested changing the 
stars that Washington had drawn 
with six points, the English rule, to 
five points, the French rule. Her 
suggestion was accepted. Our flags 
always have the five-pointed stars, our 
coin the six-pointed. There is no 
doubt but that Betsy Ross made the 
first flag and that she made them for 

the government for several years. 
There is an entry of a draft on the 
United States Treasury, May, 1777: 
"Pay Betsey Ross £14, 12s. 2 d. for 
flags for fleet in Delaware river." 

It is claimed that the first using of 
the stars and stripes in actual military 
service was at Fort Stanwix, re- 
named Fort Schuyler, now Rome, 
New York, in 1777. August third, 
of that year, the fort was besieged by 
the English and Indians; the brave 
garrison were without a flag, but one 
was made in the fort. The red was 
strips of a petticoat furnished by a 
woman, the white was from shirts 
torn up for the purpose, and the blue 
was a piece of Colonel Peter Ganse- 
voort's military cloak. The siege 
was raised August 22, 1777. 

The first anniversary of American 
independence was celebrated July 4, 
1777, at Philadelphia, at Charleston, 
South Carolina, and other places. 

Records of the exercises are pre- 
served, and the flag adopted a few 
weeks earlier is mentioned as used. 

Thirteen stripes and thirteen stars 
are mentioned as used at Brandywine, 
September 11, 1777, at Germantown, 
October 4, 1777, and to have floated 
over the surrender of Burgoyne. 

This flag cheered the patriots at 
Valley Forge the next winter, it 
waved at Yorktown, and shared in 
the rejoicings at the close of the war. 
The shipping of the country seems 
to have been slow to adopt any par- 
ticular form of flag. 

In 1789, when Washington took 
the presidential chair for his first 
term, there were thirteen states in the 
Union, none having been added in the 
twelve years since 1776, nor were any 
added till Vermont came into the 
Union, two years later in 1791, and 
Kentucky in 1792. In consequence 
of these additions the Senate in Con- 
gress passed a bill, in 1794, increasing 
the number of stars and stripes to fif- 
teen, to take effect the next year, 
1795. When the bill came to the 
House it caused considerable debate. 
Said one wise prophet, "The flag 

American flag — Che ensign of Liberty 

ought to be permanent; we may go 
on altering it for one hundred years. 
Very likely in fifteen years we may 
number twenty states." This was 
almost literally fulfilled. 

One representative suggested that 
"it might give offense to incoming 
states, if a new star and a new stripe 
were not added." The bill finally 
passed, making fifteen the number of 
stars and of stripes after July 4, 1795. 
We used the fifteen-striped flag for 
twenty-three years. But one after 
another the states came knocking for 

Tennessee, 1796; Louisiana, 1812; 
Ohio, 1802, and Indiana, 1816, had 
joined the Union, and in 18 16 the sub- 
ject of the flag came up again in Con- 
gress, now assembled at Washington ; 
since 1800 the capitol of the country. 
It is of interest to note that the cap- 
itol of the country was changed nine 
times during the Revolutionary War. 

A committee was appointed (1816) 
to inquire into the expediency of 
again altering the flag. This com- 
mittee reported in favor of increas- 
ing the number of stars and of stripes 
to twenty, the number of states then 
(1817) in the Union, Mississippi be- 
ing admitted that year. The matter 
was referred to Captain S. C. Reid, 
who as captain of a privateer had 
made himself famous by the capture 
of several British ships. He advised 
reducing the number of stripes to the 
original thirteen and increasing the 
number of stars, one for each incom- 
ing state, making them form one 
large star, the motto to be, "E plu- 
ribus unum!' The committee re- 
ported the bill as recommended by 
Captain Reid. 

It was "laid over," came up again 
and was passed April 4, 1818, to take 
effect July fourth of that year. The 
new star did not take its place on the 
field of the flag till the July fourth 
following the passage of the bill. A 
newspaper of the day says : "The 
time allowed for the change, three 
months, is too short. It will take a 
month before the change can be re- 

ported in New Orleans and vessels 
all over the world cannot hear of it 
for a year or more." 

Mrs. Reid made the first flag after 
the new design, proposed by her hus- 
band. July 4, 18 18, the number of 
stars in the flag was twenty. 

The rule of arranging the stars to 
form one large star was abandoned. 
As the number of states increased, 
was necessary to make the individual 
stars on the field so small as to be 
almost indistinguishable as stars, or 
their points must interlace. The plan 
of arranging them in rows was adopt- 
ed in 18 18 and has been continued. 

Illinois was admitted in 1818. 

Alabama in 1819. 

Maine, 1820. 

Missouri, 1821. 

Arkansas, 1836. 

Michigan, 1837. 

Florida, 1845. 

Texas, 1845. 

Iowa, 1846. 

Wisconsin, 1848. 

California, 1850. 

Minnesota, 1858. 

Oregon, 1859. 

Kansas, 1861. 

West Virginia, 1863. 

Nevada, 1864. 

Nebraska, 1867. 

Colorado, 1876. 

North and South Dakota, 1889. 

Montana, 1889. 

Washington, 1889. 

Idaho, 1890. 

Wyoming, 1890. 

Utah, 1896, the forty-fifth state 
and star. Since that date, every 
Congress has had before it a bill for 
the admission of one or more territo- 
ries, but it has failed to pass both 
Houses. The last Congress had a 
bill to unite Oklahoma and Indian 
Territory and Arizona and New Mex- 
ico. The former passed (1906) but 
a State constitution is yet to be 
adopted by the people and approved 
by Congress, so its star, the forty- 
sixth, will probably take its place on 
the field of the flag, July 4, 1907. By 
vote of Congress the question of joint 








1707 TO 1776 






ABOUT 1707 













vioiaeiMOA sut hohl> aaaHozoj 8:*tax« oanno 

OT «HATP. a'HOlfl OWT UaQflA HOIHtf 

r.GTi ,t yaui. no oa.ii aMT 

tbe Sun never Sets on tbe Stars and Stripes 

statehood of Arizona and New Mex- 
ico was submitted to the people of the 
two territories, and rejected Novem- 
ber, 1906, so they continue as terri- 

As the tie that binds the United 
States was held by the government at 
Washington to be one that could not 
be severed, no star was taken from the 
flag during the conflict 1861-65. 

It was at this time that the term 
"Old Glory" was first applied to our 
flag. Stephen Driver had been a sea- 
captain before the Civil War and 
sailed from Salem, Massachusetts, to 
foreign lands. Once when in a for- 
eign port, for some important service 
rendered the people, he received from 
them a beautiful American flag. A 
priest blessed it as it rose to the mast- 
head of his ship, and Captain Driver 
made a solemn promise to defend it 
with his life if need be. Giving up 
the sea, he made his home in Nash- 
ville, Tennessee. He opposed seces- 
sion. When the war began, to se- 
crete the flag he sewed it in a quilt, 
and every night slept beneath it. He 
named it Old Glory. 

Since that eventful afternoon of 
July 4, 1776, when with a boldness 
that seemed an audacity and a hope 
that seemed a prophecy, the name 
United States of America, was added 
to the list of independent nations, and 
nearly a year later, June 14, 1777, the 
stars and stripes adopted as the 
sign of nationality, we have been one 
of the combatants in three wars : with 
England, 1812-15; Mexico, 1846-48, 
and the Spanish- American War, 1898. 

The first was largely fought in 
Northern New York and on the lakes. 
Our small navy was uniformly suc- 
cessful; "more than nineteen hun- 
dred British vessels were captured." 
Not once was our flag of fifteen stars 
and fifteen stripes lowered in token of 

In 1845, Texas, that had been prac- 
tically free for many years, seceded 
from Mexico and formally asked to be 
annexed to the United States. She 
was received, her star making the 

twenty-eighth on the flag. Mexico re- 
fused to acknowledge Texas' inde- 
pendence and called her annexation a 
declaration of war. 

The conflict lasted about two years 
and resulted in the acquisition by the 
United States of California and New 
Mexico, Mexico receiving $15,000,- 
000 in payment for the territory. 

Turning, lastly, to the records of 
the Spanish-American War, we find 
that the tie that binds the states to- 
gether had been strengthened by the 
thirty-three years of peace so that 
when the subject of Spanish oppres- 
sion in Cuba and the blowing up of 
the Maine was discussed in Congress, 
a Southern Senator moved that 
fifty million dollars be placed at the 
disposal of President McKinley to up- 
hold the honor of our country and 
our flag. Every Southern man in 
both Houses voted "aye" and troops 
were offered from all those States. 

War was declared April 21, 1898. 
Secretary of the Navy Long, cabled 
to Admiral Dewey in command of 
seven of our finest war vessels com- 
posing the Pacific squadron, to cap- 
ture or destroy the Spanish fleet in 
the harbor of Manila. The battle 
was fought May 1, beginning at 5:20 
A. M., the stars and stripes flying 
from every mast-head. In seven 
hours and a half every Spanish ship 
was destroyed, while not one of our 
fleet was badly injured. 

Secretary Long, as soon as the news 
reached him, ordered the "Oregon," 
the largest and newest of our fleet, to 
join the Atlantic squadron off Cuba 
"with all speed." Raising the "home- 
ward-bound flag" to the mast-head, 
Captain Clark started on his 14,000 
mile race round Cape Horn. This 
flag is a long streamer, about one- 
third of its length is blue, with the 
stars in line ; the rest of the flag is a 
parallel strip of white with one of red. 
It is raised at the mast-head when the 
war-vessel starts and flies there dur- 
ing the voyage. It is sometimes a 
hundred feet long and would dip into 
the water if lying at rest. Obeying 

American flag— Cbe Ensign of Liberty 

orders, steam was kept up to the high- 
est point night and day, but so perfect 
had been the construction of the ves- 
sel, that not once was the steam pres- 
sure lessened for repairs and in less 
than four weeks, May twenty-fourth, 
the "Oregon" anchored off Cuba. 

June first a watch was set off the 
harbor of Santiago where Admiral 
Cervera's fleet had been discovered 
hiding. This was ascertained by bal- 
loon. Our vessels formed a semi- 
circle with steam up and search-lights 
at night. June second the "Merri- 
mac" was sunk at the entrance to the 
harbor. Lieutenant Hobson wished 
the vessel to go down flying the stars 
and stripes, but the admiral refused, 
saying the flag would be a target for 
the Spanish guns in the fort at the en- 
trance to the harbor. Sunday morn- 
ing, July third, Admiral Cervera, 
watching an opportunity to escape, 
saw a flag mount to the mast-head of 
the flag-ship "New York," the only 
flag that ever flies above the stars and 
stripes. He recognized it as the 
church flag and knew that divine ser- 
vice was being held and the men off 
duty. This flag is raised as the ser- 
vice begins and lowered at its close; 
it is a pennant of white, nearly square, 
deeply notched and bearing a Greek 
cross of blue. 

Cervera ordered "Forward!" but 
the lookout saw the line of smoke 
moving behind the hills that shut in 
the harbor and firing a signal-gun to 
attract attention, signalled "they are 
coming." In three minutes every 
man was at his post at the guns or in 
the powder-room in his Sunday suit 
of white duck. 

This was at 9 :3c At 1 130 every 
Spanish ship was burned or beached. 
The Spanish colors were lowered at 
1 1 :oo in surrender to our flag. The 
rapidity with which these two great 
naval battles were fought attracted 
the attention of all nations. It is of 
interest to note, that we entered this 
war the sixth of the naval powers of 
the world ; we stood the second at its 

Porto Rico asked to be taken under 
our protection and our flag was raised 

on the palace at Ponce, October 18, 

It may be of interest to refer to one 
more change made in the flag of Eng- 
land in 1801. In that year Ireland 
became a part of the kingdom, and to 
commemorate that event, the "Cross 
of St. Patrick," a red diagonal, was 
by order of King George III fimbri- 
ated (to use a heraldry phrase) on 
the "Cross of St. Andrew." By a 
heraldry law the flag of Scotland 
shows uppermost in the first and third 
quarter of the field and that of Ire- 
land in the second and fourth. 

As this third cross was added in 
1801, England's flag in its present 
form was never used by an American 

As we have seen, the principal 
change in our flag since its adoption, 
June 14, 1777, has been in the grad- 
ual increase of the number of stars. 
In its general form it is older than 
any of those of Europe, except Den- 
mark, which has been in use since 
1219. Ours is followed by Spain, 

Thirty-one states and three territo- 
ries have what is called a "flag law," 
making it a misdemeanor punishable 
with fine or imprisonment or both, to 
place any picture or inscription on the 
flag of the country. The number of 
the United States regiment is except- 
ed. There is a bill before Congress 
to make a National law to that effect. 

The Aleutian Islands, a part of 
Alaska, extend so far to the westward 
that when it is sunset on the most 
westerly part, it is sunrise in East- 
port, Maine. So it is that since 1867, 
thirty-five years before the Philippine 
Islands were taken under our care 
"for the purpose of protection and 
government" we can make the proud 
boast that the sun never sets on the 
American flag. 

Great is our wealth, great is our 
domain — but greater than these, and 
of more importance than all of them 
is our intellectual and moral advance, 
our conscientious citizenship, our love 
of home and country — the dominant 
cord in American life. 




M. Augusta Holman of Leominster, Massachusetts 

£ S D 

In cash , 34 01 00 

Wearing Apparrell of all sorts 05 01 00 

In the Lodging Roome. 
A feather bed with all belonging to it, with bedstead, curtains & valance, 

as it stands 07 00 00 

A trundle bed-stid with a feather bed & what belongs to it as it stands 03 00 00 

A Fine pair of sheets ; seven pillow coates 01 00 00 

Three table cloathes, Eighteen napkins, six towels 02 08 00 

One Chest, two boxes, two chairs, two cushions 00 12 00 

A warming pann, A glass case with a parcel of glas bottles 00 07 00 

A wodden mortar, A parcel of trenchers 00 05 00 

A parcel of Books 01 10 00 

A piece of Black cloth 00 10 00 

In the Fire Roome. 

Twenty pewter platters, six pewter porringers, one pewter flagon, one 
pewter drinking pot, four pewter drinking cups, two cups of tin, two 
basins of pewter, three pewter platters, one candle stick, one salt-seller, 
one little bottle, all of pewter, & a pewter chamber pot, four saucers. . . 03 00 00 

Two brasse kettles, two brasse poles, two skillets of brasse, a little brasse 

morten & pestle, brass candlestick, a brasse skimer & baleing ladle 02 10 00 

Two iron pots, one Iron kittle, an iron morten & pestle, an iron candle- 
stick, an Iron skillet, two paire of pott hooks, a spit, a paire of cob irons, 
two tramels fire pan & tongs, a grid iron 02 05 00 

Two small tables, power chairs, a smoothing box, eleven vessels of chiny 
ware, a dozen of trenchers, A fowling piece, two muskets, a case of 
pistols with holsters, power swords, with scabbardes and belts, two 
pair of bandolers* with ammunitions 05 04 00 

* Ancient cartridge boxes being a belt of raw-hide filled with wooden bottles, each containing a charge of 

In the Chamber. 

£ s D 

A feather bed with the bedstead and apertinances to it, as it stands 03 10 00 

A flock bed with the bedstead and the apertinances to it, as it stands 02 00 00 

Several remnants of new cloath 01 05 00 

Two moos skins ready dressed, and a parcel of small skins 03 00 00 

One chest, two trunks & a parcel of button In one of the trunk 02 10 00 

Furniture for a horse, as bridles, saddles, panuels, and a wodden basin, 

and a small lot of waiters, A parcel of ground malt 01 10 00 

and rie 01 15 00 

Ode to America 



O Land amid the seas! 
In whose green sun-kissed fields fair blossoms blow; 

Bright jewel wrapped in snow, 
Yet breathed upon by balmy southern breeze — 

O Land of cities proud, 
Whose thoroughfares pulsate with throbbing life, 

Whose massive walls with strife 
Reverberate and, weary, cry for rest aloud: 


O Land of silent mead, 
Of peaceful plain, green hill and bounteous farm, 

Where safe from wild alarm 
The earth gives up to every man his need! 

O country of our love! 
Thine both the drear monotony of toil 

And thine the tempest's moil 
When furies loose their angered voices far above. 


Fair Land whose climature 
Is varied as thine own e'er changing face, 

Which here from lowly base 
Rises aloft to snowy summits pure, 

And stretches level there 
In rolling plains graced not by stately tree — 

Our native Land, to thee 
This hymn of praise we chant, extolling thee in prayer. 

iv 6S6£ 

Earth's Land of Liberty, 
Where King's dominion e'er will be unknown, 

And tyrant rule o'erthrown, 
That all may live a life of manhood free: 

May we forever boast 
A fame unsullied and an honored name, 

No stain or blot of shame 
In all the land from hill to hill, from coast to coas*- 


What other land but thee 
In freedom's cause a patriot's battle waged, 

Her sacred honor gaged 
That in her borders none enslaved should be? 

What country else resigned 
Her sons to death, a sunny isle to save 

Washed by the tropic wave, 
And guards two continents, by oceans four confined? 


O loveliest land of all 
To which the sun's wide circuit bringeth light, 

By thy maternal right 
Our love and reverence holdest thou in thrall. 

All hail, America! 
The land of freedom, progress, thought and worth! 

The children of the earth 
And stars of heaven sing: All hail, America! 


Lord God of glorious might, 
Whose universal mercy we adore, 

All-Father we implore 
Thy aid by day, thy watchful care by night. 

Guard our beloved land 
From foes without and dissidence within; 

Shield us from pride and sin, 
And rule America, O God, with loving hand. 

ttlllttf iH Mltt^ri^ a tbe Struggles of tfte first eompo* 
IIZUMV III Jl HI v I IVa <&> er$ Against Public Condemnation 




USIC in America traces its 
first melodies to the quaint 
chants of the savages. The 
American Indian interpre- 
ted all the emotions of life into song. 
He had songs to nerve the warriors, 
to give zest to sports and games, and 
to speed the spirits to the happy hunt- 
ing-ground. I find a quaint custom 
in one tribe. Upon the death of a 
prominent person, the young men of 
the tribe made two incisions on the 
left arm and under the lip of the flesh 
formed put a willow twig. With the 
blood dripping from their arms, they 
marched to the place where the body 
was lying, singing a song of happi- 
ness. It was their belief that the 
spirit of the dead person could hear 
the song and that it would cheer him 
in his journey. The bleeding arms 
were supposed to show their sympa- 
thy and love. 

With the coming of the white man 
the first Virginians brought the folk- 
songs of old England. The first na- 
tive singing in America were the 
Psalms chanted in Puritan religious 
services. Songs and music of all 
kinds were held in distrust. The 
"Bay Psalm Book," published in 1640 
at Cambridge, Massachusetts, was the 
first book printed in the colony. For 
some time previous to this but five 
tunes were permitted. These in- 
cluded "Old Hundred" and "York." 
It is believed the other three were 
"Hackney," (sometimes known as St. 
Mary's), "Winsor," and "Martyrs." 
Hymns began to be used in 1647. 

A deep theological problem con- 
fronted the Americans of about 1648. 
I find evidence of a vigorous move- 
ment to confine singing to the few 
"elect of God," allowing the congre- 
gation to join only in the final 
"Amen." Many even considered 
skilful singing as wickedness. These 
questions created serious controversy: 

Whether women, as well as men ; or men 
alone may sing? 

Whether carnall men and Pagans may be 
permitted to sing with us, or Christians 
alone, and Church- Members ? 

Whether it be lawful to sing Psalmes in 
Meeter devised by men? 

Whether in Tunes invented? 

Whether it be lawful in Order unto 
Singing, to reade the Psalme? 

The evidence by which singing was 
declared a sin was based on three find- 
ings: First, that tunes are inspired; 
second, that to sing man's melody is 
only a vain show of art; third, that 
God cannot take delight in the process 
where the man of sin has had a hand 
in making the melody. 

There were, however, some daring 
liberals who sacrificed their reputa- 
tions in the cause of music, and as 
early as 171 7 a singing school existed 
in Boston. 

About 1673 it was attempted to 
found a school in which the feet were 
taught to keep time to music. The 
willful instructor was named Stenney, 
but he was arrested and fined one 
hundred pounds. 

The singing school caused another 
discussion in which this query was 
foremost: "Is it possible that fathers 
of forty years old and upward can 
learn to sing by rule? And ought 
they to attempt at that age to learn ?" 

The importation of a church organ 
from London to Boston in 171 3 cre- 
ated consternation. It was placed in 
King's Chapel, and many preachers 
denounced it in their sermons. It 
was termed "boisterous," and it was 
insisted that it could never be "justi- 
fied before the great master of reli- 
gious ceremony." It was at this time 
that choir singing developed through 
the singing schools. 

Then came the first American com- 
poser — William Billings, born in Bos- 
ton, October 7, 1746. He was appren- 
ticed to a tanner and wrote his first 
composition with chalk upon the side 
of leather in the tannery. Despite 


the ridicule to which he was subject- 
ed, he published "The New England 
Psalm Singer, or American Choris- 
ter," in 1777. Upon hearing his first 
composition sung by a church choir, 
this first American composer in his 
enthusiasm recorded his feelings thus : 

"It has more than twenty times the power 
of the old slow tunes, each part straining 
for mastery, to keep the audience en- 
tertained and delighted, their minds sur- 
passingly agitated and extremely fluctu- 
ated, sometimes declaring for one part, 
and sometimes for another. Now the sol- 
emn bass demands their attention, next the 
manly tenor; now the lofty counter, now 
the volatile treble. Now here, now there; 
now here again — O ecstatic ! Rush on, 
you sons of harmony!" 

The true American spirit of prog- 
ress is shown in the introduction 
which Billings wrote for his composi- 
tions. He said: 

"Perhaps it may be expected by some, 
that I should say something concerning 
Rules for Composition; to these I an- 
swer that Nature is the best dictator, for 
all the hard dry studied rules that ever 
were prescribed, will not enable any per- 
son to form an Air, any more than the 
bare Knowledge of the four and twenty 
letters, and strict Grammatical Rules will 
qualify a scholar for composing a piece of 
Poetry, or properly adjusting a Tragedy 
without a Genius. It must be Nature, Na- 
ture must lay the foundation, Nature must 
inspire the Thought. . . . For my own 
part, as I don't think myself confined to 
any Rules for Composition laid down by 
any that went before me, neither should 
I think (were I to pretend to lay down 
rules) that any who come after me were 
any ways obligated to adhere to them any 
further than they should think proper; so 
in fact I think it is best for every Com- 
poser to be his own Carver. Therefore, 
upon this consideration, for me to dictate, 
or pretend to prescribe Rules of this Na- 
ture for others, would not only be very 
unnecessary but also a very great piece of 

This first American composer 
soon won the hearts of the people. 
He was a patriot during the American 

Revolution and many of his tunes 
were heard around the camp fires of 
the Revolutionary Army, or the notes 
of "Chester" from the fifers of the 
Continental ranks. 

Music, however, did not prove 
a profitable occupation and he suf- 
fered poverty. He gave his life to 
the muse regardless of the taunts of 
his fellowmen. It is said he was the 
first to use the violoncello in church 
music in New England, and he is 
credited with being the first to intro- 
duce concerts in the colony. Billings 
was an eccentric man, physically de- 
formed, defective in sight, and un- 
tidy in personal appearance and habit. 
His family was so distressed by pov- 
erty that the assistance of the com- 
munity was solicited. Billings had a 
sign over the door of his house on 
which was inscribed "Billings' Mu- 
sic." I have heard the story told that 
one night two cats were suspended 
from it by their tails and that their 
howls aroused the entire neighbor- 
hood. The ridicule to which he was 
subjected is also shown by the query 
which he received, asking if snoring 
was to be classed as vocal or instru- 
mental music. After a rather turbu- 
lent career, this first American com- 
poser died September 29, 1800. Of 
him a modern music critic says : 
"Beethoven could have obtained no 
audience in America in the Eigh- 
teenth century, but Billings found a 
willing audience and cheered many a 
fireside and camp where higher art 
would not have been introduced." 

I have been searching for the grave 
of this " first American composer. 
While it is known that he was buried 
somewhere in the cemetery on Boston 
Common, it was unmarked. The 
cemetery still exists, but it does not 
seem possible to discover the exact 
spot where the first American com- 
poser was laid at rest. 


Cbe Centenary of an American Poet 


The Poet Longfellow frequently remarked to his friends that a Man's Work is his best 
memorial— On this Centenary of the Poet four of his Sonnets, two of which are 
translations from that Master-Artist, Michael Angelo, are here inscribed to his memory 




From the Italian of Michael Angelo 

The course of my long life hath reached 
at last, 
In fragile bark o'er a tempestuous sea, 
The common harbor where must ren- 
dered be 
Account of all the actions of the past. 
The impassioned phantasy, that, vague and 
Made art an idol and a king to me, 
Was an illusion, and but vanity 
Were the desires that lured me and 

The dreams of love, that were so sweet of 
What are they now, when two deaths 

may be mine, — 
One sure, and one forecasting its alarms? 
Painting and sculpture satisfy no more 
The soul now turning to the Love Divine, 
That oped, to embrace us, on the cross its 

From the Italian of Michael Angelo 

Not without fire can any workman mould 
The iron to his preconceived design, 
Nor can the artist without fire refine 
And purify from all its dross the gold ; 
Nor can revive the phoenix, we are told, 
Except by fire. Hence if such death be 

I hope to rise again with the divine, 
Whom death augments, and time cannot 

make old. 
O sweet, sweet death! O fortunate fire 
that burns 
Within me still to renovate my days, 
Though I am almost numbered with the 
If by its nature unto heaven returns 
This element, me, kindled in its blaze, 
Will it bear upward when my life is fled. 



In the old churchyard of his native town, 
And in the ancestral tomb beside the 

We laid him in the sleep that comes to 
And left him to his rest and his renown. 
The snow was falling as if Heaven dropped 
White flowers of Paradise to strew his 

pall ;— 

The dead around him seemed to wake, 

and call 

His name, as worthy of so white a crown. 

And now the moon is shining on the scene, 

And the broad sheet of snow is written 

With shadows cruciform of leafless trees, 
As once the winding sheet of Saladin 
With chapters of the Koran; but, ah! 

Mysterious and triumphant signs are 


towers these stately 
fretted summits tipped with 

Like two cathedral 
Uplift their 

cones ; 
The arch beneath them is not built with 
Not Art but Nature traced these lovely 

And carved this graceful arabesque of 
vines ; 
No organ but the wind here sighs and 

No sepulchre conceals a martyr's bones, 
No marble bishop on his tomb reclines. 
Enter ! the pavement, carpeted with leaves, 
Gives back a softened echo to thy tread ! 
Listen! the choir is singing; all the birds, 
In leafy galleries beneath the eaves, 
Are singing! listen, ere the sound be 

And learn there may be worship without 



L v J ■ 

' :\ 


:. .-■ ■ " .'-;•' '.'■■■■:'''" 








©J ~ 
O ,- 

s ° 


^^k ^nf^Zgz 


Born in 1606— Educated at Trinity College, Dublin— Studied Law at the Inner Temple — 
Entered the English Naval Service and sailed in an Expedition with the Duke of Buck- 
ingham—Immigrated to the New World, became a leading Chemist and was elected 
Governor of Connecticut— Portrait from Oil Painting at the State Capitol at Hartford 



I N 


Governor 3oftn CUintbrop, % f of Connecticut, 
a$ a Pbysician 




Member Connecticut Historical Society— Formerly House Medical Officer in the John Hopkins 

Hospital at Baltimore 

Dr. Steiner's investigations are developing much entertaining and valuable information regarding the, 
beginning of medical practice in America. As one of the leading scholars in the profession he has made 
and is now making, exhaustive researches into the various historical and literary aspects of medical practice 
as well as its scientific foundations. The investigation here recorded was originally read before the John 
Hopkins Hospital Historical Society and presented in the Bulletin of that institution. If has recently been 
read before the Connecticut Historical Society, and is now authoritatively given with some revisions for 
the public-at-large. While Governor Winthrop was one of the early physicians in America he was not the 
earliest. There were a few physicians in early Virginia. Dr. Thomas Wotten, surgeon-general of the 
London Company, sailed from England for Jamestown on December 19, 1606. Dr. Walter Russell was an- 
other of the little band that came to Virginia. In the early annals of New York, Hermain Mynderts Van 
de Bogaerdet arrived as a surgeon on the ship " Endragle " in 1631, and William Deeping on the ship 
" William of London " in 1663. Dr. Steiner has written a second article on the practice of Governor Win- 
throp which records twenty-nine additional letters of a medical nature from his correspondence. He has 
also prepared an article on Gershom Bulkeley's medical career.— Editor 

THE character of John Win- 
throp, junior, one of the first 
physicians in America, is one 
of the most interesting in 
colonial history. His "qualities of 
human excellence were mingled in 
such happy proportions that, while he 
always wore the air of contentment, 
no enterprise in which he engaged 
seemed too lofty for his powers. 
Even as a child he had been the 
pride of his father's house; he had 
received the best instruction which 
Cambridge and Dublin could afford, 
and had perfected his education by 
visiting, in part, at least, in the public 
service, not Holland and France only, 
in the days of Prince Maurice and 
Richelieu, but Venice and Constanti- 
nople. From boyhood his manners 
had been spotless, and the purity of 
his soul added luster and beauty to 
the gifts of nature and industry; as 
he traveled through Europe he sought 
the society of men eminent for learn- 

ing. Returning to England in the 
bloom of life, with the fairest promise 
of preferment, he preferred to follow 
his father to the New World, regard- 
ing 'diversities of countries but as so 
many inns/ alike conducting 'to the 
journey's end.'" 

"The New World was full of his 
praises ; Puritans and Quakers and 
the freemen of Rhode Island were 
alike his eulogists ; the Dutch at New 
York had confidence in his integrity. 
In history he appears by unanimous 
consent, from early life, without a 
blemish; and it is the beautiful testi- 
mony of his own father that 'God 
gave him favor in the eyes of all with 
whom he had to do."' 

But it is not only Bancroft who 
thus eulogizes him. The historians, 
Trumbull, Hollister and Johnston, 
also sound his praises. Trumbull 
calls him "one of the most distin- 
guished characters" and says "he ren- 
dered many important services to the 




colony, was exceedingly beloved in 
life, and died greatly and universally 

The experiences of this pioneer 
physician make a unique chapter in 

Winthrop followed his father to 
this country in 1631 and was shortly 
thereafter made an assistant in the 
Massachusetts Colony. A year later 
he led a company of twelve to Aga- 
wam (now Ipswich), where a settle- 
ment was made. In about a year he 
returned to England and received a 
commission to be governor of the 
river Connecticut for one year. On 
coming back to America he built a 
fort at Saybrook, Connecticut, and re- 
sided there part of that time. Then, 
making no effort to have the commis- 
sion renewed, he returned to Ipswich 
and became one of the prudential men 
of the town. Subsequently he moved 
to Salem, established some salt works 
there, made another trip to England, 
and finally receiving Fisher's Island 
as a grant from the General Court of 
Massachusetts, went there in the fall 
of 1646. This grant was subse- 
quently confirmed by both Connect- 
icut and New York. In the spring of 
the following year he removed to 
Pequot (now New London), but, 
after a residence of eight years, 
moved to New Haven. From here 
he was called to dwell in Hartford on 
being elected governor of Connect- 
icut in 1657. He had previously 
(September 9, 1647) been given a 
commission to execute justice in his 
town (Pequot) "according to our 
laws and the rule of righteousness," 
and in May, 1651, was elected an 
assistant of Connecticut. He served 
as governor one year, then became 
deputy governor on account of a law 
which prevented his re-election. This 
law being repealed the next year, he 
served continuously as governor from 
1659 till his death in 1676, although 
in 1667, 1670 and 1675 he requested 
to be relieved of this office. 

From his youth he was devoted to 

scientific studies and was an omniv- 
orous reader of books. Alchemy 
greatly interested him and among his I 
correspondents were numbered Dr. J 
Robert Child, Sir Kenelm Digby, 
George Storkey and Jonathan Brews- 
ter, all of whom had like ties. He 
was also much attached to astronomy 
and with his telescope, which was 
"but a tube of 3 foote and a half with 
a concave eye-glasse," he was able to j 
see five satellites of Jupiter and make 
other celestial observations. He was 
distrustful of having seen five satel- 
lites as Galileo and others had only 
observed four. He seemed to enjoy 
especially the association with scien- 
tific men. In 1661, when he went to 
England for a third time, he arrived 
not long after the Royal Society for 
Improving Useful Knowledge was 
organized. It was first organized in | 
1660 but was not incorporated until 
two years later. On December 11 of 
that year he was proposed for mem- ] 
bership by William Brereton, after- 
wards Lord Brereton, and was admit- I 
ted January 1, 1662. During his stay 
in England, which continued till the I 
early summer of 1663, he took an act- 1 
ive part in the society's proceedings, j 
read a number of papers on a great 
variety of subjects, and exhibited 
many curious things. Some of his 
papers during this period were on 
strange tides, the refining of gold, the j 
making of pitch, tar and potashes, the j 
building of ships in North America, 
and the brewing of beer from maize 
bread. Among the things he exhib- 
ited were a self-feeding lamp, of his j 
own invention, malleable mineral lead, 
piece of a rock of granite, bluish 
grains of corn grown in the West In- 
dies, and the tail of a rattlesnake. 

He came naturallv by his liking for 
medicine, as his father had no mean 
knowledge of this science. In a let- j 
ter his father wrote, on the occasion 
of his son's illness at Ipswich, he 
speaks of drugs and remedies which 
show him to be well acquainted with 
them. The venerable Cotton says 



that the elder Winthrop had been a 
"Help for our Bodies by Physick, for 
our Estates by Law." This bent 
toward medicine existed in other 
members of the family also, for we 
learn Winthrop's brother Henry's 
widow "was much imployed in her 
surgurye and hath very good suc- 
cesse," and his son Wait and grand- 
son John had both a laudable knowl- 
edge of medicine for their times. 

At this period the offices of clergy- 
man and physician were frequently 
associated in one individual — in- 
stances of what Cotton Mather has 
called "the Angelical Conjunction," 
the cure of body combined with the 
cure of soul. This association may 
largely have been due to the survival 
of the custom of the dark ages when 
the priests were considered the reposi- 
tories of learning and held both of 
these offices. There is, however, an 
additional reason in the fact that med- 
icine alone was not very profitable at 
this time, so we find some turning also 
to divinity, as Giles Firmin, who "pre- 
viously did make and read upon the 
one Anatomy in the countrey very 
well." In a letter still preserved he 
says : "I am strongly sett upon to 
studye divinitie : my studies else must 
be lost, for physick is but a meene 

"The scarcity of physicians in the 
Colonies and Winthrop's willingness 
to give advice free of charge — so far 
as his studies enabled him to do so — 
caused him to be much consulted." 
Connecticut, Massachusetts and 
Rhode Island were the territories in 
which his patients mostly lived. They 
were frequently sent to him, generally 
at Pequot or Hartford, but at times 
he would come to see them in consul- 
tation with the village doctor, or 
otherwise, when they were too sick to 
be moved. Some were also treated 
by him by letter, without personal in- 
spection. Cotton Mather says : 
"Wherever he came, still the Dis- 
eased flocked about him, as if the 

Healing Angel of Bethesda had ap- 
peared in the place." 

From his papers, which consist 
mostly of letters addressed to him, I 
have been able to glean something re- 
lating to his career as a physician. 
In all I have collected over one hun- 
dred medical references. 

His first patient appears to have 
been his father, who in some way had 
injured his finger. On April 11, 1628. 
Winthrop writes his father that he 
is sending some yellow and black 
plasters which were given him by a 
woman "that is very skilful and much 
sought unto for these things." Direc- 
tions for their use accompany them. 
At the end of four days his father 
says : "I prayse God my finger is well 
amended, my surgeon did his parte 
well, and stayde the gangrene and 
tooke out the mortified fleshe, but be- 
cause your love and peines should not 
be lost I have betaken myselfe wholly 
to your plaister wch the Surgeon likes 
well enough; and I prayse God it 
goeth well forward." Some years 
later, in 1637, Winthrop's wife seems 
to have swallowed some pins. We 
do not know what means were em- 
ployed to relieve her, but his father 
writes him a letter expressing great 
gratification that the wife had been 
delivered from so great a danger. He 
adds : "I hope it will teach my daugh- 
ter and other women to take heed of 
putting pins in the mouth which was 
never seasonable to be fed with such 

Besides these references we find 
many others which show the esteem 
in which his family held him for his 
medical knowledge. Winthrop's 
father-in-law, Hugh Peters, writes 
from Salem, saying : "My head is not 
well, nor any part at present, for I 
cannot get sleepe. I would you 
should send mee word what you will 
doe therein but rather come over" 
(from Ipswich). He later speaks of 
his old malady of the "spleene" and 
says: "I never had hart or tyme to 
attend any cure, that I now give my 



life gone ; and shall not live my parts 
I feare." How little did he then 
know of the truth he was telling, for 
in eleven years he was executed as a 
regicide, at Charing Cross, on Octo- 
ber 16, 1660! Winthrop's brother- 
in-law, Samuel Symonds, was a 
prominent man in Ipswich, and finally 
became deputy governor. In 1647 
he states that his wife's indigestion 
is better and adds: "Good wine (as 
you say) is the best cordiall for her." 
In a later letter he mentions his 
daughter having received some 
physick from Winthrop and being 
benefited bv it. 

Eight years prior to this last com- 
munication, in 164.1, Winthrop's aunt, 
Lucy Downing, from London, tells 
Lim she has "experimented the cro- 
cus this 2 nights, and found much 
though not a totall fredom of payne 
thereby." Other letters follow this 
one about her various ailments. One 
written January 17, 1661, possesses 
some interest and causes us to won- 
der what she really had. She says: 
"I was taken with a veri sore paine 
one my leaft side wich at betwickst 
my short ribs and my buckell boone; 
and the paine being so sharpe, it was 
feared to have been plurisi, but wen 
the dockter came he said it was not a 
plurisi but he judge it to be the stonne 
in the kidney, and thereupon did apli 
mani thing both inward and outward 
to remove the paine; the extremiti 
there of did put me into a veryfeaver- 
ish condishion, and to or thre fits of a 
fever, and then i was pritti well re- 
covered; but retern by a little could, 
but I relapsed in to another of those 
fits, and then i tried hot brikes to my 
side, and bages of fried oats, and up 
on the use of them i found the paine 
did much mittigate, and then i sent to 
the dockter, and he sent me a plaister 
wich i found, the same night i laide 
it on, it did much dispers the paine all 
al.oute my bodi, and the neckst morn- 
ing i found my seulf much better 
than formerli, and both my stomak 
and by weast are much better then of 

aweake before, but am still verri ten- 
der, and forst to kepe my chamber; 
but i have veri good hopes that the 
plaister may be a means to prevent 
such extremity for the futurr, and the 
dockter now thinkes it was some 
other trouble and not the stone." She 
forbare sending for Winthrop as she 
got some ease and hopes of recovery. 
It is well to state that she employed 
an amanuensis, so we must not blame 
the old lady for this spelling. Two 
years before Winthrop's death she 
was still living, although well on in 
years. She then mentions her in- 
creasing deafness, states that she had 
consulted two doctors for it and that 
they both aereed "the more she did 
tamper with her ears the worse it 
might be for her." She is "not will- 
ing consequently to a further hazerd 
of her ears and her mony allso for 

Winthrop's niece, Hannah Gallup, 
writes to him on two occasions. At 
one time she wishes a litle phisicke 
and some directions for a "disease 
much like the fluxe." In the other 
letter he is thanked for the "Physik 
and other kindnesses." Stephen and 
Samuel, Winthrop's brothers, also, 
occasionally write to him about mat- 
ters medical. The former, who 
served in Cromwell's army and Par- 
liament, informs Winthrop, August 2, 
1653, that he has been "this two years 
extremely troubled wth the Zeatica, 
and am just now goeing to the Bath 
to see if yt may remedy it. My much 
lying in ye wet feilds uppon the 
ground hath brought it uppon me, as 
it hath uppon many others." 

Wait, Winthrop's younger son, 
frequently writes to him on medical 
topics and often he gets his advice as 
to treatment. In 1671, he wishes 
some directions for "convultion fitts 
in children, they being often troubled 
with them here (Boston) ; also for 
Mrs. Mary Maning for her old dis- 
temper, which you have given her 
something for formerly." On other 
occasions Wait buys various medi- 



cines in Boston for his father such 
as opium, jalap, "vitriolum album," 
ivory, and aloes. Once Wait wishes 
his father to send some black powder 
to him "if ther be opertunity, and you 
have any quantitye made. I am 
almost out, and have not convenyence 
to make any presently." 

But aside from attending to his 
family's ailments he had many pro- 
fessional obligations to perform as 
the most prominent men of the colo- 
nies, as we shall see, consulted him 
frequently in cases of sickness. His 
duty to a oatient caused him to fore- 
go, at one time, the pleasure of meet- 
ing Francis Lovelace, the governor of 
New York, at Milford. He was 
obliged to express his regrets for "he 
was ingaged to a deare friend not 
long before, who was at the very 
Agony of death (as was feared by all 
then present there) not to be absent 
till an apparent recovery, wch then 
was doubt full, but now (god be 
praised) is in a good measure 
attained, but there were reasons to 
think it might not have beene so, if I 
had been fro home." 

Elder Goodwin of Cambridge, 
Hartford, Hadley and Farmington 
thanks him for attending his wife and 
child, and declares success crowned 
his endeavors in regard to the treat- 
ment of the former and wishes as 
"the water she used is all spent," that 
"the ingreedients and direction how 
to use it" be sent them; "for we are 
very loath to breake ofe the use of 
such meanes as God hath been pleased 
to make so usfull to us. in this case." 
"His daughter was afflicted with the 
palsy and did not seem to be benefit- 
ted by the treatment." In a subse- 
quent letter we learn that the water 
was for Mrs. Goodwin "to wash her 
leg with all" and more powder was 
desired to make it up "for she fynd- 
eth more releife and ease of her greife 
by that meanes than by any other she 
hath formerly had the use of." The 
daughter does not seem to have im- 

John Higginson, then assistant to 
Henry Whitfield, the pastor at Guil- 
ford, Connecticut, writes a most earn- 
est letter to Winthrop, at Pequot, in 
1654 or 1655, De ggmg him to come 
and see his wife. Higginson does 
not say what her sickness was but 
declares " the case is such as cannot 
be judged without ocular inspection." 
He calls it "a very sad affliction, she 
being in a very dangerous case as Mr. 
Rosseter (the village doctor) and all 
our neighbors here doe apprehend." 
He hopes that Winthrop's "counsell 
and help, together with Mr, Rosseter" 
may be the means of preserving her 
life, "if so it pleas the Lord." 

John Mason, rendered famous by 
the Pequot War and subsequently 
ma j or-general, commander-in-chief 
of the military forces of Connecticut 
and for eight years deputy governor, 
writes several letters expressing 
appreciation for physick and services 
rendered to his wife who "as yet re- 
maineth ill, yet sometimes a little re- 
viveing, with the addition of some- 
what more strength." 

Thomas Mayhew, governor of 
Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket, 
as well as preacher to the Indians 
there, though bowed down by over 
three score and ten years, cannot re- 
frain from rendering his thanks for 
Winthrop's "readiness in sending that 
powder for my grandchild together 
with advice." I will speak of this 
again in referring to Winthrop's sov- 
ereign remedy Rubila. Mayhew, 
agreeing with Higginson as to the 
value of ocular inspection, wishes to 
know if Winthrop is willing "shee 
should com to Conectacute, where 
shee may be neare vow, and also the 
sight of hir may much more informe 
your judgment touching her disease." 
Subsequently Mayhew mentions an 
attack he had of what may have been 
appendicitis. He states the "paine I 
had seised one me in the morning "be- 
tyme, upon the right syde; the paine 
was not so broade as the palme of 
my hand. It was like to take me of 



the stage, but it went away in my 
sleepe that night; when I awoke, I 
was altogether free of that paine and 
of other sore paine which came uppon 
me in useing menese by a glystr to 
free my sellfe of that." His last let- 
ter, written less than a year before 
Winthrop's death, tells us that one of 
his grand-daughters had used the 
physick sent with success but the lit- 
tle ones had not taken any and we 
wonder if Rubila was not the remedy 

Captain John Underhill, of Long 
Island, heretical, eccentric and illit- 
erate yet firmly convinced that God 
has made Winthrop "an instrument 
of the gud of mani diseased," desires 
relief for his wife "whom dayli con- 
tinnuse in gret payne, resefing last 
yere a payne in her back with alift of 
a wayti stone and dayli increses her 
payne, and desense in to her left hip, 
so that shee can not torn her in bed, 
no gooe up rit in the daye." And 
again he wishes Winthrop to help "a 
gud godli woman, and diere frend 
of my wife" whose distemper "is as a 
shoutting agew, pricking in her left 
side, asending into her temples, and 
tieth, hed and jase, and takese her 
sometimes too dayse together and 
hase had it niere 12 months, with such 
extremiti as shee can not rest nigh 
[t] nor daye, and takes her at aell 
sesones, night and daye, shiftting his 
course as an ago." He also hopes 
Winthrop will send his wife a "littil 
whit vitterall." 

Roger Williams, the ardent Quaker 
and founder of Rhode Island, was 
long one of Winthrop's correspond- 
ents. In 1649 ne writes about his 
daughter, aged seventeen, who had 
"taken much physick and bene let 
blood but yet no. change, she is ad- 
vised by some to the Bay : I pray ad- 
vize me to whom you judge fittest to 
addresse unto of the Bayes Physi- 
tians." At another time he speaks of 
his son troubled "with a spice of an 
epilepsie ;" "We used some reme- 
dies," he says, "but it hath pleased 

God by his taking of tobacco per- 
fectly (as we hope) to cure him." 
Mention of. Williams will again be 
made when we discuss Rubila. 

Winthrop's "loveing freind." 
George Hethcote, from far off Bar- 
badoes asks for something in 1669 "to 
stop the groweth of consumption." 
His mother had previously told him 
he had it, but he put, unwisely in this 
case, more confidence in his doctor, 
who informed him to the contrary. 
He goes on to add "I am much troub- 
led with a thin sharp salt youmer that 
settles uppon me longes and causes 
me to spitt much and sume time 
cough but seldom — that powder I had 
of the for the spittinge did me much 
good." He wishes, consequently 
help in medicine and diet so that "the 
cause and ground of the consumption 
may be taken away if the Lord see 
good." Possibly also about this time 
John Tinker appealed to Winthrop on 
behalf of his servant, who was in- 
jured "by reason of a little stike run 
into his head through the hole of his 
eare." "We know not what to do," 
he declares, "I intreat your worshipps 

Samuel Gorton of Rhode Island, 
"turbulent in disposition," and so 
constituted that "every community 
wherein he cast his lot was anxious 
to get rid of him," but now tamed by 
his four score and two years, writes 
to Winthrop on August 11, 1674, of 
his "sore infirmitie and distemper 
which hath held him now almost a 
whole moneth of dayes." A month 
later, with a heart full of thanksgiv- 
ing, he pours forth his rejoicings to 
Winthrop in a letter which takes up 
twenty-five octavo printed pages. 
The "cordiall and soveraighne pow- 
ders" Winthrop had sent had so done 
their work he finds his body "to be 
little differing from that which it 
was, before the distemper seized" 
upon him. Also another "infirmitie" 
which was a "benummednesse or like 
the crampe" is taken away. He won- 
ders consequently "that a thing so 



little in quantity, so little in sent, so 
little in taste, and so little to sence in 
operation, should beget and bring 
forth such effects." 

Edward Wigglesworth, a minister 
of the gospel, thinking he strained 
himself when being hot he "tooke a 
lift" on a cold day in the winter, de- 
sires medical aid. He states some 
months after the accident "when I 
looked upyards being ready to fall 
backwards, and when I looked down- 
ward, to fall forward. And in my 
legs and feet benummedness, as if 
they were asleep by lying double un- 
der mee." Thinking it was the 
scurvy which he previously had, he 
neglected to use any means. As he 
grew worse the following autumn he 
used artificial baths ; sixteen in all, 
and in the spring following "oiles, 
ointments plaisters" but all accom- 
plished nothing. Finally a weakness 
affected his whole body so that he 
could "hardly move his neck a little." 
He greatly desired Winthrop to come 
to New Haven to see him. 

Two early governors of Connect- 
icut — Edward Hopkins and John 
Haynes — also need his services. Hop- 
kins appeals to him to see if he can 
help his wife's condition. She was 
insane. Some "water" seems to have 
been sent which was given as direct- 
ed, but no "altracion in her" was per- 
ceived. Haynes has occasion many 
times to ask Winthrop's assistance on 
behalf of his wife. In 1649, ne 
writes that his wife is yet in the land 
of the living but falls into her violent 
fits when she tries to sit up. Some 
months later we hear that she "is yett 
alive, but this month or more was sel- 
dom free from her most violent fitts." 
Shortly thereafter he wishes to send 
her down to Winthrop at Pequot but 
could not. He wants to know if the 
medicine which has been prescribed 
may be safelv given her. Later he 
speaks of a "little alteracion of her 
fitts appearing, att times" and says 
he wants to send her down to Win- 
throp during the winter. If she 

could not come he would like to know 
if anything could be administered 
safely to her at such a distance. A 
little later he states she has "pain all 
over her, especially her right side." 
She has also a "short cough, breaths 
shorte, stuffed at the stomache, but 
rayses not ought." In a footnote he 
adds "my wife has paine alsoe on her 
left side, although the most is one the 
right side, wher the incision was." 
How much would we give to inter- 
pret what the operation was for! 
The remedies employed must have 
been somewhat effectual for we read 
her "violent fitts are but seldomm, her 
cough is abated, and herself able to 
sitt upp in a chaire at night for three 
or fower howres." She fears, how- 
ever, that the supply of the powder 
which is to prevent her fits will soon 
be done and craves a further supply 
of the same. A month later she con- 
tinues to improve and new and fresh 
supplies of medicines are again asked 
for, as the preventing phisicke is all 
spent as is all the rest almost, both 
drinke and powders. She was also 
troubled with fainting fits and Haynes 
wishes to know "whether she might 
not take of red cowes milk as for- 
merly she did of goates milke." "A 
soare paine on her backe" as well as 
other aches and ailments demand 
Winthrop's attention on other occa- 
sions. We imagine he must have 
grown weary sometimes in hearing 
and reading the long calendar of her 

In New Haven Colony, Winthrop 
had as patients the families of a bril- 
liant group of men — Eaton, Daven- 
port and Leete. Theophilus Eaton, 
the first governor of that colony, was 
a pure and noble character. He was 
also a long-suffering man by reason 
of his second wife, who "seems to 
have been in the habit of venting a 
very ugly temper in the most outrag- 
eous language to the whole family, 
from her husband down to Anthony 
'the neager.' For she slapped the 
face of 'old Mrs. Eaton' while the 



family were at dinner until the gov- 
ernor was compelled to hold her 
hands; she pinched Mary, the gov- 
ernor's daughter by his first marriage, 
until she was black and blue and 
knocked her head against the dresser 
which made here nose bleed much; 
she slandered Mary, falsely impeach- 
ing her character, and in all points 
she seems to have been the type of the 
vulgar step-mother." 

In Eaton's first letter he wishes 
Winthrop to come to New Haven 
from Pequot and sends a horse to 
him so that he could "advise, on 
arrival, for recovery of Davenport's 
health." Again, thinking to send his 
daughter Hopkins in the "ffleete," he 
desires Winthrop's opinion as to the 
danger of a winter voyage. He later 
states: "my wife with thankefulnes 
acknowledgeth the good she hath 
found by following your directions, 
but doth much desire your presence 
here, as soone as the season, and your 
occasions will permit, both in refer- 
ence to my daughter Hopkins, and 
my* daughter Hannah, who hath bin 
exercised these 4 or 5 dayes with 
vapours rising (as we conceive) out 
of her stomack into her head, hin- 
dering both her sleepe and appetite 
to meate, and apt to put her into 
fainting ffitts, whether from winde or 
the mother or from what other cause 
I cannot informe. "Hearkening unto 
this request, Winthrop went down to 
New Haven and prescribed some 
remedies. We read that "daughter 
Hopkins tooke the first potion of 
purging physick he left and hath 
kept her bed since and my wife is in 
some doubt whether she should give 
her any more of it till she have your 
advise." In 1655, Eaton informs 
Winthrop of daughter Eaton's death 
and wishes him to come, if his family 
could spare him, to see her husband, 
who complained chiefly of a cold, a 
cough and a "paine in the reight 
side." Some bloody material had 
been vomited up on three or four 
occasions. Samuel Eaton was the 

son here mentioned. After Governor 
Haynes' death, he married his widow, 
of whose ailment we have previously 
spoken. The last information we 
have of the family is when we are 
told "daughter Hopkins hath taken 
some of her physick and it wrought 

William Leete, also a governor of 
that colony and later of Connecticut, 
for some reason or other, did not de- 
sire to employ Rossiter (the village 
doctor). He consequently, much to 
Rossiter's disgust no doubt, consulted 
Winthrop on every necessary occa- 
sion. At one time he writes "my 
wife entreats some more of your 
phisick, although she feareth it to 
have very contrary operations in Mr. 
Rossiter's stomack" — an instance 
that professional jealousy existed in 
those days. 

Leete's family caused him much 
concern. In 1658 he writes "our 
youngest childe, about 9 weekes old, 
haveing ever since it was 3 or 4 dayes 
old, hath appeared full of red spots 
or pimples, somewhat like to measles, 
and seemed allwayes to be bigg, and 
to hang over on the eye browes and 
lids; but now of late the eye lidds 
have swelled and look very red, 
burneing exceedingly, and now at 
last they are so sweld up that the 
sight is utterly closed in, that he could 
not see nor for severall dayes, nor yet 
doth, and the verges of the lids, where 
they close, have a white seame, like 
the white heads of wheales, wherein 
is matter ; it is somewhat extraordi- 
nary, such as none of our woemen can 
tell that they have ever seene the 
like." This child. Peregrine by name, 
was doubtless the cause of many an 
anxious moment to his parents. 
Leete later writes of "his starting, 
and sometimes almost strangling 
ffitts, like convulsions, which have 
more frequently afflicted the infant of 
late than formerlv." We are apt to 
conceive it probable he says to pro- 
ceed from more than ordinary painful 
breeding teeth. His eyes seem to be 



somewhat better from the use of a 
"glasse of eye watter" which was 
also used on other of the children so 
that "a little further recruit" of the 
same was desired. Peregrine did not. 
however, monopolize all the family 
troubles, for his sister, Graciana, was 
a weakly, puny thing and gathered 
strength but very little. 

Winthrop's treatment seems to have 
caused an improvement for shortly 
thereafter she began "to slide a chaire 
before her and walke after it, after her 
ffeeble manner." She caused trouble, 
however, in the taking of her medi- 
cine and Leete asks for directions "to 
make her willing and apt to take it; 
for though it seemes very pleasant of 
itselfe, yet is she grown marvailous 
awkward and averse from takeing it 
in beer. Wherefore I would entreat 
you to prescribe to us the varyety of 
wayes in which it may be given soe 
effectually; wee doubt els it may doe 
much lesse good, being given by force 
onely." Andrews' "starting fits" as 
well as a "distemper which my son 
William's wife can best explain" de- 
mand other letters to Winthrop. 
Leete also writes about a weak back 
which afflicted a neighbor's child. 

But John Davenport, the first pas- 
tor at New Haven, appears to have 
required Winthrop's services most. 
In all seventeen letters are to be 
found containing medical references, 
most of them are about his wife's 
prolonged illness, but some concern 
himself. In 1653 he wishes to go to 
Pequot to confer with Winthrop over 
the state of his body. "My wife," he 
adds, "inclineth to our travayling 
with you to Boston, if you judge that 
a place and time fitt for me to enter 
into any course of physick." 

Four years later Brother Herry- 
man's eye caused Davenport much 
anxiety and he wrote much to Win- 
throp about it. He says the medi- 
cines sent gave some benefit "for 
it opened the liddes gradually by 
litle and litle, and gave him ease. 
But, upon the opening of his eye- 

liddes, they find that in the eyes, 
where the sight was, is a mattery sub- 
stance which brother Peck thinckes 
flowed out of it (peradventure it is 
the chrystaline humor) ; he saith it 
is ragged, or like white ragges un- 
dissolved, which yet he thincks may 
be easily dissolved ; and from the ball 
of the eye groweth a carnous sub- 
stance, which covereth the neather 
eye lid all over, and at the end of it, in 
the corner of the eye, by his nose, is a 
tumor of a pretty bignes. Hereby, 
his eye seems to be as 2 eyes, to them 
that looke upon it; yet sister Herry- 
man saith she can see his eye under 
that excrescence. The excrescence is 
red, and so is his eye. On the 5th 
day last he tooke the powder, which 
worked very well, biu most upwards, 
which, sister thinckes, increased the 
swelling about his eye. Brother 
Peck thinckes that his eye hath no 
sense [in] it, nor can they yet say 
whether the sight is wholly lost, or 
not, till that white mattery substance 
be taken away which is before it." 
Herryman intended, until Winthrop's 
further directions came, "to put a lit- 
tle sugar candie into it for the pres- 
ent, which, he saith, may doe some 
good, and no hurt." 

Before this letter was sealed sis- 
ter Herryman came into Daven- 
port's study with the good news 
that her husband "could stirre his 
eye yesterday a litle, and this day 
more, and that the excrescence from 
the ball of his eye (which she likeneth 
to a wheate straw, and toucheth the 
underlid), lookes a litle paler then it 
did, that the eye lid growes more ply- 
able, and he can open it a litle him- 
selfe. That tumor by the side of his 
nose, she saith, is about the bignes of 
a little pea. The white that covers 
the black and darke colour of his eye 
is as bigg as a penny, and in the mid- 
dest of that is that ragged matter I 
wrote of before. Brother Herryman 
thinckes that he pricked his eye with 
a bodkin and that might cause this 
ragged thing about his eye. Sister 



Herryman and he boath thinck that 
what you sent workes well; for he 
findes that he can stirr his eye, which 
before was as a thing dead and other 
good effects. He is alsoe at ease." 

From the account we have of her 
Davenport's wife must have been an 
intensely neurasthenia woman. In 
1658 he states that she "hath bene, 
diverse times, this sumer, and stil is, 
valetudinarious, faint, thirsty, of litle 
appetite, and indisposed, sundry 
times, yet goes about and is between 
times better and cheerful, yet ordi- 
narily, in the mornings, shee feeles a 
paine in the bottom of her back/' 
Later he speaks of her being "weake 
in her spirits and weake stomached." 
For her various complaints Winthrop 
dosed her with Rubila (as I will men- 
tion later), "pilles" and other un- 
known medicines without marked 
beneficial effect. The last note we 
have of her is in 1667 when Daven- 
port, finding her refractory in taking 
her remedies, writes in the depth of 
his' despair to Winthrop, saying "my 
wife tooke but halfe of one of the pa- 
pers, but could not beare the taste of 
it, and is discouraged from taking 
any more. I perceive that some 
speech from yourselfe would best sat- 
isfie her, but if God's providence 
puttes a bar in the way, we are called 
to submit thereunto." 

Davenport, himself seems to have 
had a somewhat similar malady for 
which he was treated by Winthrop. 
After a course of treatment "by the 
mercy of God," he declares, "my body 
is about to returne to its former state, 
the paine being much abated. I am 
now content to let nature acte of it- 
selfe in hope that by God's blessing 
upon suitable diet, I shall be well 
againe, in due time." 

In addition to all these above 
named patients mention should also 
be made of a probable one, "Mrs. 
John Megs" of Guilford. In 1673, 
Joseph Eliot, Higginson's successor 
at Guilford, writes "John Megs" a 
letter of introduction to Winthrop. 

In it he asks aid for Meg's wife, who 
has "a gentle beginning of fits of 
flatus hypocondriacus yt stir upon 
griefe yet without violence for the 

The best known remedy Winthrop 
put up and dispensed was one of 
his own concoction, Rubila, whose 
method of making was handed down 
to his son Wait and grandson John. 
It is to the latter that Increase 
Mather wrote on June 23, 1718, de- 
siring a considerable equantity of 
Rubila sent to Madam Winthrop, his 
mother, "for the relief of such as the 
Lord shall please to bless it for yir 
health." But its composition was un- 
known from then on till Dr. Oliver 
Wendell Holmes deciphered a manu- 
script collection of the medical cases 
treated by Governor Winthrop from 
1 657- 1 669 and came across the fol- 
lowing prescription. It was written, 
as most of them, in symbols which 
Holmes thus interpreted: 

"Four grains of (diaphoretic) an- 
timony with twenty grains of nitre 
with a little salt of tin making rubila." 
Perhaps, Holmes states, something 
was added to redden the powder as he 
constantlv speaks of rubifying or 
viridating Kis prescriptions, a very 
common practice of prescribing when 
their powders look a little too much 
like plain sugar. 

Unfortunately it would seem from 
letters subsequently published that 
something was purposely omitted. 
Winthrop himself sends some of the 
powder to his son Wait, and remarks 
that it not ground enough, and Wait, 
on other occasions, speaks of some', of 
his own manufacture, which was not 
enough ground, half ground, or 
grossly beaten. He . says also "it is 
best to make it before the weather be 
hot" and at another time, "the dog 
dayes will not be so good to medle 
with rubila in, so it must be deferred 
at present." 

This remedy appears to have been 
a cure-all. It was given as an anti- 
dote in case of fevers, as a preventive 



against fits, for "sweild legs," for 
colds, for colics, for agues — in fact 
for any ailment. In a letter to his 
brother, Fitz John, Wait states that 
he knows "no better antidote in feav- 
ers then the black powder, niter, 
snakeweed, lignum vitse, white cor- 
diall powder, unicorn's horn, all of 
which you know the use of." 

"Mix snakeweed and lig. vitse with 
niter to take in the morning; mix 
fower graines apeice of corall, oculi 
cancrorum, and ivory, to be taken at 
any time; thre or 4 grainens of uni- 
corne's horn mixt with the black 
powder at night; but remember that 
rubila be taken at the beginning of 
any illnec.s." Again, discussing Fitz 
John's distemper, he says that Rubila 
if taken "at the very beginning of it, 
must needs abate much of the raa- 
ligntye of it, and so render it lesse 

Many in different parts of New 
England kept a store of Rubila con- 
stantly in the house, from which the 
town was supplied whenever neces- 
sity arose. When the powder was 
exhausted more was written for. In 
1653, Deacon Child of Watertown 
writes "my wife would entreate you 
send to her a parcell of your physick, 
divided into portions for young and 
ould. She hath had many occasions 
to make use thereof to the help of 
many." Nearly a year later fa 
his wife is very ill and 'often v . 
she had a ption of yor phisick by 
she and other have found good, r> 
psuaded should doc again had s 1 " 
it." Davenport :?nd wife are 
among those who received be 
supplies of Rubila on sever 
sions for themselves, their f. 
bors, and friends. It w? 
sired by Mrs. Davenport i 
of the people that neede, 
says, "she had rather hr 
out it, then you shout 
sitting up too late." 
imply that Winthrop 
spent some time in the 
or that he chose the n' 

he could then prepaie it in secrecy, 
without any interruption. Later 
Davenport's supply is wholly spent 
so that though some have desired it 
they turned away empty. Roger 
Williams of Rhode Island "sick of a 
cold and feaver" asks that this pow- 
der might be sent with directions. If 
the ingredients be costly, he will 
thankfully account. He then adds 
"I have books that prescribe powders 
but yours is probatum in this Coun- 
try." Again he asks for more as his 
wife wants some for Mrs. Week's 
daughter of Warrick. 

Though Winthrop died in 1676, 
yet John Allyn of Hartford, long 
secretary of Connecticut, had not for- 
gotten the benefits he had derived 
from taking this powder and writes 
in 1681 to the governor's son, Wait, 
for "a small portion of rubila to ly by 
if your store would permit it." John 
Winthrop, junior, had previously 
been the family physician. At one 
time Winthrop writes to his son Wait, 
"Tell Mr. Allyn his wife hath a ter- 
tian ague wch began ;ne da> he went 
hence, and we hope the worst o. 
over. I was wth hir this m* 
and hir fit was shorter and j"' 
erate then former." .' 
haps, that too HttV 
then saysv """ 



directions about for Graciana his 
daughter as "she is grown marvailous 
awkward and averse from taking it in 
beer." Thomas Mayhew wants some 
more for his daughter, we learn, as 
she is now willing (probably after 
much urgings and inducements) to 
take it. With Winthrop's great- 
grandson, however, no trifling was 
permitted. We read in a pathetic 
letter to his son which Wait has left 
us: "Poor little Tome taken yester- 
day with great pain in his stomach, 
belly, and side, like a plurettick 
feaver; your mother and most of the 
house up with him all night. He 
took rubila this morning, and hope he 
is better." This might mean though 
that little Tome resisted the taking 
of this nauseous drug till the morning 
when, worn out and tamed, he took 
his medicine, as he ought, like a little 

When Mr. Stone was sick Daven- 
port endeavored to persuade him to 
take this powder but did not find him 
"inclinable, though he was burthened 
oiomach.'' In the same letter 
states that Governor New- 
~e Rubila, "but finding 
+ imes ready to faint 
!11 m£ to take it 

and by degrees take away both the 
swelling and every evill symptom; he 
may begin with a grain, or halfe a 
grain, and so increase halfe a grain 
every day till it begins to make him a 
little quamish, and then the next time 
decrease halfe a grain or a grain, 
and then keep to that proportion." 
This dose would be rather a "cordiall 
for him than weaken him." It may 
make him costive and to overcome 
this, a "spoonful or two of molasses 
alone, or mixt with a spoonful of oyle, 
would be as good as anything." 

With such a demand for this pow- 
der we are not surprised that Wait is 
obliged, on several occasions, to send 
for large supplies of some of its in- 
gredients. At one time he asks for 
"fifty pounds of nitre and twenty 
pounds of good tartar free from 

Besides Rubila, Winthrop pre- 
scribed niter ("which he ordered in 
doses of twenty to thirty grains to 
adults and three grains to infants") 
iron, sulphur, calomel, rhubarb, guai- 
acum, jalap, horse radish, the ano- 
dyne, mithradate (a shot-gun pre- 
scription), coral in powder form, am- 
ber and electuary of millipedese. He 
also used elecampane, elder, worm- 
wood and anise, as well as unicorn's 
horn. In 1658 Davenport sends him 
^ ,r ne um'ccmes home" which 
ivenpo^t had kept safe for 
fe he sent it to Mrs. Eaton, 
remedy he probably used 
later in his son's pharma- 
It was known as oculi can- 
\nd was ient him by Sir 
Mgby, who thus describes 
subtile powder one ounce 
s (in latin called Oculi 
ien putt upon it in a 
cause of the. ebulli- 
es of strong wine- 
-instantly boyle up 
stand till all be 
,e it through a fine 
; liquor (wch will 
beere : without anv 



sharpenesse) give two spoonefulls att 
a time to drinke, three times a day; 
and you shall see a strange effect in a 
weeke or two." 

Although Winthrop treated agues 
yet I hope he did not employ the fol- 
lowing remedy, also sent him by 
Digby who claims to have had "in- 
fallible successe" with it: 

"Pare the patients nayles when the 
fitt is coming on; and put the par- 
ings into a litle bagge of fine linon 

or sarsenet; and tye that about a 
live eeles neck, in a tubbe of water. 
The eele will dye, and the patient will 
recover. And if a dog or hog eate 
that eele, they will also dye." 

Winthrop's life, which was thus 
devoted so largely to the public weal 
in his capacities as statesman and 
physician, was brought to a close on 
April 5, 1676, but the good which he 
wrought is not forgotten and will be 
ever cherished, even by future gene- 


Honored SR, — I received yours by Mr Roswell, and haue heard noeting from Con- 
necticot since, till Mr Steele and Mr Barnad came last weeke and brought newes of yr 
health, which, a day or two before they came, was otherwise reported heere, that you 
weare sick againe ; but when I had inquired into it, I found noe ground for it (God be 
thanked). Mr. Usher did fully understand my proposition about the reserve for three 
years, which you doubt of in your letter. Here is little newes. Thay are all well at Salem and 
Wenham. I was there about a weeke since. There was a sad accident fell out at Wenham 
about a fortnight since. Mr Higenson went from Salem to preach there on the Sabbath day ; 
and after the evening exercise, he being with severall of this towne at my sisters house, in the 
parler, there being a thunder shower, the lightening brake (as I suppose, haveing veiwed 
the place, the house being somthing damnified) on the top of the chimny, and balls of fire 
came downe into both the lower roomes, and the chamber over the parler, which killed 
one Goodman Goldsmith, as he sat by the chimny in the parler, talking with Mr Higgen- 
son and others, and through Gods mercy hurt noebody els ; only the mans dog. which laye 
under the chayre which he sat in, was killed alsoe. My sister, with all the children, weare 
in the outward kitchen, as providence ordered it. Here came one Jones, of Charlestowne, 
in from Irland, the last night, but brings not newes that I yet here of, but that severall of 
the New England ships bound for Fngland are taken and noe newes that any are arived. 
I enquired of Mr Nicoles about his being cured, who tells a Strang story about the maner 
of it; but all that was done was that his mother tooke the juice of the elder leaves and 
dressed his wounds, or sores, which he had in many parts of his body, and gave him the 
distilled water to drink, about a gill at a time every morning, or halfe a gill, I am not cer- 
taine which, and he was well in a fortnight or 3 weekes, who before dispaired, not only of 
being cured, but of life, alsoe. I am apt to believe that a little quantytye of the juice be- 
ing drunk would be more effectuall then the distilled water. I have not els to ad but my 
duty to yourselfe and love to my sisters and remaine 

Your obedient son 

Boston, June 9th, 1673. Wait Winthrop. 


To the wor his very loving father, John Winthrop, Esq., in Groton. 

Sir, — My duty remembered unto you, I am very sorry to heare that your hande con- 
tinueth so ill, but I hope, by Gods providence, you shall finde helpe by those things I have 
sent you, which I receyved from a woman that is very skilfull, & much sought unto for 
these thinges. She is sister to Mr. Waterhouse the linnen draper in Cheap side, by whose 
meanes, I was brought to her. She told me, if you were at London she made noe doubt 
but to cure it quicly, but because you cannot come up she therefore gave me these plaisters 
to send to you, & said that if it were not gangreened she would warrant them by Gods 
helpe to doe you present good. The use of them is as followeth. Take the yellow plaister, 
as much as will cover your sore finger all over to the next joynt below the sore, and on the 
rest of your finger wheron this plaister doth not lye, lay as muche of the blacke plaister 
as will cover it all over, this must be done twice a day, morning & evening, till it beginneth 
to grow well, then once a day. The other blacke plaister you must lay all over your hand, 
& must not wash it, nor lay any other thing to it. This will draw out the thorne, if any be 
in, & heale it both. She will take nothing for it, & therefore I doe the rather credit hir, 
for she doth it only for freinds, &c. I pray you therefore use it, & leave of any other 
course of surgery. I wish you were here at London where she might dresse it her selfe. 
For newes I cannot write so good as the last; this bearer will fully satisfye you of all pro- 
ceedings, which every day alter & change, some like to be good, by & by crosse againe. 

For my voyage to new England I doe not resolve (especially following my uncle 
Downings advice) except I misse of the Straights, but I will stay till you have sold the 
land though I misse of both: thus with my duty remembered againe to your selfe, with my 
grandmother & mother, & my love to my brothers & sisters & the rest of our freinds, I 
commend you to Gods protection & rest 

Your obedeint Son 

London: April 11, 1628. John Winthrop. 

To his very loving Son, Mr. John Winthrop, at Ipswich, d'd. 

My Good Son, — I received your letter, and heartily rejoice and bless the Lord for 
his merciful providence towards us all, in delivering your wife from so great a danger. 
The Lord make us truly thankful. And I hope it will teach my daughter and other women 
to take heed of putting pins in the mouth, which was never seasonable to be fed with such 
morsels. I can write you no news, only we had letters from Conectacott, when they were 
shut up with snow above a month since, and we at Boston were almost ready to break up 
for want of wood, but that it pleased the Lord to open the bay, (which was so frozen that 
men went over it in all places,) and mitigate the rigor of the season; blessed be his name. 
On Friday was fortnight, a pinnace was cast away upon Long Island by Natascott, and 
Mr. Babbe and others, who were in her, came home upon the ice. We have had one man 
frozen to death, and some have lost their fingers and toes. Seven men were carried out to 
sea in a little, rotten skiff, and kept there twenty-four hours, without food or fire, and at 
last gat to Pullen Point. 

We have appointed the general court the 12 of the 1 month. We shall expect you 
here before the court of assistants. So, with all hearty salutations from myself and your 
mother to yourself and wife, and little Betty, and all our good friends with you, I com- 
mend you to the blessing of the Lord and rest 

Your loving father, Jo: W. 

I send you herein the warrant for Ipswich and Newbury. Commend me to your 
brother and sister Dudley. 

"Xlth, 22, 1637. 



To her most honored nephew, John Winthrop, Esq., this present, Boston. 

Sir, — Wee now expect you stay for 6 boyes, you are gone so longe. Indeed wee 
want your company very sensible. My lady Susan, I hear, is now deliuered, therefore, in 
poynt of good manners, your wife may now presume to be eased of her loade also. If 
occasion be for your longer stay, I pray, Sir, let Georg know I expect him with this bear, 
Msr. Ruke, or the next conuenience; allso my husband desiers to know if you will part 
with some hay that you have; we are in much want ells. I pray your spediest answeer. 

I have experimented the crocus this 2 nights, and found much, though not a totall 
fredom of payne theereby. I pray let me know if I may safely aply it to the mould of 
my head. 

I thank you much for your advise and I pray to my brother also give my many 
thanks, and to all my servis and best wishes, is 


Jan. 29, or Tuesday. (1640-1.) L. D. 

All our newes is out of Eng. I hope you haue it before vs. Wee have put his Grace 
of Canterbury fast in the Tower ; and if our St. Peter keeps the keyes, his grace is like to 
coolie his shins, ere he gets in, this could weather; for we speak only of his confusion and 
unpardonable sins. 


Good Son, — My truest love unto you and all yours in Jesus Christ our dearest Lord. 
These may certifye you that I doe long for your company as much as the teeming earth 
for the rising sun. Let not your wife bee ouerdeiected, for my part I am as deep in my 
obstructions as at Rotterdam. I pray speake to your wife that Mat : Lake and my mayd hope 
may bee with her, and then I believe shee shall have two tolerable servants. My head is 
not well, nor any part at present for I cannot get sleepe. I would you should send me 
word what you will doe therin, but rather come over. Oh how my heart is with you. Yon 
doe not know how much I need friends and helpe. 

Tell my dear friend your sister Symonds that I am as low as ever, & wish I knew 
how to see her. Thus in much hast & perplexity I take leave & am yours ever, 

Salem ult. Sept. Hu. Peter. 

ffor John Winthrop, Jun., Esq., with a (t)oken in paper. 

Deere Sir, — I feare you are angry because you doe not heare from mee, nor I from 
you. I have by Mr. Gott ordered you what I have in New England (a line effaced) word 
I ever loved you and yours, and am truly sensible of all your cares. Nothing under 
heaven hath more troubled mee then that you had not my company into New England 
with you. I have sent you by this bearer a loade stone which I pray keepe for mee if I 
come, if not it is yours. Oh that I were (a line effaced) my old malady & the spleene, & 
never had hart or tyme to attend any cure, that now I give my life gone: & shall out live 
my parts I feare. My hart is with my God & desire after him in whom I am 

Yours ever 

30 of April 49. Hu: Peter. 


To his much honoured ffrind, Jno. Winthrop, Esq. att his house in Pequott, these bee d'd. 

Sir, — I received the powder you last sent, together with your kind token, a fatt 
goate, for which I retorne harty thankes. Thus it pleases you still to lade mee with your 
kindness, myselfe too short and awanting for requitall. If this Irish woman is come upp 
to you (yourselfe befor being supplied) I pray you let her by the first opportunity bee con- 
veied to us, for I did soe order it, hoping to have pleasured, not to burthen you. Mr. 
Eaton writt lately to Captaine Cullicke that the English have had another fight at sea with 
the Hollander (besides what we had formerly) & have obteined another glorious victory 
over them. Thus it pleases God to goe out with our Nation to vindicate our iust quarrel. 
Your youngest sonne, (Mr. Waite) hath bine somewhat ill of late complaininge of a paine 
in his belly, & withall lookes somewhat heavy eyed, not soe ready to stir upp and downe 
as formerly, yett keepes not his bedd, but rises dayly, & seemes for the most parte to have 
a pretty good stomache to his meate ; only wee judge it best, for the while, that hee keepe 
his chamber. We gave him wormseed (as supposing it might bee wormes, by reason this 
time of yeare for fruite, & youth will hardly be restreined wher ther is plenty), I thinke, 
uppon it Mr. Ffitch said hee voided some wormes, but in regard the paine in his belly fol- 
lowed him still at times, we gave him Cardis, (?) & that, wee hope, did him somme good. 
This daye wee thinke to give him two graines and a haulfe of your powder, in case he still 
remains ill. Wee conceive yourselfe would doe the like if you were present, & somme of 
us have bine ill much in like manner, & these thinges were present helpe to them (the 
Lord blessinge the meanes) which caused us thus to act. Mr. Ffitch would doe nothing 
without my advice & concurrence with him, and my skill is little or nothinge, only I did 
as for my owne, & would in truth (in your absence) take the like naturall care, if in my 
power to doe ought that ways. I hope there is not the least danndger, yett I could not but 
acquaint you with it, because it may please God to direct you to advise for the best, & to 
send something usefull for him in that case. 

My wife continues much as formerly; she took the yellow powder twise, & only 
vomited it up againe, & it wrought noe other or more ; alsoe, since J. Gallop was heere, 
she tooke the working powder, 2 graines, but it wrought not at all, insomuch that she at 
times is sicke at her stomache ; yet her appetite better than formerly. 

I have not further to imparte att present, only our respects to yourselfe & Mrs. 
Winthrop, with our consideration to Mrs. Lake, (and) Mr. Blinmah, rest 

Your assured loving ffrind, 

Hartfd. this 14th of the 6th mo: 1653 Jo: Haynes: 

Your sonne became ill uppon Thursday last weeke, & soe hath continewed at times 
ever since. 

To his very loving brother, John Winthrop, of Salem, Esq., this Salem. 

Good Brother,— Having this opportunity, I thought good to let you understand 
God's providence towards us: my daughter Epps, upon the 22th of this instant, was 
delivered of a sonne ; & thanks be to God, both mother and sonne are comfortably well. 
We would gladly know what day you will agree upon to bring my sister, that accordingly 
we may send you a horse to the water side. I thank God my wife hath bene better in 
respect of the paine in the stomach this weeke than formerly ; good wine (as you say) is 
the best cordial for her. 

I ha^e endeavoured this day to sett that businesse Cosen Downing wrote me about, 
on foote, here. I wish earnestly it may be attended, &c My wife desireth thanks to be 
returned to my sister for her token. Thus with our love to you both & yours, & to my 
Cosen Downing & his, I rest 

Your ever loving brother 

Ipswich, 24th 12th 1647. Samuel Symonds. 



To the rigt Worshipfull John Winthrop, Esqr., Deputy Governour, this present. 


Deare Brother, — I gladly imbraced this oportunity to salute you with these few 
lines. My cosens (all three) were in health, & as merry as very good cheere & Ipswich 
trends could make them, on sixt day last; witness my wife, sister Lake; Sam: M: R: 
Mris Rogers, 3 of her sonnes, besides her sonne Hubbard & his, my sonne Epps & his, &c. 
We see nothing but matter of hopefulness & incouragment concerning my cosens new con- 
dicion. He carrieth himself soe that he gaineth more love & respect, amongst such as 
know him. 

We hope they will live comfortably together, & that both you & we shall have cause 
to bless God in their behalf. We desire my cosens to be with vs this winter as much as 
they can. My wife spoke to her. We think she may affourd vs her company now better 
than afterward. My daughter M: desires to be excused in not returning an answer to your 
loving letter at this tyme. She hath received ycur phizich for which she humbly thanks 
you. Neither she nor her sister R: have had them since you were here. They did follow 
your direccions. Thus presenting our love & kinde respects to yourself, my sister, & all 
my cosens, I commend you, to the direccion & proteccion of our blessed Saviour & we rest, 

Your loving brother, 

Samuel Symonds. 

My wife desires to be remembered to my cosen Waite & would entreat him to studdy 
hard: but above all to feare God & keep his commands. 

Argilla, obr 29th 1658. 

To my honored brother, Jo : Winthrop, Esqr. , these present, att Pequod or elsewhere in 

New England. 

Deare & Honored Brother, — I received yrs, & thanck you most kindly for it. It 
was much refreshing to me, though it repeated a great matter of sadness to me, even the 
losse of my deare brother, wth whom I was brought upp so constantly; but I know the 
Lord sitts in heaven, & doth whatever he will, & we must submit to his pleasure. I should 
have writte unto you before, but yt I knew not when the shipps went. Jo: Tinker promised 
to call on me but failed me. I have sent a letter of attorny over to you. I am bould to 
put in your name yt the others may the better take yor advice, though I should not put 
the trouble of the busness upp you. Truly I doe valew what I have there ; for, could I be 
assured of toy health, I thinck I should come away imediately, for I have no health heare, 
& I have been this two years extreamly troubled wth the zeatica, & I am just now goeing 
to the bath to see if yt may remedy it. My much lying in ye wet feilds uppon the grownd 
hath brought it uppon me, as it has uppon many others. It makes my life very uncom- 
fortable. For newes wht should I write to you ? Every passinger will be able to tell you 
the latest. At present the warres betweene the Dutch & we contynue, though we have 
twice this somere beaten theire maine fleet, consisting off 120 of theire best men of warre; 
and at last blocked them upp in theire harbors for severall weekes, though we heare b. 
reports they are gott out againe, & we expect a new engagement. 

The Dutch embassidors are yet heere ; but there is no likelihood af any agreemt. 
We demand three causionary townes of them, ye Brill, Flushing, & Middleborowe, & 
400,0001 sattisfaccon. They are not yet lowe enough to give it, and so ye case stands. Or 
own state is not setled; or doubtes & feares many. All the comfort is, ye Lord is able to 
doe his owne worke and finnish it. Mine and my wife humble respects to you & or good 
sister, & love to all or nephewes and necces I pray present; & be confident 

I am, sir, 

Yor most aff ectionat brother & servant, 

Kensington, 2 Augt. '53, S. Winthrop. 

Just now a messinger is come from ye fleet, & brings letters yt say ye two fleets 
have been eingaged three dayes, & now the Dut(c)h are flying & or persueing, & y t already 
we have taken & sunck fortye of there best men of warre. This is thought will putt an 
end to theire warre & make them submitt. 

NOTE— The letter of Hugh Peter to John Winthrop on page 39 should be dated April 30, 1649 



For her much honerd nephew, Jhon Winthrop, esq., thes. New Eng. 

Dear Child, — In my other leter I have bin so larg as prevents a seale, yet not satis- 
fied my self: as to my bodily distempers, which is a great weakness in my back, which was 
first ocasioned by a grat fall of my hors in new Eng. behinde Collonel Read, and the 2 last 
years I was in Hatly, I had in each of them, 2 daungerous falls, one up stakes and one 
down staires, which did much bruise that tender parte againe, and had not a devine hand 
bin under had bin present death, and still allthought I have not usuallie I have not much 
payn there, yet am much disabled in my legds for goeing, especially in could weather or 
any could taken, yet I constantly wear some plaster upon it. And my hearing hath much 
declined this 3 years last, for the help of which I did advise with a Cambrigh docter, a 
very able experunced doter before J came to Londan, and he tould me I must expect my age 
to be a great meanes thereof ; and that he feared that the more I did tamper with my eares 
the wors it might be for me; and soe a dockter I did advise with hear tould me the like; 
and my ould acquaintance in Londan being all gone I am not willing to a further Tiazerd 
of my eares and my mony allso for nothing. And in Sep. last I was taken with a great 
giddiness in my head, and a great noise in my ears, and sickness in my stomach, and a 
generall distemper all over me, soe as I was forced presently into my bed; it would take 
me a moment without any warning, and then I should presently sleep and then for a day 
or 2 after tacke onelie mace alle whould down with me. But I thank God I have not had 
any of that distemper this year, now of the noise in my ears, which I suppose may be be- 
cause I now keepe my ears warmer ; and since I have had that freedom I thanck God my 
stomach is much better. And in respect your sister Peters is now forced for her present 
profit to confine herself to a small part of her hous, and I am necessitated by my weakness 
to keep a servant to help me, I found it more to my profit ; since I must give 7 pound a 
year for my chamber and furnish it myself, and find myself cooles and candilles and was- 
ing, and to pay for our boards with her besides, for now allthought I may feare the harder, 
yet I can take my owne time, for want of which I formerly sufferd, and now I an less 
troublesome to her. But I am now att ten pound a year for my chamber and 3 pound for 
my servants wages, and have to extend the other tene pound a year to acomadat for our 
meat and drinck ; and for my clothing and all other necessaries I am much to sake, and 
more your brother Georg will not hear of for me ; and that it is onely couetousness that 
maks me aske more. He last sumer bought another town near Hatly, called Clappum, 
cost him 13 or 14 thousand pound, and I really believe one of us 2 are couetons. Cooles 
have ben this winter at fiftie shill and 3 pound a chaldron, and wheat at ten shills a bush, 
and all other things sutible thereunto. The good Lord helpe me to live by fayth, and not 
by sence, whilst he pleas to aff orde me a life in this world. And this is the onlie cause of 
my soe much urgentie in the former leter for supply from what I have there, if it may soe 
be. If my nephew Winthrop comes into the Bay this summer I pray show him this leter, 
with my servis to him and his: and I am very sory for his loss: and tell him I find a deed 
of Groton for my life, wherin himself and his brother Adam Winthrop are feffees in trust 
for me, and after me to my son Georg, but whilst I live it inables me to charge what por- 
tions apon it I pleas, to be payd therout after my death unto any of our younger children. 
In witness therof is my husbands hand and seale the 23 of June 1644, and sealed, 
delivered, and acknowlegd befor me, John Winthrop, D. G., and I suppose my brother was 
that year deputie Governer. And my nephew Adam tould me it was enroulled at Boston. 
And if soe, heare I know it can doe me, nor mine, noe good. I took advise of a frind that 
tells me the coutrary, but I would know of my nephew if by that privilegd for my child- 
ren, I being in want, I can make any advantage of it for myself whilst I live, and after me 
for my daughter Peters, whoe never yet had any portion, and to her I am suer it will not be 
offensive to my son Georg, whilst the principall remains to him, it being his patrimonie. 
I pray, daughter, let none see this, but my nephew Winthrop and your self, and to that 
purpose I will seale it and superscrib it to him to prevent mistake. 

Your very loveing mother, 
Apr. the 17 74 Gardner laine. L. D. 


trials in early Justice £ourt$ in Connecticut 




Pastor of the Congregational Church at Middle Haddam, Connecticut 

THE official doings of a Justice 
of the Peace in Connecticut 
in Revolutionary times is 
not without its points of in- 
terest and instruction. The book 
from which these records are taken 
belonged first to Justice Jabez 
Brainerd of Haddam, his records 
covering the years 17 73-1 7 75. 
Afterwards his son-in-law, Joseph 
Dart of Middle Haddam (town of 
Chatham), came into possession of 
the book — and he, with a very 
proper sense of economy, used the 
remaining blank pages to continue 
the story (with variations) which 
his father-in-law had so well begun. 
In turning the pages of this 
ancient record it is assumed that 
whenever the name of a long-for- 
gotten ancestor of the living reader 
comes into view, said reader will 
not be without a saving sense of 
humor and appreciation of the origi- 
nal and independent way of doing 
things exhibited by his great-great- 
great uncle in ye olden time. 

There is no doubt that in those 
days considerable indulgence was 
shown the steady drinker, but, if 
he allowed himself to be carried by 
the enthusiasm of his calling beyond 
a certain point, some unfavorable 
comment was usually forthcoming. 
One of the first records concerns 

one Ben'mB , who in June, 1773, 

was sternly required to confess a 
judgment against himself of "8 
shillings fine for the sin of drunk- 
ness and one shilling cost." A con- 

fession that Benjamin was persuaded 
to repeat in December of the same 
year. Ready enough was Benjamin 
to confess but rather slow to pay up. 
We do not find his account adorned 
with the words "paid for," which is 
the encouraging foot note to the ac- 
count of Abijah B , Jr., who en- 
countered a six shilling judgment 
the same year. 

The breach of the Sabbath was 
regarded as a more serious offense, 
it would appear, than "profane curs- 
ing and swairing," or even the "sin 
of drunkness"; for it brought a fine 
of ten shillings and one shilling cost 
to Hezekiah B — — of Middletown, 
in June, 1774. An offense and fine 
quickly repeated in the case of one 

Noadiah B , who should have 

profited more by Hezekiah's expe- 
rience — a thing, however, that man 
seldom does. 

The same fruitful year also handed 
out a judgment of three shillings 
(paid) to one of the young B s for 

'playing at meeting." The B 

horizon, it is true, had its gloomy 
aspects — yet hope dies hard — and it 

was Jacob B- who conceived the 

brilliant idea of himself turning 
prosecutor. A neighbor was sum- 
moned to court to answer to a book 
account which Jacob triumphantly 
produced. His demand was only 
"twelve shillings Lawful money said 
to be Due by Book." 

"The parties appeared," pains- 
takingly records Justice Brainerd, 
"and ware at Issue on the plea of 



owe nothing and ware fully Heard 
with there Evedances. In the Case 

and this Court is of opinion 

that the Def'd Doth not ow the 
plaintiff in manner and forme as set 
forth in His Dicklaration and that 
the said Defendant shall Recover of 
the plantiff His cost taxed at ^"o, 

But other equally adventurous 
spirits were abroad. Samuel Scovil 
was constable in Haddam in those 
days, and that meant something to 
Sabbath day travelers, though they 
seldom comprehended it in time. 
And be it also remarked Samuel 
Brooks was "one of the Grand jurors 
of our Sovereign the King." The 
two Samuels were an industrious 
pair — as three gentlemen from Mid- 
dletown discovered when appre- 
hended and fined five shillings apiece 
(Feb. 20, 1775), "for travilng on the 
Sabbath Day." 

And it was just a week later that 
the watchful Samuel persuaded 
Charles Wright "of the provence 
and city of New York" to delay his 
journey long enough to deposit $s 
Lawful money and 2s charges for 
the benefit and use of the town 

A very nice way of discharging a 
debt, when there was nothing to pay 
with — one of the common sense ar- 
rangements of ye olden time not 
without merit if it could be evoked 
by present day creditors — was that 
followed by "Joseph towner" of 
Haddam, in September, 1773. He 
held the note of "John Smith tailler, 
a transhant person," for "three 
pound eight shillings Lawfull 
money." The Def'd being unable 
to discharge the debt, having no 
money lawful or otherwise, was as- 
signed "in Servis to the said Joseph 
towner the terme of one year and 
six month." One only wonders 
what John Smith " tailler's" earning 
capacity was under favorable cir- 
cumstances if it took 18 months of 
steady labor to pay a debt of $£, 8s. 

One of Haddam's established in- 

stitutions that never attained any 
very wide popularity and for whose 
vacant places there was never any 
very brisk competition — was the 

December 21, 1773, the case of 
Elisha C , Jr., was under inves- 
tigation. It would appear that some 
four months before the above date 
Elisha had been rather over enthu- 
siastic in a celebration of some sort, 
and at last "two of the Grand 
Juriors of our Soverign Lord the 
King," viz., "Charles sears and 
Abraham tyler" got busy in the 
matter. It was charged that Elisha 
was seen " Between His own House 
and the meeting House in s'd Had- 
dam much Bereveed and Disinabled 
In the use of his Reason and Under- 
standing appearing in his speech 
and Jestures and Behavior." 

"Not Gilty," was Elisha's plea. 

But when the "evidance for the 
King ware swore and gave in there 
evidences," the Court said "Gilty." 
Whereupon the following choice was 
given Elisha: "To pay a fine of 
Eight Shilling Lawfull money to Be 
for the use and Benefit of the Town 
of Haddam, or "to set in the Stocks 
one hour." 

An hour to be sure was only 60 
minutes, and to sit still for 60 min- 
utes was not a difficult feat; but for 
collateral reasons no doubt, it was 
not to Elisha's liking, so we have 
this simple foot note — "the fine and 
cost paid." 

In May, 1774 one Amos D of 

"Dirham" was investigated. It was 
said that he did "swair Rashly and 
vainly By the Holy name of God on 
the 18 Day of April Last pas in the 
Highway near the Dwelling house of 
Jabez Brainerd in Haddam." On 
being adjudged "Gilty," he also is 
given a choice: A six shilling fine or 
a seat in the stocks for one hour and 
a half. History fails to reveal the 
choice that Amos made, but no 
doubt the state of his exchequer was 
a determining factor. 

One thing to be noted in the case 


of a not guilty verdict is that such a 
verdict did not always bring the 
comfort that was supposed to go 
with it. There is the case of Capt'n 
Abner P . 

In January, 1775 he was living in 
Waterbury, having removed from 
Haddam in September of the previ- 
ous year. 

In December, 1774, three of the 
King's Grand Jurors in Haddam — 
Dan'll Ventross, Ezera Tyler and 
Josiah Huntington — issued an " In- 
formation" against the Captain. 
Being much longed for and sent for 
the accommodating Captain con- 
sented to return to Haddam for a 
short time in January. It was 
averred that in the previous Septem- 
ber he "Did swair Rashly, vainly 
and profainly in his then Dwelling 
House in s'd Haddam." The ver- 
dict was that "the said p is not 

Gilty In manner and forme as set 
forth in s'd Deceleration and there- 
fore may be Dismissed He paying 
the cost taxed at £1, 2s, 3d." 

Perhaps the accommodating Cap- 
tain regretted that he had not sworn 
rashly and vainly as charged. Per- 
haps he took an early opportunity 
to experiment in that line. But of 
one thing we may be sure his long- 
ings to return to old Haddam and 
end his days there was over. 

This was Jan. 10, That same 
night the Captain, in honor of his 
temporary sojourn in Haddam — and 
perhaps, in celebration of his rather 
doubtful victory in court — got up a 
little tea party. A fair assumption, 
as we have it recorded that he at- 
tended Court next day and confessed 
a judgment against himself for the 
"sin of Intemperance." Having 
thus behaved in a fairly generous 
way toward the town treasury the 
Captain with a clear conscience re- 
tired to his country seat in Water- 
bury, and the presumption is that 
very little Haddam dust was found 
clinging to his feet when he took his 

And so the record runs. But it 

was not all fining and granting exe- 
cutions — there was an occasional 
brighter side. Witness the follow- 
ing records copied verbatum : 

"April the 28 1774 then William 
Michel of Middletown was married 
to Jerusha towner of Haddam 
By me 
J. B. Justice of peace." 
"November the 10 1774 then 
Elijah atwood was married to his 
wife Mary 

By me J. B." 

"March 23, 1777 then Ebenzer 
Wyllys was married to his wife 
Jemima By me J. B. " 

In turning to Squire Dart's records 
(beginning in 1780) we find that a 
large volume of business was done — 
of considerable variety too — but the 
bulk of it had to do with book ac- 
counts and overdue notes. Occa- 
sionally, however, a matter presents 
itself that has its special points of 
interest. For example, I have been 
much interested in noting the vigor 
and efficiency with which the law of 
the Colony was evoked to meet the 
needs of the "transient person." 

Two such gentlemen, Smer and 
Tedeo by name, had some midnight 
dealings with one Ebenezer Rowley 
in 1783. Ebenezer, it appears, was 
not well pleased with some of the 
attendant circumstances of the affair. 
Next morning he caused a writing 
to be made — commonly known as a 
writ — in which Messrs. Smer and 
Tedeo were charged with taking 
from s'd Rowley on the Night after 
the 21st of Inst July 4 Good linen 
shifts two Good linnen shirts up- 
wards of 10 yards of Good tow cloth 
a linnen Gown 2 table cloths 2 lawn 
aprons and sundry other articles all 
to the Damage of the plantif Two 
Pounds Lawful money." 

The sentence was that each be 
"whipt on the Naked body with a 
suitable whip at sum post Five 
Lashes and be further punished by 
paying a fine of $s L m for the use 


of s'd Town and pay s'd Rowley 
2^:os:od lawful money Damages 
and the cost of piosecution taxed at 
2 :3 :i and stand comited till s'd Judg- 
ment is answrd." 

4 'Comited" they both were; but 
later Ebenezer, standing in need of 
an extra hand or two, and perceiving 
that there was a surer way of secur- 
ing his own share of the proceeds, 
decides to take the two faithful 
friends and co-laborers into his ser- 
vice — for a period of time of gener- 
ous dimensions. 

Yet we ought not to think that 
Justice Dart showed partiality in the 
bestowal of his favors upon tran- 
sient persons. For in 1785 two resi- 
dents of the town, Lemuel R 

and Sarah E were jointly in- 
volved in a small adventurous affair 
with "two swine." Selah Jackson, 
the owner of the swine, said right 
out that it was a plain case of steal- 
ing. The court adopted Selah's 
view of the affair, and the antidote 
was that, after the usual several 
shillings benefit to the town treasury 
had been provided for, Lemuel 
should be "tied to a tre or post and 
whipt with a suitable whip on the 
Naked Body 8 Lashes," and Sarah 
ditto— "5 Lashes." 

I suspect from other records that 
in the case of Lemuel and Sarah 
Squire Dart had good reasons for 
adopting heroic measures. His pre- 
scription is comparatively mild in a 
case occurring five days later. Capt. 
Israel Higgins, having missed "3 
steel Horse Shoes," undertook to 
show that he was damaged to the 
amount of 18 shillings. The Captain 
won his "sute," but the damage was 
placed at only one shilling, and an 
execution had to be granted to 
secure that, and there is no mention 
of a "sutible tre or post." 

The writer, having made a num- 
ber of inquiries regarding the fact 
and location of a training field in 
Middle Haddam, was pleased to find 
mention made of such a field in 
Squire Dart's narrative, though not 

altogether delighted with the cir- 
cumstances under which that his- 
toric spot was referred to. Three of 
the several items are concerned with 
happenings at the field on Thursday 
the 30th day of October, 1783, which 
appears to have been an eventful 
day in Middle Haddam military cir- 
cles. Something went wrong, was 
misplaced, or carelessly handled, or, 
at any rate, not sufficiently lubri- 
cated. For the next day Oliver 
A was handed out two Judg- 
ments; one for "prophane Cursing 
and swairing at the Training Field 
at middle haddam," the other for 
"striking Corp'l Ithamor Rowley in 
the traning field in middle haddam." 
The fine in each case was six shill- 
ings and one shilling cost of Entry. 
A point in Oliver's favor is that he 
voluntarily came to court and con- 
fessed. A point not in Oliver's favor 
is that the year following the judg- 
ment was still unsatisfied and Oliver 
still warding off the fatal day of 
payment by giving two notes of 
seven shillings each. 

But the Oct. 30, 1783 returns were 
not yet all in. For July 19, 1784 we 

find Nathaniel S going to Squire 

Dart's confessional and recalling 
some things he fain would have for- 
gotten—for example, a small matter 
of " prophane cursing and swairing 
at middle haddam Train field " on 
Oct. 30 of the previous year. Seven 
shillings is the price for having his 
memory jogged. Nathaniel meets 
this unexpected requisition by giv- 
ing his note for that amount. 

Our ancestors were to a consider- 
able degree human, and while we 
like to think of them as solemnly 
going through this military business 
to be ever in readiness to meet their 
country's enemies — we must not lose 
sight of the fact that they also most 
generally had an eye open for an oc- 
casional enemy near at hand. For 

example, Ashbul A felt a strong 

call of duty in that direction dur- 
ing, or it may have been just after, 
the military maneuvers of the 1785 


October training. For at the next 
session of Squire Dart's Court he 
cheerfully confessed and actually- 
paid his seven shillings down for the 
great freedom of speech he had tem- 
porarily enjoyed on the last great 
day at the Middle Haddam training 

It may be appropriately mentioned 
here that a large quantity of "State's 
powder was stored in Chatham in 

I 7 8 3- James R was in difficulty 

that same year because some of the 
powder was missing, and one cask 
was found by "Insn" (Ensign?) Jede- 

diah Hubard near James R 's 

abode. The case went to the County 
Court at Hartford under a bond of 
100 pounds. 

Some notice may also be taken of 
several attempts to check what was 
known as illicit trade — that had to 
do with embargoed goods. 

In 1780 "mr. william Bevins " is 
granted a warrant to "seize a whale 
boat from Long Island in the Eliset 
trade." - 

Nov. 7 of the same year Capt. 
Joshua Griffith complains of a 
schooner "Speedwell," Obed Barlo, 
master, "in Eliset or embarguered 
trade" — also of a sloop of 20 tons, 
Amos Wright, master, with "prohe- 
bated articles." A few days later 
Mr. Bevins complains of the sloop 
"Cumberland" of 30 tons, Thomas 
Lewis, master, "Laden with embar- 
goed articles to be conveyed out of 
the county." 

A case that greatly interested the 
writer when he came upon the rec- 
ord was one that came to trial April 
4, 1786, in which Zepheniah Michel 
of Chatham was plaintiff and "Isreal 
Putnam of Pomphret and county of 
Windham, Def'd." It was an "action 
of Book Demanding the sum of ^4." 
We hardly know whether to praise 
or censure citizen Michel's pushing 
spirit in this matter. 

The General was, if anything, 
rather less enthusiastic than Zephe- 
niah in the matter. When he at 
last arrived in town he declared that 

he "owed nothing." But the "evi- 
dences" were as usual resorted to, 
and the famous wolf hunter and 
Revolutionary fighter yielded at last 
to the persuasive "Opinion" pro- 
nounced by Squire Dart in his very 
best style. The sum granted 
Zepheniah, however, was but £2. 
The additional charges were : 

'Writ and Duty, - 
Oficers fees, ... 
Plaintifs travl and tendance, 
Cort fee, ... - 

£ s d 
o: 2: 6 
0:12: 1 
o: 2: 4 
o: 3: o 

0:19:11 " 

Chatham likewise had its own way 
of treating certain worldly diseases. 
For example, May 7, 1781, Elijah 
J and Stephen G were ad- 
monished that the little game of 
cards which they had enjoyed at a 
neighbor's house would cost them 10 
shillings each. The bill was paid, 
but whether the cards were hence- 
forth eschewed we have no means of 
knowing. However, it is in such 
items that we catch a glimpse of the 
stern conception of duty under 
which our forefathers labored in 
building the social fabric of their 

Speaking of the records in general 
it seems a little strange that where 
the "Cort fee" was only a shilling, 
or seldom more than two, and the 
other charges relatively small, not 
infrequently a note would be given 
for the total amount. The words 
"paid for" or "Judgment satisfied" 
are, if anything, of rather rare oc- 
currence. After one trial was over 
Justice Dart added to the record the 
words " Nothing paid," as though he 
were a little bit discouraged with 
that sort of court business. Most 
commonly he writes, "Execution 
granted," and a few months later 
adds, "An alias execution granted," 
and then perhaps the following year, 
"Execution removed." Sometimes 
the account is thus carried forward 
over a period of several years, and 
at the last "no cash " in sight. 


The "Savannah, 1 ' under the courageous Captain Moses Rogers of New London, 
Connecticut, sailed from Savannah, Georgia, on May 22, 1819, and arrived in 
Liverpool, England, on June 20th, making the run in 29 days and n hours— 
From corrected drawing by C. B. Hudson, made under the direction of Captain 
J. W. Collins, of the United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries in 1889 
and officially incorporated in the Report of the National Museum in 1890 


first Steamships to Cross tbe Atlantic Ocean 




Author of Seven Articles on the Pioneer Men and Inventions Upon which has been 

Built the Great Trade of the Nations which Last Year Exchanged 

Goods Valued at about Twenty-five Billion Dollars 

"We use nor Helm nor Helmsman. O i r 

tall ships 
Have Souls, and plow with Reason up the 

deeps ; 
All cities, Countries know, and where they 

Through billows glide, veiled in obscuring 

Nor fear they Rocks, nor Dangers on the 


IN these words from the "Odyssey," 
as found in Ogilby's edition, one 
finds the story foretold of the 
steam engine as employed upon 
the sea. How strange and hardly pos- 
sible it seems that the whole story of 
steam in ocean navigation, when it 
had become reality, not prophecy, may- 
be culled from the memory of 
one man's life. I was talking not long 
ago with a man who remembered 
the sailing of the "Savannah" under 
the courageous Captain Moses 
Rogers, of New London, Connecti- 
cut, a daring seaman, who in 1819 
went from Savannah, Georgia, to 
Liverpool, England, and thence to St. 
Petersburg, Russia, and back to Sa- 
vannah — the first steam voyage 
across the Atlantic Ocean. A few 
days ago I looked upon the "log" of 
that famous trip, with the silver tea- 
kettle that was presented by Lord 
Lyndenhurst to the intrepid captain, 
which may now be seen in the Na-' 
tional Museum at Washington. In 
my second article in the Connecti- 
cut Magazine I gave extracts from 

this historic "log" and described the 

The "Savannah" was of about 
three hundred tons burden, clipper 
built and full ship-rigged. She was 
propelled by one inclined engine, not 
unlike those now in use, with a cylin- 
der forty inches in diameter and a pis- 
ton stroke of six feet. The boiler 
carried a steam pressure of only 
twenty pounds. Her paddles were 
of wrought iron with only one flange 
and were entirely uncovered, though 
it is probable that a canvas wheel- 
house was made to cover them soon 
after the voyage begun. These 
wheels were so attached to the shaft 
that their removal and shipment on 
deck could be accomplished in fifteen 
or twenty minutes. There were two 
fine "cabins for passengers, both hand- 
somely furnished, and the thirty-two 
berths were in state-rooms that were 
provided with all the comforts and 
conveniences then demanded. But 
the "Savannah" was not property a 
steam-ship. She was an "auxiliary 
clipper" and used her engine only a 
part of the time. On the voyage to 
Liverpool the engine was used for 
eighty hours, and on the thirty-three 
days' run to Petersburg the engine 
was used for about two hundred and 
thirty-nine hours or nearly ten days. 

After returning home the "Savan- 
nah" was once more turned into a 



sailing vessel and put upon the old run 
between New York and the city for 
which she had been named. On the 
fifth of November, 182 1, while under 
the command of Captain Holdridge, 
she was driven onto Great South 
Beach, opposite Moriches, on the 
south shore of Long Island, and be- 
came a total loss. Her machinery, 
which had been removed, was bought 
by James Allaire who exhibited the 
cylinder at the fair in the Crystal Pal- 
ace, New York, in 1856. 

The "Savannah" was not built for 
a steamship and entries in the "log"' 
record the many times when the 
wheels were "shipped" and the boat 
depended upon its sails. This has led 
our British cousins to claim for them- 
selves the honors of having first intro- 
duced steam navigation on the high 
seas. They quote the record of the 
''Royal William," built at Cape Blanc 
near Quebec, in 183 1 to run to Hali- 
fax, in sailing from Quebec in 1833, 
"under steam for the port of Lon- 
don," as a refutation of all our claims. 

During my college days at Evan- 
ston, Illinois, I met and frequently 
talked with James Goudie, builder of 
the "Royal William." He told me of 
those earliest attempts to master the 
terrors of the deep. I here state em- 
phatically that nothing more came out 
of the voyage of the British "Royal 
William" than had come from the 
achievement of the American "Sa- 
vannah" fourteen years earlier, and 
the real genesis of steam navigation, 
so far as it pertains to the ocean, must 
be set down for the year 1838 when 
Junius Smith, a Connecticut Yankee, 
succeeded in interesting English cap- 
ital in a project for building a line 
of steamships for ocean service. 

The pioneer ocean steamship pro- 
moter, Junius Smith, was born at 
Plymouth, Connecticut, October 2, 
1780, and studied law at Yak. For 
some years after his graduation he 
practiced before the bar of New Ha- 
ven County, Connecticut, but later he 
turned his attention to commerce. 
While on a voyage from Liverpool to 

New York, where he then had his 
home, he thought of the immense ben- 
efits to be gotten from the use of 
steam upon ocean vessels. John 
Fitch had foreseen it. Others had 
thought of it, but with Junius Smith 
it became more than thought. He 
was the son of General David Smith 
who was born in Lebanon, near Nor- 
wich, Connecticut, December 2, 1747 
(O. S.), and his mother was Ruth 
Hitchcock Smith, of Suffield, who 
was born March 4, 1750 (O. S.). He 
died at Astoria, New York, January 
2 3> I 853, and shortly after his death 
there was brought to light a letter that 
he had written to Cyrus W. Field 
relative to the laying of the Atlantic 
cable and setting out in detail his 
earliest experiences in trying to inter- 
est men of means in the question of 
steamships for the ocean. None of 
the New York merchants would have 
anything to do with the chimerical 
scheme and in 1833 he turned to one 
of the directors of the London and 
Edinborough Steam Navigation Com- 
pany whose vessels were the largest 
then afloat. He received no encour- 
agement from this quarter — the prop- 
osition of trans-oceanic steam com- 
merce seemed too visionary for those 
practical men. Smith then tried to 
charter a ship to open a line under his 
own name but no one could be found 
who cared to risk a boat for such a 
foolhardy undertaking. In 1835 he 
published a prospectus of a joint-stock 
"Steam Navigation Company" but no 
one would buy a share. 

Those who did not ridicule and op- 
pose every step of the undertaking 
stood suspiciously aloof and refused 
to give countenance or support to the 
project. When an audience was 
sought with the Duke of Wellington, 
he replied through his field-marshal: 

"The Duke of Wellington presents his 
compliments to Mr. Smith. The 
Duke has no leisure to receive the 
visits of gentlemen who have schemes 
in contemplation for the alteration of 
the public establishments." 



To show the intellectual grasp that 
this pioneer, who advocated doing 
away with masts and spars entirely 
for steamships, one has only to read 
ihis letters in 1838 to Professor Ben- 
jamin Silliman, of Yale, who opposed 
his views and almost implied that he 
was crazy. One letter reads as fol- 

"The United States of America, stretch- 
ing around half a continent with a sea- 
coast scooped into numberless bays, har- 
bours and inlets, with a government bear- 
ing rule over a people almost too inde- 
pendent to submit to any, urged on by am- 
bition, vain of their acquirements and 
proud of their country, is nevertheless 
slumbering in dangerous security. To 
such a people the powet of steam, as a 
means of national defence, is of incalcula- 
ble value. But do they perceive it, or will 
they slumber on until their cities, towns 
and villages are battered about their ears? 
Do they think that the golden images of 
successful avarice set up in every part of 
the country are no temptation to the dar- 
ing buccaneer? and do they not perceive 
that unless the means of protection corre- 
spond with the growth of the thing to be 
protected, the probability is that all may be 

Nothing daunted, Smith steadily 
kept at the matter until he had the ear 
of someone unafraid of new things 
and a company was organized of men 
who dared to follow where someone 
more daring had opened the way. 
Contracts were let and the building of 
boats really begun. But before the 
first boat was ready for delivery an 
opposition company had sprung up 
and a date of sailing was announced. 
Not to be cheated out of the reward 
of their labors the original company 
organized by Smith chartered the 
"Sirius" which was running between 
London, England, and Cork, Ireland. 

The "Sirius" was one hundred and 
seventy-eight feet long, twenty-five 
and a half feet wide, and eighteen 
and a quarter feet deep. She meas- 
ured seven hundred and three tons. 
On the scales one "Sirius" would 
have more than balanced four "Cler- 
monts" and in a tug-of-war the Eng- 
lish boat would have been more than 

a match for thirty boats of the Fulton 
make, but judged by the standards of 
to-day, what an insignificant thing 
was the "Sirius." She was built by 
Menzies, of Leith, and engined by 
Wingate & Company of Whiteinch, 
near Glasgow, Scotland. Her pad- 
dle-wheels were twenty-four feet in 
diameter, and were turned by a 
side-lever engine with a five-foot 
cylinder and a six-foot stroke. It is 
an error to say that the "Sirius" 
steamed from London to New York 
in eighteen and a half days. She re- 
coaled at Cork and sailed thence on 
April 14, 1838, and was eighteen 
days on the trip. She came into New 
York at ten o'clock at night, April 22, 
1838, having been caught on a mud- 
bank as she came into the harbor 
where she was held till the rising of 
the tide. 

She had been moored to the wharf 
only a few hours before the whole 
town had heard of the arrival of "a 
wonderful thing that steamed across 
the ocean and tied up to Jones's 
Wharf." The sailors of the water- 
front lighted great bonfires and min- 
gled with the crowds that gathered 
to stand and stare at the prodigy, and 
the next day the papers were full of 
the strange thing. No vessel before 
had ever dared to depend on steam 
alone for crossing the awful sea ahd 
this venturesome craft had used up all 
her fuel before she reached Sandy 
Hook so that it had been necessary to 
burn all her extra spars and forty- 
three barrels of rosin that she might 
enter the upper bay under her own 

In the Marine Nezvs there was 
an announcement of the arrival of the 
"Sirius" and an advertisement of her 
return trip, under a cut of the "Sa- 
vannah," the only ocean-going ship 
with steam equipment of which there 
was a picture to be found anywhere. 
This advertisement read: 

This vessel has superior accommodation, 
and is fitted with separate cabins for the 
accommodation of families to whom every 



possible attention will be given. Cabin, 
$140.00, including provisions, wine, etc. 
Second Cabin, $80.00, including provisions, 
wine, etc. 

The "Sirius," whose crew mutinied 
when she was a few days out and de- 
clared it utter madness to go farther 
on so small a craft, was commanded 
by Lieutenant Roberts, of the Royal 
Navy, who was afterward lost with 
the "President" — the first steamship 
to sail through the mists that hide the 
shores of the uncharted sea, whose 
trackless waters give back no tidings 
of the ships they bear. On the return 
voyage the "Sirius," whose boiler had 
its safety limit for steam set at fifteen 
pounds four hundred and fifty tons 
of coal for the entire trip. Yester- 
day I was reading that to generate 
steam for the turbines of the new 
sixty-eight thousand horse-power Cu- 
narders, one thousand tons of coal 
will be consumed every twenty-four 

Among the passengers, on this dar- 
ing trip across the ocean from New 
York, was James Gordon Bennett, the 
founder of the New York Herald, 
who often told with great relish of his 
experiences on board the first steam- 
boat to sail from New York to Fal- 
mouth, a voyage that consumed eight- 
een full days. 

But the honors of the "Sirius" were 
not long unchallenged. Four days 
after she had sailed from Cork, the 
"Great Western" steamed out from 
Bristol, England, carrying six hun- 
dred and sixty tons of coal and hav- 
ing on board seven passengers. The 
two boats followed practically the 
same course, but the "Great Western" 
was the superior boat in every way 
and outsailed her rival. In spite of 
the longer distance that she had to 
travel, the "Great Western" arrived 
in New York but a few hours after 
the "Sirius." At three o'clock on the 
afternoon of April 23, 1838, the 
booming of cannon on board the men- 
of-war in the harbor and in the forts 
that guard its approach, announced 

the arrival of the second steamboat 
from the Old World. 

The "Great Western" at once 
caught the fancy of the public. She 
was two hundred and thirty-six feet 
long; the "Sirius" was one hundred 
and seventy-eight feet. The latest 
arrival was a one thousand, three 
hundred and forty ton boat ; the other 
measured only seven hundred tons. 
The best speed of the "Sirius" was 
one hundred and sixty knots a day 
but the "Great Western" had sailed 
two hundred and foity knots. The 
keel of the "Great Western" was laid 
in 1836 but not a penny of American 
money found its way into the enter- 

Can it be that an unfounded fear of 
the deep has kept back American in- 
terest in steamships even till to-day 
so that after building the fastest and 
best sailing vessels that the world ever 
knew we have suffered our shipping 
interests to pass into other hands? 
Must we wait until some nation with 
a merchant marine to supplement its 
navy threatens us with war before we 
shall awaken to the fact that we have 
been playing "penny wise and pound 
foolish" in our niggardly treatment of 
this most important feature in the de- 
fence of a nation? With such an ex- 
tent of pregnable sea-coast it is im- 
possible to offer resistance to the ap- 
proach of a hostile fleet unless there 
shall be swift merchant ships to co- 
operate with the more ponderous 

In the beginning of oceanic steam 
service, the two voyages that I have 
described inaugurated an era of trans- 
portation that has been ever changing 
for the better. First came the change 
from sails to wooden paddle-wheels 
for speed ; then from wood to iron 
hulls for strength, in 1843 J next from 
the paddle-wheels to the screw, for 
economy, in 1856; then from simple 
to compound engines to save fuel, in 
1856; next from iron to steel hulls to 
gain stiffness and save weight, in 
1879; then from the single to the twin 


To forge her main shaft the world was given a new invention— She went ashore off coast of Ire- 
land without suffering serious injury, and many years later was engaged in Australian trade— 
This ship was the marvel of her time— From an old print taken after the alterations in 1852 

and triple screw for safety and speed, 
in 1889; and finally, to the turbine. 

After her return to England the 
"Sinus" was again put on the route 
between London and Cork, as she 
was thought to be too small for the 
trans-Atlantic service, where she was 
eventually lost, but the "Great West- 
ern" continued to sail between the 
Old and the New World for a num- 
ber of years and was finally sold 
to the Royal Mail Line in 1847 an d 
was broken up in 1856. 

The "Great Western" made seventy 
trips across the Atlantic during her 
stay on the New York-Bristol Line, 
averaging fifteen and a half days for 
the westward passage and thirteen 
and a half days for the eastward run. 
The quickest trip was made in 1842 
when the passage from New York 
was accomplished in twelve days and 
seven hours. This was most remark- 
able sailing and stood as the record 
for some time but we must not forget 
that the clipper "Dreadnaught" had 

made a trip from New York to 
Queenstown in nine days and seven- 
teen hours and as late as 1846 the 
clipper "Tornado" of the Morgan 
Line, beat the Cunard steamer across 
from Liverpool, arriving in New 
York before the steam-propelled craft 
arrived in Boston. It was not an un- 
common thing then to find a sailing 
ship advertised under a guarantee to 
reach the destination before the steam- 
ship or forfeit the money paid for pas- 

The speed of the old "Sirius" was 
about six knots an hour and the 
"Great Western" was somewhat 
faster. But who at that day ever 
dreamed that any future ship would 
make a trip from New York to 
Queenstown under an average hourly 
speed of 23.58 knots an hour, the best 
time of the modern "Kaiser Wilhelm 
II," or cover six hundred and one 
knots in twenty-four hours, an aver- 
age of 24.19 knots an hour, the best 
time of the fleet "Deutschland" which 



stands as the fastest day's run ever 
made by any ship? The contract 
speed of the new Cunarders is to 
be 25.50 knots an hour and if it shall 
ever prove practical to build a boat 
that can make thirty knots an hour — 
and in view of what has been accom- 
plished in less than seventy years 
who shall say it is not among the 
really probable things — it will be pos- 
sible to eat one's dinner in New York 
city on Saturday noon and the mid- 
day meal in Queenstown the next 

When the "Sirius" was withdrawn 
from the trans-Atlantic service her 
place was taken by the "British 
Queen," which was built by Gerding 
and Young of London and was to 
have been called "Victoria," but upon 
the accession of England's most glori- 
ous queen the new boat was given a 
new name. Her keel was laid April 
I, 1837, and the contract for the en- 
gines let to a firm that gave every 
promise of meeting all the demands. 
After receiving £6,000 sterling this 
firm failed and as no other firm could 
be found that would agree to take up 
the work where they left it, a new 
contract was made with Napier and 
Company. This caused a delay of 
nearly a year and was the reason for 
the chartering and dispatching of the 

The "British Queen," which had 
cost £90,000, exclusive of the machin- 
ery which cost £24,000, was two hun- 
dred and seventy-five feet long, thirty- 
seven and a half feet wide and twenty- 
seven feet deep. Her paddle-wheels 
were thirty feet in diameter, made of 
iron and the strongest oak. She 
sailed from London on July II, 1839, 
the passengers embarking at Ports- 
mouth on the^ twelfth and was under 
steam at twelve-thirty noon. At two 
o'clock Sunday morning, July twenty- 
eighth, she was at Sandy Hook, thus 
making the passage in fourteen and a 
half days. On August first, at two 
o'clock, she started back for the re- 
turn trip and on August fourteenth 
she took her English pilot aboard, 

thus making the run from pilot to 
pilot — New York to Portsmouth — in 
thirteen and a half days. 

The same company that had sent 
out the "Sirius" and built the "British. 
Queen" now added the ill-fated 
"President" which first sailed from 
the Mersey, June 17, 1840. The 
"British Queen" was advertised as 
sailing from London and the "Presi- 
dent" from Liverpool. After two or 
three successful trips this beautiful 
craft sailed out from New York 
Harbor March 11, 1841, and was 
never heard from again, save that she- 
had been sighted by a passing vessel 
a few days after sailing and an entry 
on the log of the brig "Poultney," 1 
sailing from New York to Smyrna, 
stating that she had passed "a large 
piece of wreckage, sixty feet long- 
and thirty to forty feet wide, that 
looked like the broadside of a steam- 
boat, the main-channel having four 
dead-eyes, with turned mouldings 
and long iron straps. Her hulk was 
black with a broad white streak and 
large, painted ports. There was a 
bight of hawser over a piece of wood 
apparently a part of the guards." 
Those who knew the boat read in this 
description of floating wreckage her 
probable fate and whatever of hope 
might have lingered in any breast 
was dispelled when Captain Jensen, 
sailing from the Cape Verde Islands 
in the schooner "Moniko," brought in 
an account of the finding of the stern - 
boat of the ill-starred craft and the 
picking up at sea of several casks 
bearing the name "President," which 
name was also found on several other 
casks that had drifted ashore on St. 
Nicholas, one of the Cape Verde 

The loss of the "President" and the 
subsidy granted the new Cunard Line 
brought about the financial collapse 
of the British and American Steam 
Navigation Company and the remain- 
ing boat, the "British Queen" was 
sold to the Belgian government, and 
ultimately found her way into the 
hands of the Oriental Company and 


The "Franklin" subsidized by the Government in 1849 at $150,000 per annum to carry mail be- 
tween New York and Havre on fortnightly service— average time twelve days ten hours. Lost 
off Montauk Point, Long Island, July 17, 1854, during tempestuous voyage— From an old print 

ran between Falmouth and Alexan- 
dria. Her best time was made on the 
voyage that began April 5, 1842, when 
she crossed from New York to Ports- 
mouth in 12.85 days. 

The first boat of the Cunard Line 
was the "Britannia" which sailed 
from Liverpool for Boston on July 4, 
1840. A stop was to be made at Hal- 
ifax and for this service the English 
government paid a substantial sub- 
sidy. Four vessels were built for the 
company, having an aggregate ton- 
nage of 4,600 tons and a speed of less 
than eight knots an hour. The "Bri- 
tannia" was two hundred and seven 
feet long, thirty-four and a half feet 
wide and twenty-two and a half 
feet deep. Her paddle-wheels were 
twenty-eight and a half feet in diame- 
ter and were turned by the common- 
type "side-lever engine" which was 
first given a standard form by Mauds- 
ley & Company, of London, about 

l8 35-. 

It is the "Britannia" that our cousin 

"Boz" describes in his American 

Notes. No such description of a ship 

in a storm ever came from any other 

It is the third morning. I am awakened 
out of my sleep by a dismal shriek from 
my wife, who demands to know whether 
there's any danger. I rouse myself, and 
look out of bed. The water-jug is plung- 
ing and leaping like a lively dolphin; all 
the smaller articles are afloat, except my 
shoes, which are stranded on a carpet-bag 
high and dry, like a couple of coal-barges. 
Suddenly I see them spring into the air, 
and behold the looking-glass, which is 
nailed to the wall, sticking fast upon the 
ceiling. At the same time, the door en- 
tirely disappears, and a new one is opened 
in the floor. Then I begin to comprehend 
that the state-room is standing on its head. 

Before it is possible to make any ar- 
rangement at all compatible with this novel 
state of things, the ship rights. Before one 
can say, "Thank Heaven !'" she wrongs 
again. Before one can cry, "She is 
wrong !" she seems to have started for- 
ward, and to be a creature actively run- 
ning of its own accord, with broken knees 
and failing legs, through every variety of 
hole and pitfall, and stumbling constantly. 
Before one can so much as wonder, she 
takes a high leap into the air. Before she 
has well done that, she takes a deep dive 
into the water. Before she has gained the 
surface, she throws a somerset. The in- 



stant she is on her legs, she rushes back- 
ward. And so she goes on, staggering, 
heaving, wrestling, leaping, diving, jump- 
ing, pitching, throbbing, rolling, and rock- 
ing, and going through all these move- 
ments, sometimes by turns, and sometimes 
all together, until one feels disposed to 
roar for mercy. 

Such was the comedy side of his 
experience. In a letter to his friend 
and biographer Dickens shows the 
more serious side. To him he wrote: 

Of course you will not see in the papers 
any true account of our voyage, for they 
keep the dangers of the passage, when 
there are any, very quiet. I observe so 
many perils peculiar to steamers that I am 
still undecided whether we shall not return 
by one of the New York liners. On the 
night of the storm I was wondering within 
mvself where we should all be if the chim- 
ney were blown overboard, in which case, 
it needs no great observation to discover, 
that the vessel must be instantly on fire 
from stem to stern. When I went on deck 
the next day, I saw that it was held by a 
perfect forest of ropes, which had been 
rigged in the night. Hewitt told me, when 
we were ashore, not before, that they had 
men lashed, hoisted up and swinging there, 
all through the gale, getting those stays 
about it. This is not agreeable is it? 

This reminds me of a good old 
Scotch captain who has recently cast 
anchor in the Harbor that is never 
ruffled by the winds of storm. On 
one of his roughest voyages this old 
sea-salt had under his care a very 
reverend gentlemen of the ''Estab- 
lished Kirke" and a party of young- 
sters who were not at all reverent. 
During the worst of the bad weather 
the former had shown himself to be 
decidedly nervous and on one occa- 
sion had so bothered the captain and 
the crew when they were tightening 
some ropes that the captain in self-de- 
fence had given him the dead end of 
a rope and told him to hang onto it as 
if his very life was at stake. When 
the crew had finished their task the 
reverend gentleman was relieved of 
his duty with the thanks of the cap- 
tain and an aside to the crew that it 
had kept the "Sky Pilot" out of the 
way for half an hour anyhow. As 
the fury of the gale increased the cap- 

tain had occasion to pass through the 
cabin where the "reverend" sat in 
prayer and the irreverent sat at a 
game of cards. The clergyman ap- 
pealed to the captain for an assurance 
that the ship was still safe. "Pre- 
sairve us, mon," he replied disgust- 
edly, "but I do believe you're mair 
afeard to go strecht to heaven than 
these young cubs be to go strecht to 

Fear of travel by steamboat was not 
simply among the "laity." The 
learned Dr. Lardner, however wrong- 
ly he may be accused of declaring 
that a steamboat could never cross the 
ocean, was at this time doing all in his 
power, both .with tongue and pen, to 
dissuade men from embarking in so 
foolish an undertaking as the estab- 
lishment of a line of steamships to 
regularly ply between the two worlds. 
On every hand it was pointed out that 
the objections "could only be regard- 
ed as neutralizing to a certain extent 
the benefit, if any, of the scheme." 
The London Civil Engineer and 
Architect's Journal said : 

Another formidable objection to Atlan- 
tic steam-voyaging arises from the over- 
whelming force of the Atlantic storms. 
The shock of masses of water roused into 
a most violent commotion by the accumu- . 
lated momentum of every wave in the 
whole three thousand miles of foaming 
waters is nearly irresistible, and is pro- 
ductive of the most injurious effects to 
vessels of large dimensions impelled by 
immense steam-power. We ourselves hap- 
pened to see the "Liverpool" in dock after 
exposure to one of these Atlantic storms, 
and she was really little better than a 
wreck. . . . The "British Queen" it is 
well known has been injured on several 
occasions and the frames of the engines of 
the "Great Western" have been all broken 
by the working of the ship. 

The whole matter was dismissed 
with the words : 

The establishment of steam-communi- 
cation with the moon is quite as feasible — • 
"Earth has its bubbles as the water hath, 
And this is of them." 

However, the companies that had 
been organized went steadily forward 
and ordered new and larger ships. 



~ - • "*- \. 



The "British Queen" sailed from Portsmouth, England, July 12, 1839, and arrived at New- 
York, July 28, 1839— time— fourteen and one-half days. Built by Junius Smith after much diffi- 
culty in securing capital for the "chimerical and foolhardy" project— From rare aqua-tint of 1838 

In 1842, came Brunei's "Great 
Britain" which was described in 
the prints of the day as a "huge 
leviathan." Her engine developed 
1,500 horse-power, or three and three- 
quarters times more than that of the 
"Great Western." To forge her main 
shaft the world was given a new in- 
vention — the Naysmith steam-ham- 
mer. The hull was of iron and the 
whole ship was an embodiment of the 
best skill in designing and workman- 
ship of that time. On Tuesday, Sep- 
tember 22, 1846, the "Great Britain" 
left Liverpool for New York with 
180 passengers — the largest list ever 

carried by any one ship up to that 
time. At 9:30 that night she struck 
on the sandy beach of Dundrum Bay 
where she lay for several weeks with- 
out having suffered any serious injury 
— a remarkable illustration of the sta- 
bility with which the work was put 
together. After some slight repairs 
she was again put on the route and 
many years afterward was still afloat 
and engaged in the transportation of 
passengers and merchandise to Aus- 
tralia and ran as a steamship till 1876. 
At last accounts she was lying at the 
Falkland Islands as a coal hulk. 

As first built the "Great Britain" 
was decidedly different from the boat 



that became so generally known. She 
then had five masts, four of which 
were hinged at the trunnion to lower 
in heavy weather, and was a "side- 
wheeler." Though designed by the 
builder of the "Great Eastern/' who 
had been associated earlier with the 
Stevens's in building the first steam- 
boats in the world, she was a failure 
and for months lay up as a "wreck in 
port." But she passed into other 
hands and was refitted for service. 
The side-wheels and one of the masts 
were removed and two oscillating 
engines, of five hundred horse-power, 
were installed. As a side-wheeler 
she had an extra weight of one hun- 
dred tons — that is, the wheels and the 
connecting machinery weighed one 
hundred and eighty tons. As a pro- 
peller the total weight of the wheel 
and the machinery was but eighty 

But it was not long before the 
"Great Britain" was superseded by 
bigger, faster boats. Ships with com- 
pound engines were built which left 
those of the old single type far be- 
hind. The "Bothnia" was the first 
compound Cunarder, and when she 
crossed the ocean with an average 
speed of thirteen knots, carrying 340 
passengers and 3,000 tons of cargo, 
she was for a time called the "Queen 
of the Atlantic." The "Great East- 
ern" came before her day, and, 
though she proved a failure in trying 
to combine sidewheels and propeller, 
she solved many problems which have 
been of subsequent aid to the ship- 
builder. In many characteristics the 
"Great Eastern" was unmatched for 
years. Her displacement of 27,000 
tons was not surpassed until the 
arrival of the 28,500 ton "Oceanic." 
And her depth .of fifty-seven and a 
half feet and beam of eighty-three 
feet would still remain the record fig- 
ures were they not exceeded by the 
new Cunarders, which are sixty feet 
deep and eighty-eight feet wide, and 
which accordingly surpass any ves- 
sels ever built. 

To show how transitory is the pres- 
tige of the trans-Atlantic flyer the fol- 
lowing are named, with the date that 
each beat the record of its predeces- 
sor: Persia, 1856; Scotia, 1866; City 
of Brussels, 1869; Baltic, 1873; City 
of Berlin, 1875; Germanic, 1876; 
Britannic, 1877; Arizona, 1880; 
Alaska, 1882; Oregon, 1884; Amer- 
ica, 1884; Etruria, 1885; Umbria, 
1887; City of Paris, 1889; Majestic, 
1891 ; Teutonic, 1891 ; Campania, 
1893; Lucania, 1893; Kaiser Wilhelm 
der Grosse, 1897 ; Deutschland, 1900, 
and Kaiser Wilhelm II, 1904. 

And in this race for supremacy 
every mechanical factor has been de- 
veloped as far as engineering skill 
would permit. As the single engine 
was followed by the double engine, so 
the double engine has been succeeded 
by the quadruple. The single screw 
gave way to the twin screw boat, and 
now, with the "Mauretania," the four 
screw ship has come. Indeed, it 
would seem that the prophecy of the 
late Lord Inverclyde, head of the Cu- 
nard Company, would some day be 
realized — that the steamship of the 
future would have propellers all along 
its bottom, and that it would exceed 
in speed even the fastest express 

So gradual, however, has been the 
development of the steamship that the 
people of to-day fail to realize how 
tremendous it has been. The great 
monarchs of the deep come in and go 
out of New York Harbor, but so long 
as no accident happens to them the 
city pays little heed. What business 
man to-day leaves his work simply to 
look at an arriving transatlantic liner ? 
The day when the whole town rushed 
down to the water-front to stare at 
the "Sirius" will doubtless never be 
repeated. No matter how big or how 
fast may be the ships of the future 
they will never arouse the excitement 
and the curiosity of those early days. 

In 1844 Boston Harbor was frozen 
solid. The citizens, fearing that the 
terminal of the line might be changed 


- ^?&&-*>»<>\ * ^'*m$m% 



The "Britannia" made her first trip in 1840. It was on this ship that Dickens experienced the 
storm at sea described in his American Notes, speaking of the many perils of the new science 

to New York, cut a channel up to the 
very wharf. 

In those early days it was the cus- 
tom to carry live sheep and cattle that 
were butchered on board as needed 
for food. A stall for cows was also 
one of the adjuncts of a ship. Think 
of what a herd of Jerseys it would re- 
quire now to furnish the three thou- 
sand quarts of milk and cream used 
on an ordinary passenger ship on a 
single trip across the ocean ! A 
glance at the deck plan of the "Bri- 
tannia" will show the arrangement of 
the slaughter-house and the cow-stall. 

Think of what it means to speak of 
a sixty-eight thousand horse-power 
engine, such as is planned for the new 
Cunarder turbines. If the sixty- 
eight thousand horse-power engine 
were to be replaced by sixty-eight 
thousand horse-power of human mus- 
cles, there would have to be three re- 
lays of men at the treadmill, or what- 
ever other appliance would be used. 
Each eight-hour shift would require 
six hundred and eighty thousand men 
and for the three shifts there would 

be two million and forty thousand 
men — a population below deck larger 
than that of any city of the world ex- 
cept London. If the problem were to 
give the ship the high speed of the 
railway locomotive the figures would 
vanish in the unthinkable. The pis- 
ton speed in 1838 was not more than 
two hundred feet per minute. In 
i860 it had reached four hundred feet 
and to-day a speed of more than a 
thousand feet is common. 

Strange as it may seem, the United 
States, after having first solved the 
practicability of the steam engine has 
had but little to do with its develop- 
ment upon the ocean. Other coun- 
tries have been quick to see the value 
of a merchant marine and have given 
large bonuses as an inducement to 
both brains and money, but we have 
lagged away behind. During the 
year 1903 not one American ship en- 
tered or cleared from a single port in 
Germany, Russia, Sweden, Norway,. 
Denmark, Austria-Hungary, Greece, 
or the Netherlands. With the larg- 
est export trade of all the nations and 



the greatest extent of navigable coast 
line, we have the smallest merchant 

Last year we paid $200,000,000 in 
freights to ocean ships and carried 
only seven per cent of it in American 
vessels, the balance, or $186,000,000, 
going into the treasury of foreigners. 
In 1 82 1 we carried eighty-three per 
cent of our foreign commerce. In 
1903 we carried only seven per cent 
and the total volume of our commerce 
had increased twenty-fold. Can we 
stand this forever? 

The first steamers built in this 
country to cross the ocean were built 
for foreigners. This was in 1841 
and the two boats were at first known 
as the ''Lion" and the "Eagle" but 
when they went into the Spanish 
navy they were called the "Regent" 
and the "Congress." At about the 
same time the "Kamschatka" was 
built by W. H. Brown, of New York, 
for the Russian navy and our engi- 
neers were at work on the "Missouri" 
and the "Mississippi," much larger 
vessels, for our navy. 

The first American steamship 
owned or run by an American com- 
pany in transportation to or from 
any European port was built in 1847 
when the Ocean Steam Navigation 
Company had two boats built by 
Westervelt and Mackay, at New 
York, which they named the "Wash- 
ington" and the "Hermon." They 
ran to Bremen, touching at Cowes, 
under a contract with the United 
States to carry mail for $200,000 per 
annum. The postage on letters to 
Europe at this time was twenty-four 
cents for one-half ounce or less, forty- 
eight cents for anything between a 
half ounce and an ounce and fifteen 
cents for every additional half ounce. 
Newspapers and pamphlets were car- 
ried for three cents each. Ten years 
later Congress refused to renew the 
contract, made no appropriation to 
cover the transportation of foreign 
mails, and the company was com- 
pelled to withdraw its vessels from 
the service. 

In the same year, 1847, that 
the "Washington" began her trips, 
Charles H. Marshall & Company, 
owners of the famous "Black Ball" 
line of packets running from New 
York to Liverpool, gave a contract to 
William H. Webb to build the steam- 
ship "United States." This vessel 
made but one round trip and not 
proving a success as to payability was • 
sold to the Prussian government and 
turned into a steam frigate but after- 
ward found her way into the mer- 
chant service where she plied for 

In 1849, tne New York and Havre 
Steam Navigation Company was also' 
given a contract by the government to 
carry mail between New York and 
Havre, touching at Cowes, for which 
they were to receive $150,000 per an- 
num for a fortnightly service, and 
built the "Franklin" and the "Hum- 
boldt." The average time of the line 
to Havre was twelve days and ten 
hours. The line to Bremen had an 
average of fourteen days and nine 
hours. The two boats on the Havre 
line continued in service until they 
were lost — the "Humboldt" in enter- 
ing the harbor at Halifax, December 
5, 1853, and the "Franklin" off Mon- 
tauk Point, Long Island, July 17, 
1854. Two vessels were chartered 
to take their place until the "Arago" 
and the "Fulton" were built, in 1855, 
which continued on the run till 1861 
when they were chartered by the 
United States government service in 
the war. 

The next line to carry the Ameri- 
can flag was the famous Collins Line, 
under the corporate name of "The 
New York and Liverpool U. S. Mail 
S. S. Co." The paid-in capital of the 
company was $1,200,000 and four 
vessels were built from models made 
by George Steers, the designer of the 
yacht "America." The first, the 
"Atlantic," was built in 1849 D Y Wil " 
liam H. Brown ; the second, the "Pa- 
cific," was built the same year by 
Brown and Bell. In the next year 
two others, the "Arctic" and the "Bal- 


steam *hf« Pn '?* in c ° 1Iection of Mr - Elisha T. Jenks of Middleborough, Massachusetts, showing 
ucctm&nip making her way through ice canal cut by citizens of.Boston who came to her rescue 

tic," were built by the same firms. 
A description of the "Atlantic" 
from a contemporary magazine will 
show what magnificent vessels were 
placed upon this line : 

The "Atlantic" is two hundred and sev- 
enty-six feet on the keel and forty-five feet 
wide. The stem is rounded and has in 
the center the American eagle clasping the 
star and striped shield but no other device 
• • • There is a colossal figure head at 
the bow. ... A house at the stern 
contains a smoking-room and a small 
compartment completely shelters from the 
weather the steersman. . . . This smok- 
ing-room is the principal prospect of the 
man at the helm, who, however, has to 
steer _ according to his signals. Before 
him is a painted intimation that one bell 
means ^'porf' and two bells mean "star- 
board; a like intimation appears on the 
large bell m the bow of the ship. Accord- 
ing to the striking of the bell, so must he 
steer. . . . The great saloon below 

deck is sixty-seven feet long and the din- 
ing-saloon is sixty feet long ; both are 
twenty feet broad and are separated from 
each other by the steward's pantry, 
Panels containing beautifully finished em- 
blems of each of the states in the Union 
and a few other devices that savor very 
strongly of republicanism are on every 
side. For example, a young and beautiful 
figure, all radiant with health and energy, 
wearing a cap of liberty and waving a 
drawn sword is represented as trampling 
on a feudal prince from whose head a 
crown has rolled in the dust. The cabin 
windows are beautifully painted glass em- 
bellished with the arms of New York and 
other cities in the states. Large circular 
glass ventilators reaching from the deck 
to the lower saloon are also richly orna- 
mented while handsome mirrors multiply 
all this splendor. . . . There are one 
hundred and fifty berths . . . the most 
novel feature about them being the "wed- 
ding-berths," which are wider and more 
handsomely furnished than the others, in- 



tended for such newly married couples as 
wish to spend the first fortnight of their 
honeymoon on the Atlantic. Such berths 
are, it seems, always to be found on board 
the principal river steamers in America, 
but as yet are unknown on this side of the 

The line started under a contract 
to carry the United States Mail for 
$385,000 per annum and this was 
afterward increased to $858,000, yet 
the great expense of pushing the ves- 
sels at a rate of speed beyond any- 
thing that had ever been attempted 
before and the necessary repairs that 
such an undertaking involved kept 
the line from becoming anything like 
a paying investment. Before a solid 
foundation had been reached the gov- 
ernment subsidy was withdrawn and 
the company that had in it more of 
promise for the future of the country 
than any other single enterprise was 
forced to the wall. The loss of the 
"Arctic" had crippled the finances of 
the company but it is more than prob- 
able that it would have been able to 
weather the storm if the interests of 
the South and Southwestern states 
had not united to cut down all the 
appropriations recommended in Con- 
gress that were in any way to be con- 
strued as being inimical to their de- 
mands. Thus the line received its 
death-blow — virtually killed in the 
house of its friends. 

The first American screw steam- 
ship to cross the Atlantic was the 
"Pioneer" which sailed from New 
York to Liverpool in October, 185 1, 
which was followed the same year by 
the "City of Pittsburgh." Out of the 
line that despatched the "City of 
Pittsburgh" came the Inman Line 
which in later years ran some of the 
best boats to be found upon the ocean. 

New York capitalists built the 
"Ericcsqn," in 1853, to test the use 
of hot air instead of steam as a motive 
power. The "Caloric Ship" was a 
failure and her engines were removed 
for the installation of the much 
abused steam engines. After the 
change this boat ran for some time on 

the Collins line to Bremen and was 
later sold to Boston parties who re- 
moved the machinery and converted 
her into a sailing-vessel for the East 
India trade. As an illustration of 
much advertising and little real merit 
the hot-air engine of Ericcson has its 
counterpart in the "liquid air" pro- 
jects of to-day. 

Commodore Vanderbilt made a 
proposition to the Post Office Depart- 
ment in 1855 to run boats alternately 
with the Collins Line for $15,000 a 
trip if the speed of the Cunard Line 
was to be taken as a basis for sailing 
and $19,250 a trip if the speed of the 
Collins Line was to be maintained. 
Congress rejected the proposition, as 
it did a later one, to carry the mail to 
Southampton and Havre for $16,680 
a trip, the rate paid the Cunard Line 
by the English government. The 
next year he ran the "North Star" 
and the "Ariel" to Bremen for two 
trips and in 1857 the "Vanderbilt," 
"Ariel" and "North Star" were put 
on the run. But there was no money 
in the undertaking and it was aban- 

No other steamship line carried the 
American flag until after the close of 
the war when the Ruger Brothers and 
their associates started the North 
American Lloyds, but this enterprise 
also proved a failure. Another at- 
tempt was made in 1867 and still 
another in 1868 but both went as their 
predecessor had gone. 

In 1 87 1 the Pennsylvania Railroad 
Company, wanting to increase the 
foreign business of the line, was in- 
strumental in the organization of the 
American Line whose vessels during 
1875-8 made some very remark- 
able time. In 1884 this line was 
merged into the International Navi- 
gation Company, which in 1886 
gained control of the Inman Line. 

Between 1838 and 1879 there were 
one hundred and forty-four steamers, 
counting all classes, lost at sea while 
engaged in trans-Atlantic service. 
Perhaps the most noted of all was the 


The "Great Western" sailed from Bristol, England, April 8, 1838, and arrived in New York 
April 23, 1838— fifteen days later. Cannons from forts and warships boomed as she sailed into 
gateway of the New World's astonished metropolis— From an oil painting by Walters in 1838 

"President," to which I have re- 
ferred. Since 1879 the most mem- 
orable Atlantic ocean disasters would 
make a list, including the burning at 
sea of the "Egypt," of the National 
Line, and the "City of Montreal," of 
the Inman Line, both without loss of 
life; the stranding of the "State of 
Virginia," of the State Line, on the 
quicksands of Sable Island which 
quickly entombed her ; the sinking of 
the "State of Florida" of that same 
line, by collision with a sailing ship ; 
the disappearance of the National 
Liner "Erin," which is supposed to 
have foundered at sea, and the sink- 
ing of the magnificent "Oregon" of 
the Cunard Line off Fire Island 
through a collision with a coal 

From these beginnings, and upon 
these tragedies, built upon the persist- 
ence of Junius Smith, a son of Con- 
necticut, the great commerce of the 
nations has developed ; the gateways 
of the world have been thrown wide 
open ; the continents, which were lit- 

erally as far away from one another 
as the planets, have been drawn to- 
gether until to-day the peoples of the 
earth are all near neighbors. The 
"sound-headed" American business 
men pronounced the Connecticut 
Yankee's plan to establish trans- 
oceanic service as "chimerical" and 
refused to invest in the "impractica- 
ble project." 

Progress in every line of the 
world's work has been made against 
public opinion and in the face of pub- 
lic ridicule. Such is the way of hu- 
man nature. How many of the pres- 
ent day "masters of finance," whose 
chance and daring have accumulated 
colossal fortunes, would invest in a 
project to establish serial navigation 
between New York and Liverpool? 
While aerial navigation is not as well 
advanced now as was steam naviga- 
tion when capitalists disdained Junius 
Smith, it is fully as "tangible" as was 
steam navigation when that other in- 
trepid Connecticut genius, John 
Fitch, invited public attention to the 

6 4 



Junius Smith, Born in Plymouth, Connecticut, Oc- 
tober 2, 1780— His scheme of organizing capital to 
ply steamships between the continents was consid- 
ered chimerical and disdained by both American 
and European capitalists— Portrait from an Oil 
Painting in possession of his niece, Mrs. William 
Lay, Chicago, Illinois— Reproduced by permission 

possibilities of propulsion of vessels 
by steam. Are its inventors passing- 
through the same experiences? Is 
"conservative" capital holding back 
the day of serial navigation? 

As I look on the tragedies of un- 
fortunate men with "original ideas" I 
find that new epochs are opened only 
by the sacrifice of some genius who 
lays down his life as the price of 

While in my articles I believe the 
fact has been established that John 
Fitch, not Robert Fulton, is the 
"father of steam navigation," it is to 
Fulton that we also owe a great debt. 
It was his financiering that developed 
"the other man's ideas." 

We have many John Fitches with 
their so-called "chimerical" ideas. 
They are haunting our patent offices 
with their "perpetual motions." Thev 
are wearing their lives away over 
their crude models only to find that 
the great world does not open its 
arms to "radical ideas." 

We have multitudes of Dukes of 
Wellingtons who have "no leisure to 
receive the visits of gentlemen who 
have schemes in contemplation for 
the alteration of public establish- 

We need more Robert Fultons in 
American business. 

We need more Junius Smiths to 
move the world along. 

(From an Old Song) 

"Rocked in the cradle of the deep, 
I lay me down in peace to sleep. 
Secure I rest upon the wave, 
For Thou O Lord, hast power to save. 
I know Thou wilt not slight my call, 
For Thou dost mark the sparrow's fall. 

And such the trust that still were mine, 
Though stormy winds sweep o'er the 

Or though the tempest's fiery breath 
Roused me from sleep, to wreck and 

In ocean's wave still safe with Thee, 
The germ of Immortality." 


ClK Uoyages of an Old Sea Captain 



Mystic, Connecticut 

This absorbing story of life on the high seas shortly after the founding of the American Republic is 
faithfully given as received from the lips of the venerable sea captain by his nephew, the Reverend F. 
Denison, at Mystic Bridge, Connecticut, in i860— In recording the old mariner's reminiscences, Reverend 
Denison said: "Having, in common with many others, a laudable anxiety to secure a full narrative, in a per- 
manent form, of the life of my uncle and his varied fortunes by sea and by land, in peace and in war, I per- 
suaded him to sit down at different times and relate to me the prominent events of his history. His re- 
hearsals were jotted in pencil, then written out, and lastly read in his hearing and corrected to the best of 
his memory." Captain Holmes died in Mystic at the age of ninety years, on September 14, 1872. His family 
have been prominently identified with the merchant marine of this country. The transcript from the 
original autobiography is contributed by Mrs. H. B. Noyes of Mystic— Editor 

I AM the son of Jeremiah and Mary 
(Denison) Holmes and was born 
September 6, 1782, near the vil- 
lage of Milltown, in Stonington 
(now North Stonington), Connecti- 
cut. My boyhood was spent in the 
place of my nativity. In 1790 I had 
the misfortune to lose my father. I 
remained with my mother till I was 
about fourteen years of age when, in 
1796, I think, I went to live with my 
brother-in-law, Thomas Crary, in the 
town of Norwich, Chenango County, 
New York. With varied incidents of 
labor, school pursuits — quite limited 
— and amusements common to young 
men, I remained here four years. A 
single pleasant and sportive incident I 
may relate. 

An Encounter with a Deer 
in the Forests in 1798 

Early in the winter of 1798 or 
1799, I went some three miles from 
home in the woods in company with 
Amos Fairchild, in search of a suita- 
ble stick for hand-sled runners. The 
snow was very deep and we wore 
snow shoes. When some two miles 
from home, on coming to a group 
of hemlocks and near to a broad- 

branched, but low tree, I was happily 
surprised by a noble deer that sprung 
from beneath the stretching ever- 
green and essayed a ready flight. 
Prompted by excitement and instinct 
more than by calculation I sprang 
forward in pursuit. Soon discover- 
ing that my game labored in the deep 
snow and that my snow-shoes gave 
me an advantage of pursuit I pressed 
on with all my strength and finally 
coming up with the animal threw my- 
self forward with open arms and 
seized the creature in my embrace. 
I had not calculated upon the strength 
and activity of my game, but I was 
unwilling to release my prisoner. 
The snow now flew right merrily. 
Sometimes I had the upper berth and 
sometimes it would be gained by the 
struggling beast. I held fast, and in 
the meantime shouted lustily to my 
companion, Amos, to come to my 
assistance. Reaching me he gave 
himself to convulsions of laughter 
that for some minutes prevented his 
giving me aid. Sharing plentifully 
in snow and kicks I was exercised 
with both laughter and anger. We 
at last partially disabled the deer, 
when I held him while Amos ran and 


cut strips of the tough moose bark 
near by with which we made a sort of 
halter that fairly secured our fair 
game. I took my deer home, suc- 
ceeded in taming him and prized him 
very highly. 

Long Journey to New York 
by Foot-path and Packet 

Not every one can feel at rest upon 
a farm. Our callings are as various 
as our tastes and gifts. Being of a 
restless temper I was allured by the 
prospects of the sea. Leaving my 
brother-in-law in January, 1800, I 
traveled on foot one hundred and ten 
miles to Catskill on the Hudson, from 
whence by packet I reached the city 
of New York. Eager for an oppor- 
tunity to know the ocean and foreign 
lands I shipped in the schooner "Four 
Sisters," under Captain Peleg Barker, 
destined, as our papers read, for the 
Falkland Islands. The state of com- 
mercial affairs prompted to the arti- 
fice. We instantly sailed for Rio de 
Janeiro. Reaching that port the cap- 
tain opened an unrecognized business 
and in fact smuggled on shore dry 
goods to the value of forty thousand 
dollars. After about two months our 
lucrative business became suspected 
when the authorities commanded us 
to leave the port. Anxious to re- 
main, the captain feigned himself in 
ill-health; but the ruse was unavail- 
ing. Thus driven from this port the 
captain concluded to sail northward. 
We finally ran into the mouth of the 
Amazon and anchored near the 
mouth of Para River, yet so broad 
were the waters at this point that but 
for the freshness of the water we 
might have concluded that we were 
on the shore of the ocean. Attracted 
by the few dwellings in sight Captain 
Barker sent a boat on shore contain- 
ing the mate and four men. The 
boat and its crew were unexpectedly 
detained. The Portuguese govern- 
ment in Brazil did not at this time tol- 
erate commerce with foreigners. 
With the morning our boat and men 

returned, but they were accompanied 
by another boat bearing a white flag 
and filled with soldiers. Our visitors 
were reluctantly entertained. 

Aboard Ship off Brazil 
and Confined in a Dungeon 

The moment the soldiers came on 
board they took forcible possession of 
the vessel, when they carried the cap- 
tain, mate and supercargo on shore 
and then, binding the remainder of us, 
proceeded with the vessel up the 
river. Thus we became prisoners 
and our vessel the prey of the Portu- 
guese power in Brazil. 

Para stands about sixty miles from 
the river of the same name. The city 
is guarded by a strong fort. In the 
center of the fort is a huge, dark dun- 
geon, a subterranean prison so dark 
that objects are dimly discerned at 
mid-day though near the eyes. We 
were hurried into this fort and thrust 
into this dungeon, a very undesirable 
harbor for one who delighted in the 
free air and paths of the ocean. It 
was now June; we had been five 
months from home ; our prospects 
were gloomy indeed. We were un- 
der the equator, and the heat of the 
country was nearly intolerable. The 
old dungeon in the center of the mas- 
sive fort knew no healthy light and 
no refreshing winds. There were 
eight of us to share this close, dark, 
sweltering subterranean prison. To 
add to our discomforts we had been 
robbed of all our clothes except what 
was found upon our persons. Thus 
destitute and suffering we were held 
in this detestable dungeon for a 
period of nearly two months. 

The walls of the dungeon were of 
stone ; the doors were of wood and 
only some three or four inches thick. 
Our only hope looked through these 
doors ; and but a little light from 
these entered the eye of hope ; yet a 
little light did for a time reach our 
anxious hearts. One of our company 
had the fortune on his capture to re- 
tain in his dress an old but substan- 



tial pocket-knife. After counting for 
days our feeble hopes of escape from 
our dire imprisonment, we concluded 
to center our hopes upon the edge and 
strength of the old knife — a precious 
instrument now in all our eyes. Se- 
lecting a side door to our dark abode, 
we cut carefully and at guarded hours 
channels or grooves around a panel- 
shaped piece large enough to admit a 
man's body. The grooves were finally 
cut through, and all our hopes were 
on tip-toe in silence and in watchings. 
But unfortunately, by some heavy 
jar, the separated panel-piece slipped 
our temporary fastenings and fell 
back upon the dungeon floor with a 
loud noise that alarmed our keepers 
and revealed our plot. But had this 
mischance not occurred our hope of 
escape would have been exceedingly 
small since the dungeon was in the 
center of a strong and guarded forti- 

Held Prisoner by Portugese 
Four Months on a Frigate 

The authorities now took us to the 
river and put us on board a frigate 
lying near by the place and where 
we were much more uncomfortable 
than in the gloomy old dungeon. We 
were thrust into the frigate's hold 
where the confined air was well nigh 
as hot as in an oven. Yet on the fol- 
lowing day we were allowed our 
choice to remain in the hold or to 
come on deck and work. We were 
unwilling to toil as slaves under task- 
masters beneath a broiling sun. 
Albeit our bodies might have been 
more comfortable in the breezes on 
the frigate's deck and drenched with 
perspiration, our spirits were yet too 
proud. We endured the roasting 
heat of the hold for about a week 
when, fearing the worst for our 
health, we consented to work on deck. 
We were thus painfully imprisoned 
on board this frigate for nearly four 
months — and long months they were 
as one may imagine. 

A couple of Portuguese vessels 

were now about to sail for Lisbon. 
As one of the lieutenants of the frig- 
ate, John George, a Portuguese, could 
speak good English, we prevailed on 
him to act as our petitioner to the 
governor of the place to send us to 
Lisbon. Our petition was successful. 
The governor sent us the following 
reply: "I do not wish to be troubled 
with you longer ; I shall send you out 
of the river by the first opportunity." 

Shortly seven of us were sent on 
board the "Grand Maranham," a 
large ship carrying twenty-two guns 
and having on board, with crew and 
soldiers, about one hundred men, all 
Portuguese. We sailed from the 
mouth of the Amazon in November. 
The ship being a dull sailer and suf- 
fering now with calms and now with 
adverse winds, we had a very hard 
passage that occupied about one hun- 
dred and thirty days whereas an ordi> 
nary passage numbered about fifty 
days. On account of the length of 
the voyage we suffered severely both 
for water and provisions. For forty 
days I had but a pint of water per day 
and a little farina meal made of the 
cassada root found in South America. 
Indeed I had no meat or bread during 
the whole voyage. 

Setting Sail for Portugal 
with a Superstitious Crew 

On account of the adversities and 
privations of our passage the super- 
stitious Portuguese, being devoted 
but ignorant Catholics, imbibed the 
idea that the misfortunes of the voy- 
age were ascribable to the presence of 
heretics or Protestants as some of us 
were. Upon this matters came well- 
nigh assuming a serious form. They 
vowed if we had not a favorable wind 
by a given day they would cast all the 
heretics after the ill-fated Jonah. 
They were in earnest in their vow and 
threat. We therefore made prepara- 
tions for such an event by securing 
and concealing slung shot and other 
means of defense and offense, re- 
solved to give the Catholic faith a lit- 


tie of the ring of Peter's sword and 
make the triumph of that faith as dif- 
ficult as possible. But propitious 
winds prevented an encounter. 

Our voyage had various discom- 
forts. All on board suffered from 
the filth and vermin abounding in the 
old ship. In most cases there was 
neither ability nor disposition to avoid 
the contamination. My single and 
scanty suit worn in the smothering 
dungeon and on board the old frigate 
during the long and laborious months 
of my imprisonment had fairly earned 
a discharge; so on the voyage I was 
presented with a little refuse canvas 
and duck out of which I made, after 
no Parisian pattern, a duck shirt, 
duck pantaloons and a canvas cap — 
one suit only and pressed by my bones 
night and day. My compact ward- 
robe soon had other claimants whose 
demands became unpleasant. I have 
pulled off my duck shirt, picked off a 
score or more of lusty, healthy, hun- 
gry vermin, and again donned the 
apparel as if new. Thus we had 
more companions and faster friend- 
ships than we were pleased with. 

Nearing the coast of Portugal we 
fell in with an American vessel from 
which we obtained a supply of water. 
Words cannot describe the relief. It 
was a luxury past description to once 
more press to our lips as much water 
as we desired to drink; and we did 
drink copiously and thankfully. The 
happiness of that hour cannot be for- 

Our circumstances made it expedi- 
ent to land at St. Ubes. We reached 
the port in March, and it was yet cold 
on the coast. The American consul 
at once sent us to Lisbon, which was 
eighteen miles distant; but we were 
obliged to go on foot. I had no shoes 
and no coat; but I still had more or 
less of the volunteer body guard from 
the old ship with their biting friend- 

I remember somewhat of the aspect 
of the country as I trudged barefoot 
and coatless from St. Ubes to Lisbon. 

The orange trees had dropped their 
foliage and yet were full of fruit, thus 
presenting quite a striking appear- 
ance. I bought of an old lady an 
apron-full or near a peck of excellent 
oranges for a piece worth about two 
cents. The grape vines had not yet 
started. It was now the spring of 
1 80 1. I had been from home more 
than a year and had shared more for- 
tunes than I had counted for on my I 
chart of departure. 

Homeward Bound with Colonel 
David Humphreys from Spain 

In Lisbon I found the ship "Perse- 
verance" of New York, belonging to 
Isaac Wright, Esquire, the well- 
known proprietor of a line of ships 
running to Liverpool, called the Black 
Ball Line. 

The "Perseverance" was com- 
manded by Captain Caleb Cogswell, a 
worthy Quaker, who exemplified his 
friendly faith by offering me my pas- 
sage to the United States. I was 
happy in accepting his generous offer. 
Among Captain Cogswell's crew were 
English, Irish, Americans and one 
Dane. My destitute condition was 
only too apparent to all in my dress; 
yet no one of the crew, except the 
Dane, named Hanse, showed me sub- 
stantial sympathy by offering me even 
the loan of a coat. On learning my 
fortunes, Hanse at once pointed to his 
chest and said: "There is my chest 
and clothes; you are just as welcome 
as myself." I shall never forget 
Hanse. Pulling off my duck shirt 
and pants, my right to which had 
been so long and vigorously disputed 
by the vermin, and throwing them 
overboard, il drew upon the open 
chest of friend Hanse. Finally the 
captain and mate added to my ward- 
robe by a gift of some of their old 
clothes that I received not unthank- 

Among the passengers on board 
the "Perseverance" was the American 
minister to Spain, Colonel David 
Humphreys, who, with his wife, was 



now returning to this country. The 
colonel had on board a hundred 
merino sheep that he was transport- 
ing to the United States ; by the way, 
I think they were the first sheep of 
this kind introduced into our country. 
Finding that I was reared on a farm, 
the colonel engaged me to take care 
of the sheep on the passage; for my 
services he gave me two doubloons, 
not a small sum for a man in charity 
clothes and nothing in the pockets. 

A passage of forty days brought us 
to New York. On closing up the 
voyage, my true friend Hanse, receiv- 
ing his wages, divided the sum in his 
hands and generously offered me the 
half. His kindness and liberality 
touched my heart, but I was too hon- 
orable to accept the offer, especially 
as I could now jingle a couple of 
doubloons. Soon after this friend 
Hanse shipped in a brig bound to 
Demerara, where he died with yellow 
fever; peace to his ashes and honor 
to his memory. I immediately went 
to Berne (now Knox), Albany 
County, New York, where I remained 
for about two months. 

Still looking hopefully toward "a 
life on the ocean wave," notwith- 
standing the ill augury of my first 
voyage, I returned to New York 
where I again shipped under my old 
commander, Captain Barker, who 
riad also safely escaped from Brazil. 
We were now in the schooner 
"Lively" bound to the West Indies. 
This was a very pleasant voyage; we 
visited Nevis, St. Kitts and St. Eusta- 
tia. We returned to New York in 
S September, 1801. I remained in New 
iYork till December; meanwhile I 
jlsaw no one that I knew. 

On a Whaling and Sealing 
j Voyage to South Pacific Ocean 

Early in December I again shipped 
under Captain Barker, now having 
jcommand of the ship "Cayuga," be- 
longing to the firm of Hoyt & Tom. 
We were bound into the South Pacific 


Ocean on a whaling and sealing voy- 
age. Numerous and trying adven- 
tures now awaited me before I should 
again reach my home. We ran up 
and down the coast of Peru several 
times in search of sperm whale; in 
the space of a year and a half we took 
about one thousand barrels of sperm 

We ran into the river Tumbez on 
the coast of Peru to obtain a recruit 
of wood and water. In our boats we 
visited the city of Tumbez. We also 
found here the English ship "Tom," 
whose captain had his wife with him, 
a Spanish lady that he had married at 
Gibraltar, who could readily speak 
both English and Spanish and was 
therefore our ready interpreter. Com- 
ing down one day from the city to the 
mouth of the river we chanced to 
have in our boat this captain and his 
wife and also a wealthy • old planter 
going down to visit his estate near the 
river mouth. 

The coast of Peru was very attract 
ive. I cannot forget the many pleas- 
ant views that opened to us whenever 
we approached the shore. I have 
seen noble deer come boldly down to 
the beach and look off with the ut- 
most unconcern upon us as if we had 
no power or disposition to disturb 

Ashore on the Islands 

«* Exactly Under the Equator" 

We took occasion to visit the Gal- 
lapagos Islands some six hundred and 
fifty miles from the continent and 
almost exactly under the equator. 
The islands are very rich. The 
prickly pear trees here are noble; 
some of them are twenty-five or thirty 
feet high with trunks as large as a 
man's body. We could supply our- 
selves abundantly with fish and flesh 
of the best quality. The water at 
times was literally alive with bonitos, 
a fish nearly as large as horse mack- 
erel. There was also an abundance 
of albicore, a fish approaching the 


size of a porpoise and very delicate; 
the catching of these with huge hooks 
and nooses was rare sport. At any 
time numbers of green turtle were in 
sight. But we cared little for bon- 
itos, albicore and green turtle in com- 
parison with the turpin on the island. 
These are a thick heavy land turtle 
that never enter the sea. Their meat 
is very excellent; their tallow is a 
luxury and is as yellow as butter ; 
their eggs too are a great delicacy. 
Great numbers of these turpin might 
be seen wandering beneath the groves 
of prickly pear waiting for the winds 
to shake down the fruit for their pal- 

Our ship at last became leaky and 
we were compelled to put into Payta. 
Here the "Cayuga" was examined 
and finally condemned as unsea- 
worthy. We could only sell her and 
close up our voyage, but in this we 
were hindered by various causes for 
nearly three months. 

I now shipped on board of another 
whaler, the "Cold Spring of London," 
under Captain Dunn, and cruised 
again in the South Pacific. In about 
eleven months we took near two thou- 
sand barrels of sperm oil. We also 
visited the Gallapagos and laid in a 
supply of turpin, putting some of 
them in the hold on the top of our 
cargo. I recollect that some six 
months after we had taken these on 
board, when off Cape Horn, the car- 
penter, having occasion to go to the 
bottom of the pump well there found 
one of these turpin still alive, having 
crept over the top and fallen thus 
from our sight; this evidenced their 
capability of enduring hunger and 
thirst. We took our homeward voy- 
age by the way of St. Helena, where 
we expected to obtain a convoy to 
London, as the English were at this 
time at war with France and Spain. 
It was now 1804, and my whaling 
cruises had occupied some two and a 
half years. 

Captured by the French 
Privateers off St. Helena 

On nearing St. Helena we discov- 
ered a sail in shore; but suspecting 
no danger we approached the vessel 
and spoke her. Her character was at 
once revealed. She was the "Bo- 
logna," a French privateer, mounting 
thirty-six guns and carrying more 
than a hundred men. We were her 
victim. It was now June, 1804. 
She took possession of us at about 
dark. Taking us on board the "Bo- 
logna" our ship was instantly sent off 
as a prize. We were kept on board 
the privateer, however, only till the- 
next day, when we were put into a 
boat and set adrift. Being only fif- 
teen miles from the island we reached 
the shore in safety. Again I found 
myself in a foreign land, cast out,, 
alone and destitute, after many toils 
and an absence from home of two and 
a half years. But severe trials were 
before me. I had now only the 
clothes that were upon my back. 

Reaching the port of St. Helena I 
found no American consul and no 
American vessel; it was therefore a 
dark day for me. The rights of sail- 
ors at this time were not properly re- 
spected, and unhappily for me, I had 
now lost my protection papers. The 
best that I could do was to ship on- 
board an English merchantman, the- 
"Fame," commanded by one Captain 
Baker. But before the "Fame" was; 
ready to sail my destination was sadly 

I was seized and pressed on board' 
the English sixty-four-gun ship, 
"Trident." This occurred July 2, 
1804. The "Trident," in fact, mount- 
ed about seventy guns and was com- 
manded by Admiral Renier and bore 
his flag. When taken on board the 
"Trident" I was called up for exami- 
nation by the first lieutenant. I at 
once said : "I am an American." He- 
responded: "Well, we will make an 
Englishman of you." I answered: 
"No, sir ; you will never do that." 

I remained in the "Trident" but a 



short time when I was transferred to 
the sixty-four-gun ship "Athenian." 
We shortly sailed in company with 
the "Trident" and the frigate "Medi- 
ator" as a convoy to forty East India- 
men for the English Channel. We 
arrived at Dover in early autumn, 
when the Indiamen ran on their way 
while the "Athenian" ran back into 
Portsmouth to be hauled into the 
naval dock for repairs. From Ports- 
mouth I wrote to the American consul 
at London seeking his interposition 
for my release. He obtained an 
order for my discharge, but in the 
teeth of right my claim was disre- 
garded. I now sent letters to my kin- 
dred and friends in America to pro- 
cure papers in evidence of my right. 

Going to Assistance of 
Lord Nelson at Trafalgar 

I was at last pressed on board the 
seventy-four-gun ship, "Saturn," now 
lying at Spit Head ready for sea, and 
appointed to join the fleet under Lord 
Nelson. The wind detained us. 
These winds blew in mercy to many 
on board the "Saturn," else we should 
have been with Lord Nelson off Tra- 
falgar in that memorable naval action 
that cost so much blood, and where 
Nelson himself fell "On the field of 
his fame fresh and gory." We were 
unable to reach the scene till the bat- 
tle had passed. The "Saturn" also 
conveyed six or eight vessels loaded 
with naval stores. 

In passing the Straits of Gibraltar 
the French and Spanish gun boats 
from the shore ran out and attempted 
the seizure of one of our transports. 
The attempt was well-nigh successful, 
but the wind springing up the "Sat- 
urn" hastened to the rescue and beat 
back the assailants. Quite an en- 
gagement now followed. The fort at 
Cabarena Point opened its fire in sup- 
port of the shots from the gun boats. 
For about an hour and a half powder 
was burnt freely and the heavy iron 
hail flew merrily. In the skirmish I 
was stationed as captain of a gun on 

the lower deck. The "Saturn" played 
her part well and won the upper hand. 
Satisfying our opponents of our su- 
periority and taking proper care of 
our transports we ran into the an- 
chorage at Gibraltar and landed our 
naval supplies. 

We next proceeded up the Medi- 
terranean to the Spanish port of Car- 
thagena where we joined other naval 
vessels in the blockade of that place. 
Here we remained for several months. 
Finally we were informed that Je- 
rome Buonaparte, Admiral of the 
French fleet, with a number of ships, 
had left Brest. We knew not his des- 
tination ; he sailed, however, for the 
West Indies. Our squadron was now 
ordered off the blockade of Cartha- 
gena to Gibraltar. 

We were ordered from Gibraltar to 
Cadiz to join Lord Collingwood in the 
blockade of that port. The blockad- 
ing squadron numbered about twenty 
ships of the line. Here we continued 
in the "Saturn" for about two and a 
half years, occasionally running down 
to Gibraltar for supplies. But in the 
latter part of 1806 we ran down to 
Gibraltar to refit our ship and receive 
stores for another six months. Dur- 
ing this time a few incidents occurred 
of the nature of episodes in my weary 

In Service of Lord Collingwood 
During Blockade of Cadiz 

From my first impressment, and es- 
pecially after my imprisonment on 
board the "Saturn" I had been medi- 
tating plans and watching for oppor 
tunities to fly from the grasp of my 
oppressors. In one way and another 
during the past two years I had 
earned about seven guineas which I 
held as a shot in the locker. These 
guineas I closely wound in my neck- 
cloth to have them at hand when an 
opportunity for escape should appear. 

We took in water on the African 
side of the Straits at Tetuan Bay. 
While thus engaged I strolled from 
our party a little and then attempted 


concealment and flight, taking refuge 
in a vast field of growing wheat. It 
happened, however, that the sentinels 
stationed on the margin of the field to 
protect it discovered me by moving 
grain. I was first saluted with stones ; 
but they soon found that I was no 
brute and desisted. I succeeded in 
conveying to one sentinel my charac- 
ter and situation. He said to me : "If 
you escape here you must turn Turk." 
I replied: "I don't care what I turn 
into if I can only get away from my 
impressment in the man-of-war." I 
offered him two guineas to secrete me 
in the grain and then assist me in 
reaching Centa Point opposite Gibral- 
tar. He dared not accept the offer. 
I was obliged to return to the "Sat- 
urn's" company, only glad that my 
scheme was not known to the officers. 

I now had the misfortune to suffer 
my patriotism to overcome my pa- 
tience. While returning to Gibraltar, 
all hands having been treated to a 
drop for the cheering of the spirits, I 
was at my station in the main-top 
with a man named Silsby. As a 
Moorish galley passed us urged on by 
slaves chained to their oars I re- 
marked to Silsby: 

"How would you like to be on that 

"Not at all," said he. 

"It would be as proper for you to 
be there as it is for me to be here," I 

"Pshaw," said he, "you have as 
much right to be here as I have ; you 
are no American, but some noble- 
man's bastard or else a runaway." 

This was a word too much. I drew 
my fist and dealt him a blow between 
the eyes that laid him horizontally 
with a bloody nose. The fray was 
too open. We both were taken be- 
low, had our feet ironed, were laid on 
our backs and had our ankles 'strung 
on the iron rod arranged for the safe 
confinement of transgressors. In 
this uneasy attitude, strung like her- 
ring on the deck, we lay for three 
days consoling ourselves with bread 

and the confident expectation of a 
sound flogging. In the meantime 
four other disobedients were added to 
the iron rod. On the fourth day of 
our confinement, and it was the fourth 
of July, the criminal crew were or- 
dered up to receive their penal lashes. 
It being Independence Day my spirit 
was stirred within me. I managed 
to scribble a note addressed to the 
captain to be handed to him in case 1 
should be sentenced to be flogged. 
The note was to the effect that "if I 
should be flogged for the sudden and 
disorderly ebullition of my national 
and manly pride I would never lift a 
hand in the British service, be the 
consequences what they might." 

Several received their two dozen 
each, and, after the blood started 
freely, Silsby and myself were re- 
served to the last ; this gave us a little 
hope. Silsby was brought forward 
and addressed: "This is the third 
time you have been put in irons ; once 
for drunkenness ; once for making 
disturbance, and now for quarreling 
You are pardoned this time, but if 
ever caught in disobedience again, 
you shall be paid for old accounts and 
new." I was addressed in substance 
as follows : "This is your first misde- 
meanor; beware of the second; you 
are also pardoned." 

An Attempt to Escape from 

the English at Gibraltar 

I was exceedingly uneasy. I hated 
the English and utterly loathed their 
service. My unjust impressment 
chafed my free spirit and made me 
ready to accept almost any hazard for 
my freedom. While lying off Gibral- 
tar at this time I attempted an escape 
by swimming. Some of the sailors 
were perfectly willing to wink at my 
endeavor, on the principle of dealing 
as they would be dealt by. On a 
chosen night I secretly slipped out of 
a forward port hole and let myself 
down into the sea. As I swam past 
the ship, the man in the yawl along- 
side whispered an inquiry after my 



plan. In a word I informed him, 
when, reaching his hand and grasp- 
ing mine, he said : "God bless you ; I 
hope you will succeed." The "Sat- 
urn" lay about two miles from the 
shore and a heavy current was setting 
past her and making directly for the 
land and I supposed ran near the 
shore which gave me my hope of suc- 
cess. I was deceived; the stream 
or tide very soon changed its direction 
and ran ' up the sea. I found that 
it would be impossible for me to reach 
the land across so swift a tide and that 
I should inevitably be swept by the 
waters far away into the Mediterra- 
nean to perish. Thus the path to my 
freedom was confronted by certain 
death. My skill in swimming was 
not small, and it was taxed to the ut- 
most. By taking advantage of an 
eddy that just now formed, and I 
think it was providential, setting the 
waters around me back towards the 
"Saturn," I made exertions to re- 
turn. Using my best skill and 
strength favored by the eddy I at last 
succeeded in reaching the launch that 
was trailing at the "Saturn's" stern. 
I caught the cable of the launch and 
here rested a moment to recover my- 
self and to plan for the future. I then 
slipped back on the cable, caught the 
bows of the launch and scrambled 
into her. 

What now should I do? How 
could I get on board the "Saturn" 
again without being detected? Ne- 
cessity is a mother. Concealed by the 
darkness I carefully hauled the launch 
up under the ship's stern and to the 
larboard stern port hole of the lowef 
deck. The port hole was but little 
above the launch and was opened; 
and it opened by one-half downward. 
Creeping up I perched myself here 
with no little anxiety. The sentry on 
the lower deck was directly before 
me pacing his beat fore and aft and 
coming almost up to the port hole. I 
watched him and observed that he 
constantly looked straight forward 
and downward as if absorbed in 

thought, and when wheeling invaria- 
bly turned on his left. I at once saw 
my only chance. As he wheeled to 
march from me I slipped through the 
port hole and tripping with my bare 
feet softly up behind him followed 
him on tip-toe the length of his beat 
and then, gliding on the right as he 
wheeled on his left, slid forward into 
darkness and noiselessly hastened to 
the hammocks among the sailors. 
My comrades were astonished. They 
had measured my chances with the 
tide and felt assured that I could 
never return to the ship. They almost 
believed me a ghost and looked upon 
my adventures as partaking of the 

An American's Appeal to His 
Country to Secure His Freedom 

On returning from Gibraltar to re- 
sume our station in the blockading 
squadron off Cadiz, while standing in 
towards the squadron, the "Saturn" 
struck a reef and was seriously dam- 
aged. All our pumps were brought 
into play and we hastened back to 
Gibraltar. The ship was to be un- 
loaded and hauled out immediately, 
and a hard job this was; we toiled 
like slaves. Her keel and bottom 
were finally repaired. During this 
time we were put on board the large 
Spanish seventy-four-gun ship, "St. 
John," taken by Lord Nelson and 
now used as a hulk. When the "Sat- 
urn" was made seaworthy again she 
was ordered to England for a more 
thorough overhaul. We immediately 
proceeded to Portsmouth and the ship 
was taken into the naval dock. 

I now applied by letter the second 
time to the American consul at Lon- 
don for my discharge from the Brit- 
ish service into which I had been un- 
justly impressed. I had managed to 
write to my kindred and friends in 
the United States at different times 
and particularly while at Gibraltar, 
informing them of my impressment 
and praying them to procure suitable 
papers in my behalf and send them 


to our consul at London. I knew 
they had faithfully attended to this 
brotherly duty and was aware that the 
consul had now many documents in 
my favor. The consul was the Hon- 
orable William Lyman, formerly of 
Hartford, Connecticut, and I felt 
assured that he would act in my be- 
half. I received no immediate re- 

When I had been to Portsmouth 
about six weeks I received a letter 
from the consul stating that applica- 
tion had been made to the Lords' 
Commissioners for the Admiralty for 
my discharge, and an answer had 
been returned that my papers • were 
insufficient. I was disappointed. I 
was indignant. I was thoroughly 
mad. My whole blood was hot. The 
legal flaw in my papers, it appears, 
was in the fact that they had not been 
ceremoniously endorsed by a regular 
custom-house officer — a mere trifle 
that gave occasion for a legal techni- 
cality that answered for the crown- 
serving lawyer to hang his crown- 
pleasing objection on. Thus per- 
sistently denied my rights and having 
suffered so long and so much I was 
well-nigh exasperated. I now raised 
my right hand and using strong 
words that I care not to repeat, swore 
strongly that I would never work 
more for the British crown. I meant 
what I said — bating the wickedness 
of my passionate words ; and I was as 
good as my vow. Affairs were now 
to take some shape for the better or 
the worse. 

Revolt Against Unjust 
Impressment in British Service 

It was now Thursday noon, the 
fifth of November, 1806; and I had 
been in this dire slavery for about two 
years and a half. I had irrevocably 
determined to end it. Instead of go- 
ing to work in the afternoon, I said to 
the officer of the deck that I wished 
to see the first lieutenant, Mr. Greg- 
ory Grant. My request was granted. 
Showing the lieutenant certain papers 

that I had received from Stonington 
my native town, signed by the select- 
men of the town, I said: "Mr. Grant, 
here are my papers from my native 
town in the United States, certifying 
my American birth and rights. I 
have received similar papers properly 
endorsed at five different times; some 
of these papers have been laid before 
the authorities by our consul; yet I 
am denied my rights. I ought to be 
discharged. And if I am not set at 
liberty I am resolved never more to 
work for the British crown, let the 
consequences be what they may." 
My language was bold and strong, 
but I spoke as I felt. The lieutenant 
replied : "It is my duty to take notice 
of such language as this and to pun- 
ish you for it. Should I do my duty 
I should put you in irons and send 
you on board the 'Royal William' out 
at Spit Head." 

The "Royal William" was now a 
receiving ship. She was more than a 
hundred years old and was the first 
three-decker ever built by the English 

Manifestly the lieutenant felt some- 
what lenient towards me and so did 
not act up to the extent of his author- 
ity. He was a Scotchman and must 
naturally have felt a respect for a 
lover of freedom, who was suffering 
the privation of his dearest rights. 
He advised me to write further to our 
consul. I was excused from work 
for the remainder of the day and also 
for Friday and Saturday, which pre- 
vented a trial of my vow on board the 
ship by violence. 

I immediately wrote again to our 
consul at London, stating more fully 
my situation and my just rights. I 
also addressed a letter to America to 
the Honorable James Madison, our 
secretary of state, informing him of 
my case and stating that my Ameri- 
can papers had been rejected by the 
English authorities. I wrote these 
letters because I knew not what might 
be in the future, though I had now re- 
solved to try the experiment of help- 



ing myself. Of course I could not 
wait for replies to these letters. 

An American Ship Assists 
in Flight from Captivity 

At this time we were on board a 
hulk, as the "Saturn" was in the dock. 
On Sunday morning I approached the 
lieutenant to ask, as some others had 
done with success, for leave to go on 
shore. Without waiting to hear my 
request he said: "There is no liberty 
for you." Modifying my first pur- 
pose I then said: "I only wish to go 
on board the American ship 'Med- 
ford.'" The "Medford" was from 
Boston and lay but a little distance 
from the hulk. The lieutenant finally 
gave consent for me to visit the "Med- 
ford" in the yawl under the charge of 
a midshipman. I did not choose to 
go in this way. I was looking for a 
loophole in the direction of personal 

I now went below and put on a 
second suit of clothes as far as I could 
without having the duplicates exposed 
to sight. While thus engaged a 
sailor, William Coffin. knowing my re- 
solves and sympathizing with me, put 
his hand into his pocket and taking 
out all the money he had — only a few 
pence — handed it to me, adding: 
"There, that will help you a little in 
crossing the water; luck go with 
you." His generosity was heartily 
received, for I was now penniless, not 
having received my pay for service in 
the "Saturn." 

It was now noon. Coming on deck 
I began to study how I might reach 
the shore or the American ship. 
There were wherries skulling about 
among the shipping to accommodate 
such as were going to and from the 
shore or among the ships. Acting as 
if I had full permission, when the 
lieutenant was out of sight, I beck- 
oned a wherry alongside of the hulk 
and was going over the side when the 
sentry on that side of the ship stopped 
me. Just at this moment, however, the 
sentry on the other side of the deck' 

— from an imperfect understanding 
of the interview that he had noticed 
between the lieutenant and myself, or 
perhaps from sympathy with me — 
interposed the remark: "I heard the 
lieutenant give him permission to go 
on board the "Medford." Touched 
by a little light of hope I now slid into 
the wherry and was skulled to the 
"Medford." Rarely did a mortal 
ever pay for so short a voyage more 

It was a hopeful though trembling 
moment when I put my long wander- 
ing and long imprisoned feet on the 
deck of an American ship. I at once 
formed the acquaintance of the mate 
of the "Medford," Mr. Goram Cof- 
fin, of Nantucket, to whom I fully un- 
folded my situation. He was ready 
to stand by me as a brother. On in- 
quiring of me, "From what part of 
America are you?" I answered: 
"From Stonington, Connecticut." 
"Indeed," said he, "I am acquainted 
there!" In him I found a friend in- 
deed. He then said: "Come, why 
not escape now?" I answered: "I 
have vowed never again to go on 
board a British man-of-war alive."" 
He encouraged my vow. I added: 
"I want to reach London and see our 
consul myself. But how shall I get 
there? And how can I avoid detec- 
tion on the way and keep out of the 
clutches of press gangs? It is sev- 
enty miles to London and I have no 
money, except a few pence given me 
by a sailor." He took from his pocket 
a one-pound note and extending it to 
me said : "There, you are welcome to* 
that." Heaven bless him! He was 
willing to help a poor fugitive from 

Fleeing to London on a 

Stage Coach in 1806 

Mr. Coffin now took me on shore 
and we began to plan for my journey 
to London. We finally went to the 
stage office and learned that the regu- 
lar coach would leave Portsmouth for 
London at six o'clock in the evening 


and that a passage on the outside 
would be only seventeen shillings and 
sixpence. Of course expedition 
would be economy and the most open 
ride would be the least suspicious. In 
the meantime I had armed myself 
with two good stout pocket-knives 
that I might command at any instant. 
I was not to be returned to a man-of- 
war without bloodshed, for liberty 
was born in my blood. 

We retired to an inn and talked 
openly like Englishmen but privately 
of my best course of action. At six 
o'clock the stage horn blew when we 
hastened to the office where I paid my 
fare with no suspicious money and 
jumped upon the coach top. Speak- 
ing loudly so as to be heard Mr. Cof- 
fin called Mr, John Hix, as I had so 
registered my name on the stage 
"books, and bid me give his respects to 
old acquaintances, giving their names 
and residences in London, and hoped 
that I should find my kindred and 
friends in health. The deception was 
managed artfully; we parted like old 
London cronies. 

This night, the eighth of Novem- 
ber, 1806, for its anxieties, its hopes, 
its fears, its long, dark, cold hours, 
made also impressive by wind and 
sleet, has a marked record in my 
memory. That seventy miles was 
traveled wakefully and thoughtfully. 

On the rear of the stage was sta- 
tioned a soldier as a guard. Shortly 
after starting he accosted me : "Well, 
shipmate, what craft do you belong 
to?" I was quick to answer: "To 
the man-of-war, 'Saturn.'" We 
talked freely ; I told of sea adven- 
tures ; he told of jolly sailors that had 
rode to London. No suspicion was 
awakened. At the relief stations I 
was merry and generous and so far 
treated the driver and guard as to 
draw my purse to only a remaining 
•sixpence of the pound appropriated to 
my journey. I studiously kept up 
every appearance and profession of 
loyalty to the royal realm, lest detec- 
tives should scent my track. Upon 

the whole we were a merry company, 
at least, outwardly. There rode with 
us two soldiers, lately from Buenos 
Ayres, having inherited some prop- 
erty, who were flush with money and 
wine and song and cheering story, 
and thus aided to relieve the dark, 
chill, dreary night. I studied oppor- 
tunities to make large English profes- 
sions for my better security. As we 
passed near Lord Nelson's country 
seat and some one pointed in its 
direction, I observed: "Our nation 
met with a great loss in Lord Nel- 
son's death ;" but inwardly I was glad 
he was dead and wished half the na- 
tion dead with him. 

Homeward Bound Across 
Atlantic a Free American Citizen 

On reaching London, as it was ex- 
tremely muddy, I had the politeness 
to help a lady passenger from the 
coach by taking her in my arms and 
landing her safely on the sidewalk. 
Expressing suitable obligation for the 
favor she continued by asking in what 
direction I was going. I told her I 
wished to find the Royal Exchange 
and inquired how I might find it. 
She directed me to follow the street 
on which we stood till I reached Lon- 
don Bridge when the Royal Ex- 
change would be full in sight. So 
my politeness received its recompense. 
I walked forward somewhat anx- 
iously, thinking withal of the in- 
quiries that were now on foot in 
Portsmouth for Holmes, the deserter. 
I was armed with my two trusty 
knives and I now carried them open 
though concealed to defend myself 
should a press gang lay hands on me. 
I felt that a certain part of the execu- 
tive power corresponding with my in- 
alienable rights was in myself and the 
tools of oppressors in the shape of 
press gangs would have found no 
mercy at my hands and no prize in 
me except my dead body. 

I had previously learned that our 
consul's office was in a street adjoin- 
ing the Royal Exchange. I soon 



found the office but it was closed. I 
waited near by revolving my prob- 
lematic destiny and holding fast to 
my knives. Shortly the clerk ap- 
peared and opened the office. I im- 
mediately entered and made myself 
known. It was Lord Mayor's day 
and therefore a high day in the city. 
The consul was somewhere in the 
crowd witnessing the pageant. The 
procession finally passed the office 
and the clerk, discovering the consul, 
stepped out and informed him that 
"the Holmes who had so often written 
to him was in the office anxious to see 
him." The consul soon came in and 
I fully spread my case before him. 
Asking me various questions about 
Connecticut and Stonington, he be- 
came satisfied that I was no deceiver. 
His duty was plain. He ordered his 
clerk to furnish me with a protection. 
I had gained my great point. I had 
no more use for my open knives. I 
now had the hand and seal of liberty. 
It was an hour of inexpressible relief 
and I stood up in the pride and dig- 
nity of an attested American citizen. 
But the more I rejoiced in my liberty 
and my endorsed rights the more I 
scorned and hated the English that 
had so long wronged me of my time 
and strength. And I was glad too 
that for my liberty I owed the 
haughty crown no thanks. I rather 
owed that which I exultingly en- 
deavored, not without some success, 
to pay on the tenth of August, 1814, 
in the borough of Stonington. 

My hatred to the English was only 
natural but was not altogether right. 
I now hastened to leave the loathed 
country and find my own sweet and 
free home. Searching for a home- 
ward passage I shipped on board the 
"Powhattan," a merchant ship from 
Petersburg, Virginia, under com- 
mand of Captain William Cottle. I 
need not say that I coveted for the 
"Powhattan" a quick passage and 
bounded across the Atlantic with a 
heart more buoyant than the waves or 
the winds. 

Back in Connecticut After 

Five Years* Fearful Experiences 

We reached the United States in 
March, 1807. I made no delay in 
finding old Stonington. After an 
absence of above five years, having 
passed through privations and im- 
prisonment, and slavish toils and im- 
minent perils, and goading insults, 
and now penniless, I was indeed 
happy to end the deep anxieties of 
my friends and to tread again the free 
soil of the region of my nativity. 
My experiences had prepared me to 
prize freedom. 

The wars abroad among the Euro- 
pean powers now brought on a state 
of general non-intercourse in com- 
mercial affairs which was soon fol- 
lowed by what was termed the long 
embargo. For a season therefore I 
remained about home, and in the 
meantime busied myself variously in 
farming. My restless thoughts, how- 
ever, still roamed upon the sea. Mis- 
fortunes had not quenched my sea- 
ward ambitions. I only waited the 
lifting of the war-clouds to launch 
again upon the treacherous but prom- 
ising element. I accepted not disas- 
trous beginnings as auguries of final 

In March, 1809, I was married to 
Miss Anne B. (Denison) Gallup, 
daughter of Isaac and Eunice (Wil- 
liams) Denison. This doubtless was 
the most fortunate as it was the hap- 
piest step of my life in respect to my 
temporal interests. 

It being reported that the long em- 
bargo was about to close I sought an 
opportunity to again go to sea. Only 
seven days after my marriage I went 
to New York and sailed immediately 
for Liverpool as mate of the large 
schooner "Sea Flower" under Cap- 
tain Peter Guifford, a Frenchman. 
We left port before the embargo 
closed so as to take the first chance in 
freights. The voyage occupied above 
eight months. The only incident of 
the voyage meriting notice was that 
of a most terrific hurricane which we 


experienced on our return passage off 
St. Johns. Not a shred of canvas 
dare we expose and death howled 
upon our track from the raging heav- 
ens and the boiling and surging deep. 
In all my fifty years' wanderings on 
the sea I have known no tempest that 
was its parallel. We reached New 
York in November. 

I now left the "Sea Flower" for the 
coasting trade at home. I took a 
sloop in company with Manassah 
Minor and sailed south, trading in 
produce chiefly between Richmond, 
Norfolk and other ports on the Atlan- 
tic shore. Thus I passed the winter 
of 1809 and 1810. 

In Coasting Trade on Atlantic 
Coast a Hundred Years Ago 

In the spring of 181 1 I joined a 
company who bought of Peck & Hal- 
lam of New London, the schooner 
"Sally Ann." I owned a fourth of 
the vessel, bought wholly on credit. 
I had just invested all my property in 
the erection of the dwelling that I 
still occupy (1859). We paid for the 
schooner five thousand eight hundred 
dollars. Simeon Haley was chosen 
captain and I was appointed mate. 
In June we sailed to Richmond, Vir- 
ginia. Here we secured a cargo of 
tobacco for Bristol, England, receiv- 
ing six pounds and two shillings per 
hogshead, making an excellent 
freight. In eight months from the 
time we sailed from Mystic I had 
cleared my part of the cost of the ves- 
sel, more than fourteen hundred dol- 

I was now put in command of the 
"Sally Ann" and ran her in the coast- 
ing business on the Atlantic shore till 
within a few weeks of the opening of 
the War of 1812, when I sold out to 
Simeon Haley. 

Soon after the breaking out of the 
war I bought one-fourth of the fam- 
ous sloop "Hero" and was appointed 
as her commander. 

In February, 181 3, I took the 
"Hero" to New York to receive a 

freight to Charleston, South Carolina. 
The great difficulties of the coast 
trade at this time made it profitable to 
such as dared to pursue it. On reach- 
ins: New York we learned that the 
Chesapeake was blocked by a British 
squadron, and, knowing that the ene- 
my's ships were hovering thickly on 
the whole coast, it was deemed very 
hazardous to attempt the contem- 
plated voyage. Captain Potter and 
the other owners had their misgiv- 
ings. I was ready to try the cruise 
relying upon the "Hero's" keel and 
the strength of her cordage. 

I ran out to sea and for a day or so 
had no trouble. Some of the time I 
had the company of the pilot boat, 
schooner "Ulysses," cruising off the 
coast to inform Commodore Rogers 
of the blockade of the Chesapeake. 
My first anxiety was from five British 
ships of the line discovered close upon 
me during the night. Favored by the 
darkness and a skilful management of 
my canvas to avoid being seen and 
giving reins to the "Hero" on a run 
I soon left the ships beyond the hori- 
zon. On another night I fell in with 
a single man-of-war that I dodged by 
like maneuvers. On a third night I 
was again surprised and the enemy, 
discovering me, turned and bent her- 
self upon my track. The "Ulysses" 
was now in sight to the northward 
and on the shore side of me. The 
enemy soon turned her pursuit upon 
the "Ulysses," which was the larger 
vessel ; meanwhile I turned to the 
eastward and so escaped. The 
"Ulysses" pressed canvas and carried 
away her mainmast, when the enemy 
came up and taking her crew pris- 
oners, sent her to the bottom. 

Adventures as Commander of 
the " Hero " in War of 1812 

Only the night after this escape I 
was surprised by a bright light direct- 
ly on my bow. In a moment I dis- 
cerned five vessels of the British line 
standing directly for me. Instantly I 
bore away unseen by them, as in a 



moment they were busy making a 
tack and ran to the eastward; but 
soon shaping my course to southward 
again, before morning I ran into the 
midst of the same company and 
passed within a cable's length of a 
brig's bow, and yet again, as my for- 
tune would have it, I was unobserved. 

On a following night with the wind 
blowing well-nigh a gale and in the 
midst of a fog that was exchanged for 
rain, I found a large three-decker just 
aft and a heavy ship just ahead plung- 
ing on their way. I again concealed 
myself by taking in my sails till a lit- 
tle distance made it safe to put the 
bone again in the "Hero's" mouth. 

Thus with playing hush and dodg- 
ing and scudding, all with sleepless 
anxiety and yet confidence in the good 
"Hero's" keel, canvas and helm, after 
a passage of about six days, I ran 
over the bar into Charleston Harbor 
to the no little astonishment of the 
people in the city; for only the day 
before a ship and a brig were prowl- 
ing in the offing on the lookout for 
victims, and had succeeded in captur- 
ing the schooner "Federal Jack," then 
in the government service supplying 
lighthouses with oil and other neces- 
saries. The collector of the port at 
once asked me if I had a license for 
my cruise from the English. I told 
him my only license was from the 
custom-house in New London. He 
seemed astonished at my daring and 

I lay in Charleston about two 
weeks discharging and making ready 
and taking in freight for my return 
voyage. I laid the "Hero" ashore, 
scrubbed and tallowed her that she 
might make a clean furrow. I found 
here the "Nimble," under Captain 
John Rathbun, and the "Revenue," 
under Captain Forsyth, both from 
Mystic. These sailed the day before 
me, heavily loaded, and were captured 
off Cape Hatteras by Admiral War- 
ren and were taken to the Chesapeake 
when the crews, with about two hun- 
dred other prisoners, were put on 

board the frigate "Junan" and car- 
ried to Bermuda. I took in a reason- 
able load of cotton and other articles 
and started on my homeward dodge. 

About the third day out I fell in 
with an English frigate off the capes 
of the Chesapeake. She gave chase 
and pursued me from morning till 
evening. As darkness came on she 
was within two gun-shots of me. 
Under cover of the night I took in my 
small sails and hauled in towards land 
and then tacking to the north and tax- 
ing my spars successfully eluded the 
enemy's reach. 

" Gentlemen, You Have Got to 
Fight or Go to Halifax ! " 

I met no other danger till I neared 
the island of No Man's Land, when, 
at daylight, I discovered a brig on my 
weather quarter busy making sail. 
The wind was now north. I at once 
spread all my canvas and squared 
away before the wind. The brig 
came bounding after me. I had a 
clear track for about two hours and I 
measured my knots right handsomely. 
I now made two English frigates! 
directly on my bow. This gave me a 
shorter berth than I could have de- 
sired. But despair never shipped on 
board the "Hero," nor was her keel 
made for a prize. I jibed and stood 
to the eastward. I now had the brig 
on my quarter and the frigates astern 
and one of the frigates immediately 
gave chase ; the other had a schooner 
in care. I bid the "Hero" do her 
best and helped her as best I could. 
A little relief, however, unexpectedly 
arose from the character and fears of 
the brig. 

The brig proved to be an English 
privateer, the "Sir John Sherbrook," 
of Liverpool, Nova Scotia, a very 
famous craft "that took not a few 
prizes on our coast during the war. 
She did not wish to come under the 
reach of the frigate lest, in obedience 
to her superior, she should be com- 
pelled to give up a portion of her men 
for the frigate's use; she, therefore, 


gave the frigate a reasonable berth, 
but she still hung upon my course as 
best she could with her own interests 
in view. She hauled her wind to the 
northward. I was now running to 
the eastward, but I shortly headed 
towards Martha's Vineyard. 

The wind now died away, and we 
were close in to No Man's Land. The 
brig lowered her boat armed with 
muskets and prosecuted the chase. 
The frigate had now given up the 
chase and returned to seek her con- 
sort. The brig's boat pressed so 
closely upon me that the man in her 
bow with a musket fired upon me and 
put a number of balls through my 
sails. But for my consideration this 
bowsman would have lost his life. I 
had three passengers on board; one 
of these was a Mr. Spencer of Ver- 
mont, who had a prime rifle, and pro- 
posed to prove his expertness with 
his piece at the same time that he 
should evince his patriotism by laying 
this armed bowsman in the bottom of 
the boat. I requested a little delay. 
Counting upon what might occur I 
made the "Hero" ready for defense. 
I said to my passengers : "Now, gen- 
tlemen, you have got to fight or go to 
Halifax." We had no relish for Hal- 
ifax. I had the men and passengers 
at work at once, and I locked the 
companion-way to hold all the 
strength on deck. We arranged the 
bales of cotton in tiers like a bulwark. 
I then had a quantity of ballast stones 
and all available arms ready to give 
the privateer a suitable reception. 
Fortunately, however, at this mo- 
ment, when affairs were about to 
come to arms, a breeze sprung up 

that filled the "Hero's" canvas and I 
soon left the assailant with no other 
choice than to return to the brig. 

Triumph of the •• Hero " and 
Her Welcome Home Again 

I now ran between No Man's Land 
and a reef, and stood on to the north- 
ward. The brig dared not follow, 
but remained outside and was be- 

The brig had an American Jack 
from her fore-top-gallant mast-head 
for a pilot. My mate suggested that 
we should run down and put him on 
board as a pilot that he might realize 
a few hundred dollars for carrying 
her into Newport. I replied: "I 
shall neither board any vessel nor be 
boarded till I reach a good harbor." 
Nearing land we fell in with a num- 
ber of small fishing vessels. One of 
these, the smack "Fair Haven" of 
Edgartown ran down and furnished 
the brig with a pilot. 

I had a good breeze in shore and I 
made the best of it. With a change 
of wind I now put my head in for 
Point Judith. By four o'clock in the 
morning I was off Watch Hill. Ly- 
ing here with jib to my mast till 
morning broke I discovered the priva- 
teer brig abreast of me not a mile dis- 
tant. Making all sail I stood through 
the reef and before sunrise the 
"Hero" ran into Noank in Mystic 
River, where I was most heartily wel- 
comed by my owners and friends 
who, not without reason, praised the 
"Hero's" success and wondered how 
I had so successfully run the gauntlet 
through so many ships of war. 


Alas for all old cities of the dead: 

(God send the bitter vision oft to me !) 

Troy much-sung and Venice on the sea; 

Nineveh and Rome— all, all are sped. 

Their night came not with any sudden dread 

Of ghastly war or grinding tyranny:— 

With sword in hand men wax more strong to be, 

And heroes rise in towns beleaguered;— 

But twilight slowly drew her blanket down 

When none had aught of dawn left in his eyes. 

For poets had sold their sorrow for a fee 

And maids had ceased to dream of love's sweet sighs. 

Oh ye that keep the rule of London Town, 

God send this vision oft to you and me. 

Pioneer £ife on tbe American frontier 




Justice of the United States District Court of Montana under Appointment of President Lincoln 


Destiny of Western America— Now Eetired from Active Practice in his Eighty-sixth 
Year and Residing in New Haven, Connecticut 

THE birth of the Rich West is 
one of the most romantic 
stories in American life. It 
is the chivalrous tale of the 
conquering of mountains and can- 
yons, of forest and wilderness, of 
savage men and more savage beasts 
It is but forty-two years ago that the 
writer of this narrative passed 
through the experiences here de- 
scribed, and to-day this same path- 
less wild is aglow with untold wealth 

in precious ores, vast timber lands, 
and rolling fields of grain. Montana, 
the scene of this action, is alone 
contributing three hundred million 
pounds of copper annually, and gold 
and silver treasured at nearly twen- 
ty-four million dollars yearly, while 
its dense forests of more than twelve 
million acres are almost priceless in 
their riches and its Great Falls offer 
water power three times that of 




RECEIVING from President 
Lincoln in March, 1865, my 
commission as one of the 
three United States judges of 
the Supreme Court of Montana, I be- 
gan preparing for the start into the 
American wilderness in the service of 
my country. I will relate the inci- 
dents as I experienced them. 

The discovery of gold in Montana 
in 1863 and 1864, had attracted wide- 
spread attention, and people flocked 
there in wild enthusiasm at the pros- 
pect of speedy wealth, apparently 
dreaming that a trip there would be 
equivalent to a life-time of ease and 
luxury in golden dreams. Crime was 
rampant with no laws or courts for 
its restraint. 

Congress, to meet the emergency, 
provided for a territorial government 
over the country, by act approved 
May 26, 1864. Under this act as a 
political division of territorial area, 
Montana was larger in extent than all 
the six New England states, New 
York, New Jersey, Delaware and 
Maryland combined. 

At this time no railroads crossed 
the continent, and it was unsafe to 
travel in those western wilds, except 
in large well-armed parties, and even 
then the danger was great on account 
of the Indians who struck terror to all 
objects of civilized life in their sur- 

Appointees for the government of 
Montana, in the summer of 1864, 
made rendezvous at Omaha, pur- 
chased their outfit, with three months' 
provision for the journey, joined an 
emigrant train for Salt Lake and 
started, arriving at Virginia City in 
Southern Montana late in the fall of 

Here they found a large popula- 
tion seeking gold, and human life 
was a small obstacle in their way of 
getting it. Among this rough, law- 
less element, were as brave, true men 
as ever faced danger or met duty. Out 
of dire necessity a Vigilance Com- 
mittee had been organized for protec- 

tion, and for a time it was a question 
which would be cleaned out first, the 
committee or the banditti. It was a 
trying crisis for the future of the Ter- 
ritory. Adventurous men and women, 
long emancipated from restraints of 
home and the refining influences of 
virtuous society, who had followed 
camp life on the Pacific slope as long 
as it was safe to remain there, had 
come to Montana. 

This committee, hardly knowing 
whom to invite in, or exclude from its 
councils, with resolute purpose, with 
physical bravery and moral courage 
that would have crowned them mar- 
tyrs at the stake in any age of the 
world, went forward with their work. 
Detective agencies sent out, the net- 
work woven — and at a given signal 
the net was .sprung, criminals arrest- 
ed, and brought in from different 
points to a designated place, and there 
charged with crime — a trial took 
place, and five of them were hanged 
at one time. This was the most im- 
portant day's work ever done in the 
Territory. Similar arrests, trials, 
convictions and executions were 
held, sometimes one, two, and three 
executions at a time, till between 
the twenty-first day of December, 

1863, and the third day of February, 

1864, a little over a month, at Virginia 
City and Bannack, twenty-four of 
these outlaws, including the sheriff 
and two of his deputies, were hanged 
by the Vigilantes ; and eight others, in- 
cluding two attorneys who had de- 
fended the criminals at the trial, were 
banished from the Territory. 

The sheriff and his deputy pals were 
in league as robbers of coach and pas- 
sengers with gold consignments to 
the states. His official position 
gained information as to coach out- 
fit, and if the outfit promised favorable 
results, the coach met with masked 
robbers and the robbery was com- 
pleted. Success finally betrayed his 
ambition, and he was brought to view 
his ending at the end of a hangman's 
rope. The sheriff was a well-built, 




all-around confidence man, whose 
position disarmed suspicion and his 
punishment too long delayed. Vigi- 
lante execution was speedy, usually 
within an hour after conviction. 
After every execution, good people 
breathed freer ; that is, those who 
could breathe at all, for it was found 
at the trials by proof, confession and 
otherwise, that these adventurers be- 
came insane with the greed for gold 
and over one hundred lives were sac- 
rificed to their sordid ambitions. Con- 
science was temporarily stupefied by 
the stampede for riches. One victim 
at the end of the rope, confessed that 
it was quicker and easier to kill a man 
for his gold than to dig for it. 

These trials were before a Vigi- 
lante jury, presided over by one of 
their number with dignity and deco- 
rum, with a conscientious regard for 
the rights of the innocent, as well as 
stern justice for the guilty. If on 
trial, suspicion was strong and evi- 
dence weak, the accused was given so 
many hours to leave the Territory, and 
if he did not leave within the time 
limited, he never left at all. No 
one, once warned, waited for a 
second call, and he asked for no days 
of grace to the time limited. 

The history of the Vigilance Com- 
mittee in Montana is so incorporated 
into its early history, that I feel justi- 
fied in alluding to it as one of the nec- 
essary forces used to eradicate a greater 
evil. The conscious existence of this 
committee was a wholesome dread to 
evil-doers. It will be remembered 
that, at the time of this active work of 
the Vigilantes, there was not an or- 
ganized court in the limits of the Ter- 
ritory, and not one East between the 
Rocky Mountains and Yankton, in 
Dakota, nearly one thousand miles 

When President Lincoln summoned 
me to Montana, I could gain but little 
information by correspondence or in- 
quiry, as to the condition of affairs in 
the Territory — where I should be lo- 
cated when there — or the best way to 

go. Deciding upon the river route, I 
shipped my library to St. Louis, tak- 
ing a steamer there for Fort Benton, 
the head of steamboat navigation, 
three thousand miles distant by river 
from St. Louis, and it took over fifty 
days to complete the trip, yet our 
steamer was the crack boat on the 
river that season. 

Passing Yankton, in the lower part 
of Dakota one thousand, one hundred 
and eighty miles by river above St. 
Louis, we entered a country filled 
with hostile Indians. Military forts 
and stockades were besieged by the 
redskins, and commanders of the forts 
tried to impress upon the captain of 
our boat the perils of the trip, and it 
required no stretch of imagination to 
guard against possible adverse expe- 
riences on the way. 

Fort Rice, one thousand eight hun- 
dred miles above St. Louis by the 
river, had been surrounded by them 
for days, it not being safe for even 
picket men to venture outside the en- 
closure. Mooring our boat to the 
shore, Indians interpreted our arrival 
as reinforcements for the fort and 
they left. Colonel Reeves, command- 
ant of the fort, showed us a poisoned 
arrow taken from the body of one of 
his soldiers who had died that day iri 
great agony from its effects. 

The pilot house of our boat was 
sheathed with boiler iron, with peep- 
holes to look out for safe navigation, 
and other precautions taken for 
safety. There was no security in 
traveling through the Indian country 
at that date, except in large, well- 
armed parties, and even then trains 
were frequently stampeded by the 
bold dash and dreaded war-whoop of 
the Indians, who swept down like an 
evil spirit of the winds to help them- 
selves to the scalps of drivers and 
plunder from the trains. Many to 
this day remember how frequently 
the coaches on the overland route 
were attacked by the Indians, and 
how thrillingly graphic were the 
scenes described by those who escaped 
the peril. 


Old Prints in Possession of Judge Lyman E. Munson 


At night our boat was anchored 
with sentinels on guard to prevent 
surprise or attack. 

On our way up the river we en- 
countered vast herds of buffaloes 
moving from southern to northern 
feeding grounds. The plains, at 
times, on either side of the river, were 
literally covered with them as far as 
the eye could reach. They came to 
the river-bank and plunged into the 
sweeping floods regardless of fear 
and swam to the opposite shore like 
veterans in their native element. 

Such a sight will never again be 
witnessed by mortal eyes. The river 
was full of them ; so full, that we 
were obliged on different days to stop 
the steamer to avoid being swamped 
by them. On one occasion a stalwart 
fellow became entangled in the wheel 
of the steamer, and in his efforts for 
release, ripped out some of the buck- 
ets of the wheel, necessitating repairs. 
Some fat heifers and calves were las- 
soed from the river and killed for 
fresh meat for boat supplies. Ex- 
citement on these occasions lifted us 
into pleasurable emotions regardless 
of possible events for the morrow. 
Each had its markings different from 
preceding days. 

At times an old bullock which had 
often piloted the herd over vast prai- 
ries to better feeding grounds, being 
fought and gored by younger blood of 
the same gender, would lag behind on 
the plains meditating on the mutabili- 
ties of time. No king deposed from 
thronely power seemingly ever felt 
the force of adverse circumstances 
more keenly than these deposed mon- 
archs from prairie ranges forty years 

A wolf finding them alone, would 
watch their movements, and sound 
his call for help, which being an- 
swered by others understanding the 
signal, would hasten to respond ; and 
when a sufficient number had gath- 
ered, would attack and drag their vic- 
tim down for a feast. These exhibi- 
tions were not rare in episode, but 
pathetic in exhibition. Wolves in 

single numbers are cowards for 
attack, but when fortified by numbers 
are courageous and voracious till 
their hunger is appeased. It is won- 
derful how well understood is the 
language of beast and bird-life pecu- 
liar to their species, and how quickly 
they respond to the meaning of sig- 
nals ! Montana was full of buffalo, 
moose, elk, deer, antelope, bear, 
wolves, foxes, and other game, and 
rifles echoed results in trophies that 
garnished the menu of our table on 
the transit. 

Buffalo hunting was exciting and 
perilous. A wounded buffalo would 
often turn upon his pursuers, and 
in his fury, horse and rider would 
go down to rise no more. Buffalo 
are powerfully built, with fourteen 
pairs of ribs to the ox thirteen, 
and courageous to the extent of their 

In the timber that fringed the river 
bank, otter, beaver, mink and musk- 
rat, splashed into the water on our 
approach. Lagoons and lakelets 
were alive with water-fowl that 
sported in security, apparently tame 
in their wildness. 

Game birds and animals strutted in 
tempting attitudes before the gunner 
armed with breech-loading shot-guns, 
and the deadly aim of Winchester 
rifles often varied the menu at our 
cabin table with luxuries that would 
tempt the gods of epicurean habit. 

Rivers and lakes were full of deli- 
cious trout, as pretty speckled beau- 
ties as ever tempted the eye, or tic- 
kled the palate of good old Isaac 
Walton, who hung up his fishing 
tackle without visiting Montana, and 
his facetious pen was lost to the de- 
scription of celebrities in its waters ; 
where a few hours of careless fishing- 
would satisfy the ambition of any 
one, especially if he had to carry the 
catch far on his back. There is a tra- 
dition in Montana of a man on mule- 
back fording one of its streams, 
where the trout were so voracious 
that they bit the spurs of his boots 
and hung on till he reached shore, 


Old Prints in Possession of Judge Lyman E. Munson 


and people repeated it as if they be- 
lieved it true, and they were never 
hanged for speaking the truth. 

A school teacher from Massachu- 
setts, writing to the Springfield Re- 
publican, said that his fishing experi- 
ence culminated when he reached 
Snake river. That he there "caught 
a brook trout that had a chipmunk 
and a mole in his stomach and still 
was hungry." "What do you think," 
said he, "of brook trout two feet, four 
inches long, with a nose four inches 
in breadth, a mouth like a good-sized 
shark, and weighing six and one-half 
pounds ? You will not believe in such 
fish, but I assure you that Snake river 
is full of them, of incredible ferocity, 
and voracious to the last degree." 

At Wolf Point, so-called, on the 
banks of the river, some woodchop- 
pers had built a stockade to divide 
their time in cutting wood for the 
steamers, and trapping for furs, and 
it proved most profitable. They 
killed a buffalo — cut out what meat 
they wanted to use, and poisoned the 
carcass for the wolves. The first 
night seventy-two wolves came to 
grief. This was the largest wolf- 
gathering I ever saw. They had 
come in from prairie ravines and tim- 
ber nooks for a feast, and they lay 
around the stockade on our arrival 
mid-day following their adventure, 
harmless of snapping teeth that glis- 
tened in the sun waiting the knife to 
separate their furry backs to fleshy 
coverings, which suggested comforta- 
ble robes for wintry days. An Indian 
would skin a wolf, surrendering its 
pelt to its captor for its carcass for 
his feast, regardless of the cause of 
its death and careless of his own mor- 
tuary record. The captain of our 
boat made arrangements with the 
stockade adventurers for the pur- 
chase of their pelts on his return, with 
as many more as they might capture 
in the interim. 

River traffic in those days picked 
up much furry materials at local 
points on the river that did not enter 
into commercial reports, but their 

markings in value on return trips 
were as great as on an up-trip adven- 

About one hundred miles below 
Benton, our boat grounded. On 
board as passenger was Major Up- 
son, Indian agent at Benton, return- 
ing with annuity goods for distribu- 
tion among the Indians connected 
with the agency. Some Indians came 
to the river bank who knew the ma- 
jor. He told them what he had on 
board which excited their vision of 
supplies, and gave one a letter to 
deliver with utmost speed to the 
agency at Benton. After a square 
meal for the start, and a sandwich for 
the way, the Indian started, leaving 
his three companions as hostages on 
the boat to await his return. Indians 
are fleet runners, and in two days 
from starting he had delivered his 
errand and returned. Three days 
later, teams appeared ; the boat light- 
ed of freight again steamed up the 
river. Strict surveillance was kept 
over the Indians on the boat till the 
Indian returned — only one allowed to 
leave the boat at a time for fear of 
treachery if they met other Indians. 

Near Benton several persons, a few 
days before our arrival, were reported 
as massacred by the Indians. This 
soon after was retaliated by whites, 
when eleven Indians at one time, out 
of deference to Winchester rifle bul- 
lets, passed over into the spirit land, 
leaving their bodies and blankets on 
the ground, and their scalps flutter- 
ing on poles with night winds chant- 
ing a requiem over their departure. 

After some delay at Benton we 
started with mule trains and prairie 
schooners for Helena, one hundred 
and forty miles distant. The trail 
was sufficiently marked to follow the 
way. We usually encamped for the 
night about mid-afternoon near a 
spring or water course. Wagons 
were drawn up in a circle, horses 
tethered out for grazing and a dinner 
prepared, sometimes stimulated by 
heat energies from dried buffalo 
chips, which was received with less 




grumbling by the guest than are din- 
ners served to major-generals from 
embalmed beef of modern notoriety. 

At night, horses were brought into 
the enclosed circle for safety, passen- 
gers spread their blankets on the 
ground under the wagon for night's 
repose, trusty sentinels kept watch 
around the encampment, while the 
music of howling wolves in the near 
distance contributed to wakeful hours 
of nervous sleepers. Time wore 
away distance, and on Sunday, July 
9, 1865, we arrived at Helena, then 
called Last Chance Gulch, owing to 
its discovery late in the fall before. 

This was a lively camp ; two thou- 
sand people were there, street spaces 
were blockaded with men and mer- 
chandise, ox trains, mule trains and 
pack trains surrounded the camp, 
waiting a chance to unload. The 
saw and hammer were busy in put- 
ting up cabins and store-houses, and 
in constructing sluice boxes for the 
washing out of gold, which was found 
in nearly every rod of its valley soil. 
Men who had shunned domestic duty 
over the cradle for years were rock- 
ing a cradle filled with dirty water, 
watching appearances of golden sands 
to open their purse strings to the real- 
ities of their adventure. Auctioneers 
were crying their wares, trade was 
lively, saloons crowded, hurdy-gurdy 
dance-houses in full blast ; wild mus- 
tang horses, never before saddled or 
bridled, with Mexican riders on their 
backs, whereon man never sat before, 
were running, jumping, kicking and 
bucking to unhorse their riders, much 
to the amusement of the jeering 
crowd, and as exciting as a Spanish 
bull fight. "Buffalo Bill's" Wild 
West show illustrates in pantomime 
some of the stirring scenes and hair- 
rising proclivities of my first Sunday 
in Montana. It was a Sunday differ- 
ent from my early education in New 
England, and long to be remembered 
as a dividing line between Puritanical 
life and the wild scenes of Western 

There was suspended to the limb of 
a tree a man hung by the Vigilance 
Committee the night before, which 
was the eighth specimen of similar 
fruit encased in leather boots that 
tree had borne in as many months. 

Saturday nights and Sunday morn- 
ings miners would come into town 
with their week's wages, and they 
would drink, gamble and dance till 
their money was gone, and then go 
back to camp after the excitement of 
the day was over, completely strapped, 
to renew the folly at another week's 
ending. Is it any wonder that such 
indulgence should blossom into crime ? 

At a conference with the other 
judges I spoke of this mode of mid- 
night life-taking, and insisted that 
such cases should be noticed by the 
courts. One of the judges, under- 
standing the necessity of sure, speedy 
work with the criminals, said : "I am 
content to let the Vigilantes go on, 
for the present ; they can attend to 
this branch of jurisprudence cheaper, 
quicker and better than it can be done 
by the courts ; besides, we have no 
secure jails in which to confine crim- 

The other judges coincided with 
him and said: "If you attempt to try 
one of those road agents in the courts, 
his comrades will get him clear, or if 
he should be convicted, the lives of 
the witnesses who testify against him, 
and of the judge who sentences him, 
will not be worth the shoes they 
wear." "Road agent" was a moun- 
tain phrase to designate highway rob- 
bers and perpetrators of kindred 

A grand jury in one of the districts 
presented to the court in lieu of an 
indictment : "That it is better to leave 
the punishment of criminal offenders 
to the Vigilantes, who always act im- 
partially, and who would not permit 
the escape of' proved criminals on 
technical and absurd grounds." 

My court opened the first week in 
August, 1865. In my charge to the 
grand jury, I took occasion to say 
that the court that day opened for the 


9 1 

first time in that district for the trial 
of civil and criminal cases ; and that, 
however satisfactory an excuse might 
hitherto have been for secret trials 
and midnight executions, no such ne- 
cessity longer existed, and that- all 
such proceedings must now be left to 
the courts. 

The next day, three gentlemen, 
neither of whom I knew by name or 
sight, called upon me, and said that 
my charge to the grand jury was ex- 
citing considerable comment in the 
community, and asked about the lan- 
guage used. I told them it was on 
file in the clerk's office and they could 
see it there. That there might be no 
misunderstanding about it, I caused 
the whole charge to be published in 
one of the local papers and it was 
copied in other papers in Montana. 

My next court term opened in De- 
cember, 1865. A murder had just 
been committed. Through the vigi- 
lance of court officers the man was 
arrested and held for trial in the 
court. A rescue and summary pun- 
ishment of the prisoner was threat- 
ened. The officers of the court, the 
jail not being secure, guarded the 
prisoner to prevent escape or rescue. 
At night the prisoner was taken from 
the jail to the court-room, where it 
was warm and comfortable for the 
officers on duty ; one leg of the pris- 
oner was shackled and secured to a 
staple in the floor. The officers, well- 
armed, remained on duty through the 
night in the room, while trusty senti- 
nels patrolled outside to prevent sur- 
prise. This was more agreeable to 
the prisoner, who was afraid of res- 
cue and summary punishment, than 
pleasant to the keepers. 

No braver officers ever lived than 
U. S. Marshall George M. Pinney 
and his deputies, Neil Howie, John 
Featherston, and J. X. Beidler, and it 
gives me personal pleasure to accord 
to them the merit of having contribu- 
ted largely to the establishment of 
order and good government over dis- 
cordant elements in the Territory. 

The grand jury, in attendance upon 

the court, was charged upon the spe- 
cial work before them and upon such 
matters as might be the subject of in- 
quiry. They found a true bill against 
the prisoner and were excused from 
further attendance upon the court. 
The prisoner was put upon trial for 
the offense charged in the indictment. 
Officers guarded him day and night. 
The verdict of the jury was murder 
in the second degree ; no appeal 
taken, sentence passed, and in less 
than thirty days from the commission 
of the homicide the prisoner was 
serving out the penalty in the terri- 
torial prison at Virginia City. 

The secretary, acting as governor 
of the Territory in the absence of the 
governor, while under the influence 
of an unfortunate habit, pardoned 
and set the prisoner at liberty. On 
being released from prison the man 
went back to Helena, swearing ven- 
geance upon the witnesses who had 
testified against him. Arriving at 
Helena about nine o'clock in the even- 
ing, he was immediately surrounded 
by the Vigilantes and was hanged at 
ten o'clock with the pardon in his 

This was the ninth specimen of kin- 
dred fruit that famous hangman's 
tree at Helena had borne in so many 
months. They all went up with their 
boots on, and as death found them, so 
the grave covered them. This trial in 
the courts for murder was the first 
ever held in the Territory, and it 
marked a new era in its jurispru- 

If you would like to see how a man 
looked after graduating with the high- 
est honors from a Vigilance institu- 
tion, I will give you a verbal picture 
of this man as he appeared the next 
morning before removal from the 
sunlit tree to final rest beneath the 
clods of the valley. The remains were 
placed in a stainless board coffin on a 
dray cart drawn by a mule, the sher- 
iff and coroner leading the way from 
the place of execution to the ceme- 
tery ; no mourners shed tears on the 
way ; no glove-handed pall-bearers 


to do escort duty ; no flowers on the 
•coffin enclosing the remains ; no re- 
ligious ceremony over its commit- 
ment, and no monument marks his 

Vigilante rule worked in harmony 
with its precedents, with no artificial 
distinction of persons or in results. 
Speedy trial in civil and criminal 
jurisdiction metes out justice better 
when witnesses are fresh from the 
scene of controversy than to await 
their departure, or to depend upon 
India rubber memories which may be 
side-tracked into forgetfulness when 
the trial is reached. Eastern states' 
courts would profit largely by imitat- 
ing Western promptness in court pro- 
ceedings with less miscarriage from 
the pivotal point of justice, with less 
frivolous technicalities for delay. 

There was one other trial for mur- 
der before me in August, 1866. This 

man was arrested by the United 
States marshall for murder in the 
Indian country under provisions of 
United States laws ; was tried on the 
United States side of the court and 
convicted of murder in the first de- 
gree. Sentence passed that he be re- 
manded to prison and there safely 
kept, "till Friday, the fifth day of Oc- 
tober, 1866, then and there to be 
hanged by the neck till dead." Offi- 
cers of the law guarded the jail and 
prisoner day and night to prevent 
escape or summary execution. Rec- 
ord of arrest, proceedings, trial, con- 
viction and sentence were forwarded 
to the president and attorney-general 
of the United States. 

President Johnson commuted the 
sentence to imprisonment for life, and 
ordered his transfer to Detroit prison, 
Michigan, to serve out the sentence. 
On his way thither, he escaped from 



his keepers and was never delivered 

I recall another case. The head 
manager of a large quartz mining 
company for the reduction of gold 
ores near Helena killed a man for 
alleged stealing of wood, cut for mill- 
ing purposes. This wood was cut on 
government land, the title to which 
remained in the government. The 
man was arrested, jailed, indicted by 
the grand jury, and held for trial. 
Pending trial, the prisoner took 
change of venue to a sparsely settled 
county in another district jurisdic- 
tion. On the trial the prisoner was 
discharged and he left Montana un- 
der cover of midnight hours and was 
never seen there afterwards. 

After I left Montana, I learned 
that four other persons were hanged 
by the Vigilantes upon that famous 
Helena tree, thirteen in all, when a 
clergyman, ostensibly to reform the 
morals of the community, cut the tree 
down, and when it was safely housed, 
peddled it out for canes, and that tree 
became as famous for the number of 
canes it produced as it had for the 
number of persons who had cast their 
last look up among the branches be- 
fore testing the strength of its fibers 
at the end of the rope. From twelve 
to twenty-four hours of good hanging- 
was generally considered long enough 
to warrant a certificate that life was 
extinct and the body ready for burial. 

Soon after my arrival in the Ter- 
ritory, I received a letter from a med- 
ical graduate of Yale, stating that he 
had graduated with honor, was de- 
voted to his profession and anxious 
to settle in a new thriving city, and 
inquired if Helena was such a place. 
Meeting one of the worthy doctors of 
the city, I handed him the letter and 
asked for information. 

Said he : "Tell that young man not 
to come here, for men are seldom sick 
and never die," and with a quizzing 
look into the face of the gentlemen 
by his side said : "The Vigilance Com- 
mittee had to hang a man in order to 
start a grave-yard." Whereupon the 

gentlemen addressed replied: "The 
reason of the delay in starting one is 
not so much owing to the want of 
sickness among the people as the lack 
of skill among the doctors." Honors 
being easy between them, the conver- 
sation was not continued. 

Vigilantes, as a rule, filled the hiatus 
between early settlements, the estab- 
lishment of courts and organization 
of civil government over the Terri- 
tory. They can look back over a 
generation of stirring activities in her 
borders with a consciousness of duty 
well performed in its early history. 

Hopeful and active for its welfare 
under shadowy clouds in its morning 
life they were efficient and watchful 
in the sunshine of its prosperity, in 
social, political and commercial 
maturity. History overlooks some 
faults to embellish the memory of the 
faithful. Vigilante rule in the early 
life of Montana may have had cloudy 
sppts upon its disk, but its general 
record illumines its history as a nec- 
essary force in the cycles of time. 

The first Montana legislature in 
1865 failed, under its organic act, to 
make provision for its successor and 
its legislative functions lapsed, ne- 
cessitating affirmative action by the 
government at Washington. With- 
out waiting that action the acting 
governor (the governor being absent 
from the Territory), in February, 
1866, under some fancied pressure, 
issued a proclamation ordering an 
election of delegates and convening 
the legislature in March, 1866, which 
proceeded to the business of law- 
making for the Territory. Its pre- 
tended laws and franchises were early 
before my court for consideration and 
were adjudged void and of no valid- 

Court records, with legislative pro- 
ceedings, were transmitted to the 
president and by him referred to the 
attorney-general of the United States, 
who sustained the ruling and decis- 
ions of the court, adjudged the legis- 
lative proceedings void, payment of 
expenses of the legislature refused, 



and its reputed laws expunged from 
the statutes of Montana. Executive, 
judicial and legislative jurisdictions 
settled down in harmony, and peace 
and prosperity ruled the Territory. 

The Montana Bar was composed 
in the main of well-educated, good 
lawyers and accomplished gentlemen, 
some of whom had held judicial posi- 
tions in the states before going there. 
They were loyal to their profession, to 
the courts, to the commonwealth, and 
their influence did much to bring or- 
der out of chaos and establish good 
government for the people. 

Many families emigrated there for 
future homes. Fond mothers had 
said in the language of Ruth: 
" Whither thou goest, I will go, 
Whither thou lodgest, I will lodge, 
Thy people shall be my people, 
And thy God my God." 

The presence of virtuous women 
inspired rough miners with respect, 
and their gentle administrations to 
the wayward were like merciful visi- 
tations to the doomed. 

In October, 1865, in company with 
the governor, and an armed escort, 

we started from Helena on horseback 
for Benton, one hundred and forty 
miles distant, to help the Indian agent 
make a treaty with the Indians and 
witness the distribution of annuities. 
At this time three log cabins, two 
occupied by French half-breeds and 
one by an American, were the only 
stationary evidence of civilized life on 
the way. 

The first day we reached the ranch 
of Malcolm Clark, an American liv- 
ing with his two squaw wives of dif- 
ferent tribes in his cabin home. 
Horses and mules carrying our camp 
outfit were relieved of their burden 
and picketed around haystacks for 
forage. Supper ended, we retired 
for the night under a shed, nrovided 
our horses from storms which came 
up suddenly and raged furiously 
while the storm-king tarried, rolled 
ourselves up in our blankets with 
trusty rifles loaded by our sides for 
emergency and took a quiet sleep 
while midnight sentinels patrolled the 
camp. Morning sunlight was propi- 
tious for a pleasant day's journey. 



Clark was a graduate of West 
Point and worked on the fort and 
storehouse at Benton for the Ameri- 
can Fur Company, of which John 
Jacob Astor was the head. He 
claimed that his wife and children 
were entitled to a share in the distri- 
bution of the annuities and in the 
morning he joined us for the balance 
of the journey. During the clay a 
•snowstorm struck us and we housed 
for the night in the cabin of a Cana- 
dian half-breed, before spoken of. 
An Indian hunter for the cabin had 
brought in a mountain sheep and we 
feasted on delicious morsels from its 
juicy sides. After the repast we 
rolled ourselves up in blankets and 
lay round on the ground floor with 
heads and points at promiscuous an- 
gles. Still snowing in the morning, 
it was decided to detour from the reg- 
ular route and visit the Catholic mis- 
sion some fifteen miles distant. 

Clark, understanding Indian, en- 
gaged the hunter as guide, they lead- 
ing the way over the trackless snow 
and we following. Reaching the mis- 
sion, we were cordially received and 
generously entertained over two 
nights and a day. In the morning, 
taking a guide from the mission to 
pilot our way to the Great Falls of 
the Missouri river, we encamped there 
for the night amid the roar of mighty 
waves pouring over a rocky precipice 
nearly eighty feet in perpendicular 
plunge. A dead tree with naked 
branches tempted the advent of an ax 
from the outfit, and that tree with its 
fiery outlines was very companionable 
and midnight hours sparkled with wit 
and repartee, now lost to memory. 

The next morning we started for 
Benton, arriving there in a snowy 
•coverlet mantling the earth from five 
to six inches in depth, at the close of 
a six-day journey from Helena. On 
our way we daily saw large bands of 
deer, antelope and elk, which, at the 
sight of our cavalcade, fled into safe 
distance, wheeled about and faced us 
like a military company on parade, 

watching our movements in retreat- 
ing distance. 

At Benton we met about seven 
thousand, five hundred Indians com- 
posed of different tribes gathered 
there in expectation of great results. 
Indians claimed all that country as 
theirs. Indian tepees fringed the 
hillsides and pioneer cabins dotted the 
valleys. The bow sped the arrow for 
game and other trophies and the 
crack of pioneer rifles echoed from 
valley to hilltop. Antagonistic forces 
contended for mastery over the situ- 
tion, but civilized agencies had its 
innings and chaos its outings in a bat- 
tle well won for the former and de- 
feat for the latter. Human life was 
unsafe and cheap on both sides. A 
good opportunity for skill in marks- 
manship with either rifle or bow and 
arrow was frequently rewarded with 
bloody trophies. 

We made a treaty by which the In- 
dians were to give up their coveted 
lands, the land of their fathers, the 
gamiest country in the world, and go 
onto a reservation on Canadian bor- 
ders, and we distributed to them about 
$7,500 in annuities, ostensibly one 
dollar for each Indian, squaw and 
papoose. These annuities consisted 
of dry-goods, groceries, hardware, 
etc., suitable to necessities, wants and 
desires of the Indian. It required on 
the part of the agent care and judg- 
ment to measure and cut, weigh and 
divide for distribution so as not to ex- 
cite tribal jealousy, a marked char- 
acteristic in Indian character. 

During the distribution, Indians 
were seated on the ground in Indian 
fashion, each tribe separate and apart 
from other tribal groups, all facing 
the center of a square, where the 
goods were placed for distribution. 
The chiefs, as mark of special favor 
by the agent, were presented with ex- 
tra gifts and provided with chairs in 
recognition of tribal distinction, 
which flattered their vanity as pos- 
sessors of thronely power. 

It was a panoramic scene of tribal 
costume, interlaced with painted faces 





and fantastic paraphernalia of tribal 
ornaments, requiring the graphic 
touch of a painter's brush on canvas 
to convey a realistic impression, no- 
where to be reproduced by pen and 
ink descriptions. It was the enchant- 
ment of a divine reality moving over 
the canvas of passing events never to 
be effaced from memory's tablet. 

Chieftain costumes, indescribable 
in fantastic exhibit, down to the bare- 
footed papoose in the lap of its 
mother, the transition stage was grad- 
ual with no apparent jealousy to mark 
the outfit in gradation of fashion-plate 
colorings. These scattered tribes of 
Israel retain characteristics of their 
nationality. Tribal jealousies still 
mark the instincts of ancestral life on 
the plains of Judea, transferred to 
American soil, before the ships were 
built that brought Columbus to our 
shores. Robbed of peaceful posses- 
sions and life pursuits, they are in the 
environments of the Nation's power, 
and should be generously provided 
for by beneficent, impartial, life-sus- 
taining agencies before being forced 
into the horoscopic circle of extinc- 
tion now clouding their inheritance 
and foreshadowing their destiny. 

The distribution of annuities ended 
apparently satisfactorily with peaceful 
outlines and the next day we started 
for Helena on our return trip and 
camped about twenty-five miles out 
for the night, with several merchan- 
dise trains moving to trade centers in 
Montana. About midnight, a mes- 
senger with horse foaming with 
sweat, arrived, bearing a dispatch 
from the Indian agent at Benton to 
the governor. The message was that 
war had broken out between two 
treaty tribes on agency grounds, that 
the lives of the people, government 
stores and agency buildings were in 
jeopardy and to return at once. 

Attached to one of the trains was a 
brass cannon on the way to Virginia 
City. Governor Meagher, quick in 
perception, and efficient in emergency, 
pressed the cannon into service and at 
two o'clock at night we were on our 

way back to Benton, arriving there at 
sunrise, much to the relief of the peo- 
ple, after a sleepless night and anx- 
ious forebodings of the day, and news 
of our arrival spread over the sur- 
roundings from camp to camp. The 
cannon was drawn up before the 
agency building, loaded and shotted 
to its muzzle with musket balls for in- 
stant service, with no secret from ob- 
servation or of intention. 

The governor, his aids, Indian 
agent and interpreters, walked out to 
one of the camps, called the chief and 
head men for an interview. They 
appeared in war paint as red as the 
blood in their veins, with black stripes 
as hideous as dragons' teeth on their 

The governor said to them that 
hearing of this disturbance he had 
hastened back to be in the fight and 
if the chief and his men did not leave 
the agency grounds before noon that 
day, he would open fire upon them 
and not stop till every Indian was 
killed and annuity goods restored to 
the government. That they might 
know the time limited he stuck his 
cane in the ground and said that when 
the sun's shadows fell upon the other 
side of the stick the time was up and 
no delays would be granted. 

We next went to the other camp 
where he repeated the same warning. 
Both camps were in belligerent atti- 
tudes. Trenches dug and breast- 
works thrown up; women, children 
and goods removed to safety; two 
hundred Indian warriors in each 
camp in war-paint ; guns and arrows, 
spears and tomahawks, scalping- 
knives and battle-axes were no pleas- 
ing attributes to contemplate when 
the balance of numbers were largely 
against us. It was a day of anxiety, 
measured by hourly reports from the 
camps. Hopeful signs of evacuation 
during the day appeared and at night 
the curtain dropped in peaceful lines 
over the landscape, camps deserted, 
and the angel of peace celebrated a 
bloodless victory over what had ap- 
peared to be one of bloody carnage. 


Each Indian has its head and lesser 
chiefs who rule the policy of the tribe 
with more rigor than the governor 
and statutes do their constituents in 
the states. 

During my three or four weeks' 
stay there I saw Indian character in 
full development in many of its 
phases. Tribal chiefs in gay attire, 
in war-paint with eagle feathers and 
wampum, with necklaces of polished 
bear claws and wolf teeth that glit- 
tered in the sun and rattled with their 
movements, with bows and arrows, 
tomahawks, scalping-knives and tro- 
phies of war, saw them on the war- 
path, heard the war-whoop, saw them 
in the war-dance, in the pow-wow 
around their dead brave, in the 
burial ceremony, around council fires, 
in the wigwam, on the field, in the 
chase, in their ceremonial rites to the 
Great Spirit, in their hunger and in 
their feasts; have smoked with them 
the pipe of peace, have tasted the 
aroma of roast dog in the wigwam of 
the great chief, with one hundred 
yellow bucks with hungry mouths 
around the tent watching movements 
of the feast within, have confronted 
them with weapons of warfare in the 
hour of danger, and I declare, that in 
their nomadic state, measured by 
standard ideas of civilized life, the 
mind cannot escape the conviction 
that they are a degraded, indolent, 
treacherous race, with no manly attri- 
butes of character worthy of poetry, 
song or tradition. 

Over and against this estimate of 
their character much should be placed 
to their credit. This was their coun- 
try, the land of their fathers, where 
sleep their brave dead. The Great 
Spirit had presided over their coun- 
cils and had given them an abundance 
of game at all seasons of the year. 
Success attended the chase. Horses, 
dogs and papooses multiplied to the 
tribes ; they were happy and con- 
tented in their seclusion and prosper- 
ous in their ways. But the Chinese 
walls of isolation were being broken 

down, men poured into their country 
by the thousands from all directions 

" They came as the winds come, 

When forests are rended ; 
They came as the waves come, 

When vessels are stranded." 

and they felt the situation keenly. 
The handwriting to them was on the 
wall. Beyond the realms where light- 
ning flashes and thunder rolls the 
shining stars shot the shadows of 
their fate athwart the heavens and 
they read their doom in the evening 
sky and comprehended the reality 
amid the stirring scenes before them. 
Whittier has said: 

" I hear the tread of pioneers, 

Of Nations yet to be; 
The first low wash of waves, where soon 

Shall roll a human sea." 

This prophetic vision by Whittier was 
not understood in its full relation to 
Montana till the prophecy burst into 
full realistic vision. 

Forty steamers that season un- 
loaded men and merchandise at Ben- 
ton. Ponderous trains of merchan- 
dise and strange devices of machinery 
were moving across the country, cities 
were springing up as if by magic, 
the government was there with its 
officers collecting its revenues and en- 
forcing its laws; game was unmerci- 
fully slaughtered and frightened from 
its ranges; a new order of strange 
proceedings to the Indians was being 
established in their midst and they felt 
that their occupation was gone and it 
was gone forever. 

A letter from one of the principal 
mercantile firms at Benton informed 
me that as late as the years 1874, 1875, 
1876 and 1877, there were annually 
shipped from Benton to the East 
eighty thousand to one hundred thou- 
sand buffalo robes; thirty to forty 
thousand mountain wolf-skins; one 
hundred and twenty-five to one hun- 
dred and fifty tons of deer and ante- 
lope skins, besides beaver, otter, mink 
and other choice furs, aggregating 
some years in value to more than a 
million of dollars. 

After 1878 the numbers dwindled 



rapidly until 1884 when hardly one 
thousand robes were brought to mar- 
ket; and now not one buffalo left, 
and to extinguish the last vestige of 
them the white man is gathering from 
the plains the dried bones and ship- 
ping them to bone mills to be ground 
into fertilizers. 

Under this tremendous slaughter 
by the Indians, game seemed to mul- 
tiply, or at least to hold its own, but 
when the white man appeared, it be- 
gan to decrease, and now not a buf- 
falo roams anywhere on the plains 
from Mexico to Canada. 

A few are protected by the vigi- 
lant care of the government in the 
National Yellowstone Park, to pre- 
serve their species from extinction, 
but they do not thrive under domestic 
habit. A few may be seen on exhi- 
bition in menageries, and in confined, 
fenced-in preserves, but they exhibit 
but feebly the characteristics of the 
buffalo as he roamed over the conti- 
nent forty years ago. 

The bow and arrow was not the 
only destructive agency in game sur- 
roundings. Civilization marked its 
bloody tracks in many ways and the 
Indian read his doom on the lines of 
passing events. The lesson was se- 
vere to contemplate, but emphatic in 
results. With the loss of game to the 
Indians came also the loss of profits 
to the merchants. The old trading 
post of the American Fur Company 
at Benton with its thrilling history 
has been abandoned, its walls fallen 
to decay, bats nest in security upon 
shelves where rested from time to 
time millions of dollars in furs, and 
the hoot of the owl breaks the silence 
of midnight hours where once echoed 
the busy hum of commerce. 

The game is gone and the Indian is 
going. His proud spirit is broken, his 
erect, stalwart form is bending to the 
shadows of inevitable fate, his step 
trembles upon the threshold; he is 
passing away from the march of civil- 
ization like dissolving snows from 
the breath of morning. The waves 
of civilization have crowded him back 

from sea-girt shores to the rivers, 
from the rivers to the plains, from 
the plains to the mountains, from the 
mountains to the shadow-land beyond 
the cycles of time. 

The problem of dealing with these 
poor people, now but remnants of 
once powerful tribes, is a humane 
one, and the government cannot too 
promptly awake to its importance, 
and, with a liberal hand, lighten the 
shadows and avert the sorrows that 
environ them. They are fast becom- 
ing but a memory of traditionary 

"There's a spirit on the river; there's a 

ghost upon the shore ; 
They are chanting, they are singing 

through the starlight evermore, 
As they steal amid the silence and the 

shadows of the shore, 
You can hear the ringing war-cry of the 

long forgotten brave 
Echo thro' the midnight forest, echo o'er 

the midnight wave, 
And the mystic lanterns tremble at the 

war-cry of the brave." 

The relation of husband and wife 
was that of autocrat and servant. An 
Indian suing for the hand of a comely 
squaw had a poor chance of success, 
unless bravery attended him in the 
chase, or in prowess of warfare; and 
even then, he often had to gauge his 
desires by the number of horses he 
could give the father in exchange for 
his daughter, the horse being the 
standard of relative values the same 
as stocks and bonds in civilized life. 

As to faithfulness of their mar- 
riage vows statistics give no data. 
The rules and laws of the tribe dis- 
criminate largely in favor of the male. 
The wife and daughter, so to speak, 
is owned by the husband and father. 
If the wife, overtaken in violation of 
one of the commandments without 
consent of the husband (and such 
consent was sometimes given by the 
husband as a mark of favor), if she 
escapes punishment by death her face 
was often disfigured for life and then 
banished from her husband's tent 
with no mystic seal of court records 
paraphrasing causes of matrimonial 


infelicities. I have never seen such 
disfigurement upon faces of the males, 
but such absence should not be con- 
strued as freedom from similar in- 

Mormon doctrines, to some extent, 
found favor among the chiefs and 
high-toned bucks of the tribe, 
although I never heard that they 
claimed special revelation from the 
spirit-land enforcing it as a religious 
observation. Chastity and sexual 
commerce in Indian character is at 
no lower ebb than in civilized life in 
the states; indeed, the percentage of 
concubinage in commercial centers of 
civilized life in the states is greater 
than in tribal centers of Indian life. 

Some Indians dispose of their dead 
by elevating their bodies upon a scaf- 
folding of poles about six feet from 
the ground, above the reach of wolves 
and beasts of prey, wrapped in blan- 
kets or robes with tribal ornaments 
about the person. These subjects are 
never disturbed by Indian hands, 
though the glittering ornaments so 
much coveted in tribal life should 
drop upon the ground. The sight of 
one of these "burial grounds" would 
have been an inspiration for a sur- 
geon's dissecting knife in other parts 
of the country without screened doors 
or peep-hole observation. 

I have mentioned Fort Benton 
earlier in my article. It was not a 
military fort, but a trading post, es- 
tablished by the American Fur Com- 
pany and was one of the most im- 
portant on the river, if not in the 
whole country. From this point 
alone more than half a million dollars 
in furs and robes were annually 
shipped to the states. 

The store-rooms and work-shops 
were built of adobe bricks of much 
strength, with port-hole turrets for 
lookout and defense. These build- 
ings again were surrounded by a 
stockade of high poles together, one 
end embedded in the ground, and the 
other riveted in their fastenings at 
the top, giving ample room in the en- 
closure for storage and made capable 

of resisting attacks by the Indians in 
any mode of warfare then known to 
them. A large gate in the stockade 
opened to the enclosure, through 
which Indians passed in limited num- 
bers at a time, chiefs and head men 
first, . to exchange robes and furs for 
paint, beads, gaudy calico and red 
blankets, so attractive to the race. 
As soon as one squad had finished 
trading they were turned out to make 
room for others to enter, who had re- 
mained outside the stockade waiting 
opportunity, it not being prudent to 
let too many in at a time, besides be- 
ing inconvenient to accommodate a 
whole tribe at once for want of room. 

The exchange price for a good 
buffalo robe, formerly, was a cup of 
sugar, a yard of calico, string of 
beads, or a little red paint, with a 
plug of tobacco added, for an extra 
nice robe or a choice lot of furs. If 
an Indian could get several coveted 
articles in exchange for one, the traf- 
fic was reckoned by them to be largely 
in their favor; numbers often offset 

These robes were dressed and 
tanned by the squaws and by them 
brought to market, either upon their 
own backs or upon the backs of po- 
nies, with papooses in the outfit 
astride of the bundles or on the necks 
of the horses as conscious of life's 
realities as the owner of an automo- 
bile on the back seat of his "red devil 
flyer" is conscious of unlawful speed 
over his transit. The squaws formed 
the baggage train of the moving 
camp, while their master lords rode in 
stately ease, oblivious of all care or 
responsibility for the drudgery of the 
camp. All the labor among the In- 
dians, except the chase, was per- 
formed by the squaws. They did 
everything, took care of the babies, 
moved the camp, pitched the tent, cut 
the wood, brought the water, dried 
the meat, dressed the pelts, cooked the 
meals, and when the repast was ready 
first served their masters, contenting 
themselves with the scanty refuse 
that might be left. 


The White and Indian races, sepa- 
rate in life's pursuits on the line of 
human destiny, the weaker has given 
way to the stronger, under the shad- 
ows of inevitable fate. 

I have spoken generally of the In- 
dians in their nomadic state, and not 
in their enforced colonization upon 
reservations, where they are kept in 
subjection by the power of the gov- 
ernment, contrary to the impulse of 
their nature. The difference be- 
tween the two conditions is much like 
that of a tiger caged for exhibition in 
the menagerie and in the jungles. 

During my early residence in Mon- 
tana gold dust was the circulating 
medium in which contracts were 
made and purchases were settled for 
in this commodity. Each place of 
business had its little scales where 
balances were adjusted. Gold dust 
had a commercial value of $18.00 to 
the ounce the same as gold coin, and 
it took thirty or more crispy green- 
back dollars to equal the purchasing 
power of an ounce of gold dust. 

In the saloons and hurdy-gurdy 
dance-houses, where whiskey was 
sold at thirty and forty cents a drink, 
the beam of the scales went down 
with the weight of gold as rapidly as 
the whiskey went down the throats of. 
the drinkers. It was easy to tell 
which had the advantage in this ex- 
change. Sometimes a looker-on, 
seeing the size of the drinks, would 
conclude that the drinker thought 
himself a long way ahead in the ex- 
change and the oftener he drank, the 
more sure he became that such was 
the fact. 

Miner's wages at that time aver- 
aged $8.00 to $10.00 a day, payable 
in gold dust. This gold v/as carried 
by them in a leather pouch of pliable 
deer-skin, and not unfrequently the 
bartender, when patrons became mel- 
low and oblivious to care, would dip 
his finger and thumb into the sacks, 
take out a pinch of the yellow stuff 
and drop it into his till without weigh- 
ing. An avaricious pinch would bal- 

ance the value of eight or ten dollars 
in greenback currency. 

I watched the transition stage 
from Indian and Vigilante rule to 
law-abiding precepts established by 
the courts and co-ordinate branches 
of the government, and the Territory 
passed into channels of state sover- 
eignty among the sisterhood of states 
on the twenty-second of February, 
1889. Montana in its uplift out of 
"swaddling clothes" stands full- 
dressed in the sunshine of activities in 
the destiny of the republic. 

The power and dread of the Indian 
is gone. Their contact with civiliza- 
tion, with its arts and sciences, weak- 
ened their power of resistance to 
aggressive forces; they are but or- 
phans on the fly-wheel of time, driven 
to reservations distasteful to their na- 
ture, surrounded by government bay- 
onets to enforce obedience to govern- 
ment demands. 

Cattle, horses and sheep roam in 
fatness and contentment on the hills 
and in the valleys. Christian homes 
dot the landscape, golden harvests 
gladden the fields, routes of travel are 
improved and safe. Railroads with 
their branches reach up into Montana 
for its commerce, with palace-cars for 
comfortable travel running through 
Helena, the capitol of the state, and 
on to the Pacific ocean. So that now 
we can take the cars to New England, 
and with but few changes ride to the 
fields of gold, copper, silver, and other 
mines in Montana with ease and com- 
fort, visiting the Yellowstone Park, 
Nature's wonderland, unequalled in 
marvelous natural wonders on the 
globe. Churches in Montana are 
well filled on the Sabbath, schools pro- 
vided with accomplished teachers, so- 
ciety good, and life as secure as in 
other states. Trolley cars fly on elec- 
tric wings over mountain and valley, 
delivering messages from point to 
point with the regularity of clock- 
work, while the wireless telegraph 
annihilates time and distance in its 
circuit around the globe. 

The Indian, on his fleet-stepping 


horse, with flashing spear, battle-ax 
and implements of warfare, has given 
way to the pale-faced rider on a 
steam-chested iron horse with speed 
that defies the whirlwind and fears 
no obstacle in its way. 

Emigrant trains, the post-rider, the 
stage-coach, are vanquished by the 
power of steam and electric forces, 
guided by intelligent agencies that 
rule the world and bridge the skies. 

Old theories and moving powers 
are substituted by new agencies in 
life's activities and the springtide of 
the new century is budding to flash 
sunlight over the world that will 
emancipate the social, political, com- 
mercial and religious environments 
that encrust them. In the uplift, 
man comes into sublimer relations to 
creative power than prophets foresaw, 
or seers foretold. The past is but an 
epitaph on the tombstone of time ; the 
future will be living history. The 
star of Bethlehem that shone for only 
a few wise men to gather at the man- 
ger to-day shines with increased lus- 
ter for all men to worship at its shrine 
and we are on the threshold of greater 
events in the problem of life than 
ever before. 

The president of the United States 
on the Fourth of July, 1903, by tele- 
graphic and cable news startled the 
slumbers of kings and queens in their 
morning naps by "good-morning sal- 
utations" which echoed around the 
world in twelve minutes and ten sec- 
onds, returning with responsive 
acknowledgments over a circuit of 
nine thousand miles through ocean 
waters and over mountain summits, 
annihilating distance and sanctifying 
thought that reached from the throne 
of light to the heart of man. 

The rainbow of promise bends from 
the Throne of Power to the ear of 
man, revealing secrets and new agen- 
cies soon to burst upon us; the bow- 

els of the earth give up their envel- 
oped history, the ocean becomes a 
sounding-board for midnight dreams 
among the nations, and morning sun- 
light flashes through inky type, the 
maturing of plots in isles of the seas, 
and the moving of armies in distant 
nations of the earth are photographed 
over our menu at the breakfast table. 
Electric words from land shores jump 
into wireless serial chariots and in the 
twinkling of an eye dance upon decks 
of ships hundreds of miles distant, 
revealing to the selected eye secrets 
that astonish the world. 

The star chamber of destiny opens 
its gates and gives us a free ticket to 
gather at the passover of coming 
events. The cradle of to-day is rock- 
ing elements that will startle the 
world to-morrow. Rip Van Winkle 
slumbers are at an end. The twenti- 
eth century awakens new-born activ- 
ities; morning sunlight illumines the 
night of slumbering energies; science 
lifts its torch revealing new attributes 
from starry realms; theology breaks 
the shell of long encased dogmas; 
medical skill moves away from blood- 
letting facilities which nourish and 
sustain the tissues of human life ; the 
law polishes its shield on the equity 
side of party litigants; American en- 
ergies sweep the decks of the world's 
commerce ; the nations stand aghast 
at the attributes of American achieve- 
ments on the line of progressive 

Railroad bands of steel girdle the 
earth's surface by American push; 
our sails whiten the seas, steamboats 
plow ocean waves, gathering to their 
decks the commerce of the world. 
There are no shady nooks for lethar- 
gic dreams by the wayside in the 
whirl of passing events. 

"Life is real, life is earnest," and 
no manna from heaven need be ex- 
pected to drop into the basket of the 

We'll tread the prairie, as of old 

Our fathers sailed the sea, 
And make the West, as they the East, 

The homestead of the free " 


Cbe PDilosopby of DeatD in early America 



Authok of " The History of Faikfield, Connecticut " 

"Strange, is it not, that of the myriads who 
Before us passed the door of Darkness 

Not one returns to tell us of the road, 
Which to discover we must travel too?" 

THE mystery of death is one of 
the few problems that civili- 
zation fails to solve. The 
first philosophers argued its 
perplexities only to come, like the 
wise Socrates more than four hun- 
dred years before Christ, to the 
conclusion: "We go our ways — I 
to die, and you to live. Which is bet- 
ter, God only knows." 

Not until the writing of that 
wonderful scroll — the scriptures — in 
which is embodied the fundamentals 
of all sciences, has light been thrown 
onto the bleakness of the hereafter, 
and these revelations while establish- 
ing hope and faith in a life to come, 
veil death with a mystery that centu- 
ries have been unable to lift. 

The six thousand orthodox years 
since the creation find theologians and 
scientists still parleying over the dis- 
position of man after he has left this 
earth. That death is the emancipa- 
tion of the soul and that it rises to the 
light of eternal life is the view of the 
orthodox world, supported by multi- 
tudinous evidences. 

That even the orthodox view of 
death is subject to a continual process 
of change, and that its dire terrors are 
being illuminated with the light of 
reason until its beautiful aspects are 

more discernible, is shown by a com- 
parison of the funeral orations of the 
church to-day with those of the earli- 
est in America. 

In possession of Mrs. Elizabeth B. 
Gould of Fairfield, Connecticut, is the 
original age-seared manuscript of the 
funeral sermon preached over the re- 
mains of Major Nathan Gold, a lead- 
ing citizen of his times, for fifty years 
a compatriot of the Burrs and the 
Ludlows, foremost in ecclesiastical, 
political and military affairs, and the 
progenitor of the Gould family in 
America, one branch of which has be- 
come eminent through its accumula- 
tion of great riches and the philan- 
thropy of one of its daughters. Major 
Gold died on March 4, 1693, and the 
funeral sermon here recorded was 
preached by the Reverend Joseph 
Webb, eminent for his scholarship 
and as a theologian. 

While this sermon with its quaint 
diction and construction is an inter- 
esting study in homiletics, its real 
worth is as a witness of the thought 
and spirit of its generation, revealing 
the tendencies and leading character- 
istics of the age and life of which it 
was a part. It views death as a 
calamity — as a rebuke from God — 
and there is in it an eccentric strain 
of perplexity that a pious man should 
die. It is here presented as a basis 
for the study of the intellectual and 
religious movement in America, es- 
pecially in relation to the final dispo- 
sition of mankind. 



THAT we are at this day under 
ye terrible rebukes of God; 
that God hath not only for- 
merly but now very lately 
written bitter things agst us in this 
place. I suppose none of us are igno- 
rant. "Tis to be feared, all are not soe 
affected with or circumstances as they 
ought to be, and as it could be wished 
they were, but none can be all- 
together without ye knowledge of 
them. It seems to be a day wherein 
ye Lord is calling us to weeping, 
mourning, boldness and girding on of 
sackcloth. The Lord hath bin be- 
speaking this from us by ye loud 
voice of an awfull and solemn provi- 
dence, in wch he hath bin striking a 
very dismall blow at or head and hath 
made a very sorrowfull breach there. 
Wt is ye duty of the day hath bin 
well and very pathetically laid before 
us by a pious and faithfull Servant of 
Jesus Christ from yt text 1 Samll : 25, 
1. And Samuel died and all ye 
Israelites were gathered together and 
lamented him and buried him in &c. ; 
And oyt there were such an heart in 
us to practice according to wt was 
from thence soe solemnly and affec- 
tionately pressed upon us as or duty. 
This is ye best way to prevent further 
wrath from coming upon us here and 
to provide for a comfortable account 
of wt we yn heard in ye great day. 

Considering yt we cannot be too 
well acquainted wth or duty at such a 
time, I was willing (according to ye 
small mite received) to endeavr wt 
might be for or further information 
and instruction. Such a providence 
as this, I could not by any means 
silently pass over, — but would take 
such notice of it as to endeavr some 
spirituall improvemt of and benefit 
by it. And wt we shall say will be 
from ye words now read unto us, 
which hold forth an account of ye 
sickness and death of a great and 
good man together wth ye effect it 
had upon a person of great dignity 
and honour. 

(1) There's observable ye sickness 
and death of a great and holy man 
"Now Elisha was fain sick of ye sick- 
ness whrof he died &c. ; Ye person 
we see is here described by his name 
Elisha, he was a man of great note, 
one in a publick capacity, or of pub- 
lick use and place. Tis true his office 
and sanction was sacred, he was a 
prophet, but wt is here said concern- 
ing him is very applicable unto those 
who have a civill charge committed 
to them. It is a truth as well con- 
cerning godly magistrates as minis- 
ters yt they are liable to sickness and 
death, and yt they are ye chariots of 
Israel and horsemen thereof, wch are 
ye things we design to speak to. 
Thus for ye person. As to his sick- 
ness it is not particularly expressed 
wt it was, but wt ye kind of it be wt 
it will, it seems it was mortall, it had 
malignity enough in it to kill ye ani- 
mall spirrits and to cause a seperation 
between his soul and body, it was (as 
ye text saith) his sickness whrof he 

(2) Here's allsoe observable ye 
effect it had upon a person of honour. 
And Joash ye King of Israel came 
down and wept over his face and he 
said o my father my father &c. ; ( 1 ) 
The person is described from his 
name Joash; (2) From his office, he 
was King wch is amplifyed from his 
subjects wm he more werthy reigned 
over. Israel ic ye ten tribes; (3) 
Here's ye effect it had upon him. viz. 
it brought him to see him and to weep 
over him &c. It's said he came down 
unto him &c. The names of ye 
prophets' sickness brought him from 
his palace, from his castle to pay him 
a visit and ye prospect of his death 
drew tears from his eyes ( 1 ) he wept 
over his face, partly because he loved 
him, and partly because of ye great 
loss his death would be to ye King- 
dome. (2) Here's ye lamentation he 
broke forth into, o my father, my 
father, ye chariot of Israel and ye 
horsemen yreof [before we come to 
ye observations designed it will be 
necessary to hint at ye meaning of 


those phrases O my father my father] 
thus he calleth him out of love, reve- 
rince and respect; but assuredly tis 
not a bare and empty complement, yre 
is a great deal in it, he was a father to 
him and all ye people, as godly min- 
isters and magistrates are as we may 
hear afterwards. 

(The chariots of Israel and ye 
horsemen thereof.) there were char- 
riots of war and yre were chariots of 
i. tate in a time of peace; not only 
such as were for ye defence of a land, 
but allsoe such as were for ye glory 
and honour of great men. 2. Samll: 
1 5. 1. And Absalom prepaired him 
chariots &c. ; i e for his greater hon- 
our and dignity. The expressions 
are metaphorical! and signific yt Elisha 
was ye glory, strength and power of 
Israeli. The strength of a people in 
war lay most in chariots and horse- 
men they are as it were ye strength 
and stay of ye land, soe are pious rul- 
ers either in church or State, and the 
interpreters expound ye phrases only 
concerning ye security, stay and de- 
fence of a people yet inasmuch as ye 
words will well bear wthout ye least 
straining ym ye other interpretation 
viz; concerning ye glory and honour 
of a people we shall add this allsoe in 
or discourse from ym. 

1. Doct. yt Pious men of publick 
use and place must die as well as oth- 
ers. 2. Doct. That pious and holy 
men especially those who are in a pub- 
lick capacitv are ye fathers, the glory, 
and the strength of a people among 
wm they live and over wm they are, 
O my father, my father ye chariot of 
Israel &c. ; 1. Doct. Holy men of 
publick use and place i^ust die as well 
as others. Such are no more exempt- 
ed from this stroke yn others. The 
godly are indeed delivered from ye 
sting of death, but not from ye stroke 
of it. Neither goodnes, nor greatness 
is sufficient to procure for any a dis- 
charge in yt war. 8. Eccl: 8 — yre is 
noe man yt hath power over ye spirit 
to retain ye spirit; neither hath he 
power in ye day of death: and yre is 
noe discharge in yt war, and as he ads 

in ye last clause of ye verse, neither 
shall wickednes deliver those who are 
guilty of it, for it may be said neither 
can righteousnes prevail unto this. 
Good men tho never soe usefull to, 
tho never soe much loved and respect- 
ed by those among wm they live must 
sooner or later away to ye grave. 
Godly rulers must die tho eminently 
holy and serviceable unto yr people. 
It hath bin soe; it is soe, and will be 
soe. Wt is become of Moses, of 
Joshua, Samuel, David, Josiah and of 
many other worthies, great and good 
men who have served God and yr own 
generation according to ye will of 
God ? Why ! they are long since dead. 
The Scriptures wch record ye en- 
trance into, and ye behavior in, 
this world have allsoe recorded their 
exit out of it. 34. Deut. 5. Soe 
Moses ye servt of ye Lord died yre in 
ye land. 24. Josh. 29. And it came 
to pass after these things yt Joshua ye 
Son of Nun ye Servt. of ye Lord died, 
and 1. Sam: 25:1. 1 Kings 2.10. and 
2 cron: 35.24. Hence we see yt it 
bath bin thus, and yt it is thus by an 
awfull and sad instance among or- 
selves; and soe it shall be soe here- 

And yn doe those yt minister about 
holy things fare any whit better ? Are 
ye Servants of God in ye ministry any 
more exempted than his servants in 
ye magistracy? Where are the an- 
cient prophets and teachers of God's 
church ? They are long since gone to 
ye place of silence. Elisha must die 
as in ye text, and ye rest of ye proph- 
ets have submitted to death. 1. Zech: 
5. Yor fathers wre are they? and ye 
prophets doe they live forever i. e. 
they doe not, they are dead and gone 
to yr long home as well as other men. 
But I need not enlarge to confirm a 
truth wch is verifyed by soe many 
dayly instances. 

If we enquired after ye reasons of 
it, why and whence is it yt pious mag- 
istrates and ministers must die as well 
as others. Answ. (!) It is because 
they are under ye Same condition and 
circumstances of mortalitv wth other 


men. That wch is the cause of the 
death of others is to be found wth 
and is extended even unto ym and 
yrefore yre is noe discharge for ym 
in this war, any more than for others. 
See ye illustration of this in three par- 
ticulars. I. They are of ye same 
earthy and compounded constitution 
with other men. This is the internall 
cause of man's mortality vizt ye com- 
position of his body. It is made up 
of contrary elements and qualities 
wch are continually warring one agst 
another and will continue soe to doe 
untill ye controversie be decided by ye 
destruction of yt wch is thus com- 
pounded. This is ye condition of all 
bodies, they are made of earth, dust 
&c, hence tis said of men in generall 
yt they dwell in houses of clay and 
yt yr foundation is in ye dust. 4. Job. 
19. and this is yre laid down as a rea- 
son why they are soe frail and brittle, 
soe exposed to death, soe easily 
crushed before ye moth as ye phrase 
yre is. Good and great men are 
made of this matter as well as others. 
Such an one as Abraham could say 
concerning himself yt he was dust and 
ashes. 18: Gen: 27. The honour 
wch men are advanced to here doth 
not refine yr natures, soe as to dimin- 
ish yt dreggishnes wch is ye inward 
cause of mortality. Neither doth 
conversion and holiness make any 
physicall change in men. Grace doth 
not physically but only morally alter 
yr natures. Soe yt seing great and 
good men are of ye same constitution 
wth othrs wch is a cause of yr death, 
it must needs be yt they be mortall 
like them. (2) They have had to doe 
wth Sin as well as others and there- 
fore are mortall as well as they. Sin 
is another cause of mans being under 
a necessity of seing corruption. Sin 
wch hath brought death into ye world. 
Death was first threatned unto and in 
case of Sin. 2. Gen: 17. This hath 
invited death into ye world, and this 
is given as ye reason why all must 
come under ye reach of death vizt be- 
cause they've touch I ye unclean thing, 
Sin. 5. Rom: 12. wherefore as by one 

man sin entred into ye world and 
death by sin and soe death passed 
upon all men, because all have sinned. 
If any say hath not Christ died for 
believrs why yn must they die, should 
they not have a discharge yn upon his 
acct! I answr they have a discharge 
from ye sting of death, from death as 
a curse: they die not to satisfie justice 
in part for yr sins as Christhes sinnrs 
doe, but they have sinned since yr be- 
ing in Christ and there is of ye lep- 
rosie of sin cleaving unto ym and yre 
it will be untill it be abolished by ye 
taking down this earthly house of ye 
tabernacle. Therefore 'tis noe un- 
righteous thing for God to subject ym 
unto ye stroke of death. 

Pious magistrates and ministers 
must yrefore die as well as other men, 
because they have sinned as well as 
others. (3) They are under ye same 
law of mortallity with other men. 
Death is established by an irrevocable 
decree. There is a statute law of 
heaven concerning ye progress of 
death, and by this law all are doomed 
unto this stroke 9. Heb. 2.J. It is ap- 
pointed for men i. e. all men once to 
die. Now as they are men tho they 
are holy and honourable they come 
under ye force of this law, and are by 
it obliged to pay this debt unto na- 

(2 Rea :) Great and good men must 
die as well as others yt soe they may 
give up yr account. The great God 
stands in ye relation of a judge unto 
all ye Sons of Adam. He hath 
brought ym under a law, and hath 
betrusted ym wth such and such tal- 
ents according to his pleasure and 
hath required such and such an im- 
provemt of ym. Accordingly he hath 
laid ym undr a necessity of being 
accountable to him for wt they have 
received and done. And even godly 
rulers both in civill and sacred re- 
spects come under this obligation. 
Those yt are in civill autority have yr 
power from God, he calls ym to ye 
places they are in, and betrusts ym 
wth ye power they have 13. Rom: 1. 
For yre is noe power but of God, 


hence they are said in ye execution of 
ye office to act for God. 2 Cron: 13.6 
— for ye judge not for man but for ye 

And yn as to ministers they are said 
to be stewards of God. 1. Tit. 7. wch 
supposeth ym under an engagemt to 
give up an account of wt they have 
bin and received. And this account 
is refered unto ye other world, there 
it is to be given up. Therefore these 
men must die as well as others yt soe 
they may make yr appearance before 
ye great judge, and be accountable for 
wt they have done in ye flesh 9. Heb. 
27. Judgemt is yre to follow imedi- 
ately after death. (3 Rea.) They 
must die that soe they may rest from 
ye labour and toil appointed ym in 
this world. All men have work to 
doe in this world. They have a task 
set ym by ye God of heaven. They 
have something to doe for soul and 
body, for time and eternity, for ym- 
selves and others, and this labour wch 
is commanded ym is not wthout its 
difficultie. But these who are in a 
publick capacity, who have ye charge 
of the civill or sacred concern's of a 
people have a much greater burden to 
bear than others. They have very 
often hands full and hearts full wth ye 
publick charge and truse comitted to 
ym. They have besides yr own par- 
ticular burden ye burden of yr own 
personall concerns, the burden of yr 
own families, they have ye burden of 
ye comon wealth, and of ye church ly- 
ing upon ym. And o how much 
trouble and sorrow and difficulty doe 
they meet wth from those things! 
How often are yr hearts ready to 
break and yr spirits ready to die and 
sink under ye weight of those per- 
plexities and troubles wch are occa- 
sioned unto ym by yr concerns wch 
they are to manage? 

Now they must not be allwayes 
staggering under such weary loads. 
Their case would be miserable indeed 
if it were to be soe wth ym allwayes. 
Therefore God hath appointed ym a 
resting time and place. And wre is 
this? Is it not in ye grave 3. Job. 17. 

— there ye weary be at rest, yr ye bod- 
ies of ye righteous lie at ease and 
quiet. And yr souls are imediately 
upon yr death carried to ye rest in 
Abrahams bosome 16 Luk 22. Hence 
ye dead yt die in ye Lord are pro- 
nounced blessed upon this acct and 
from ye time of death they rest from 
yr labours 14. Rev: 13. And I heard 
a voice from heaven saying unto me 
write blissed are ye dead wch die in ye 
Lord from henceforth yea saith ye 
spirrit yt they may rest from yr la- 
bours &c, 

(4 Rea:) Holy men of publick use 
and place must die that soe they may 
receive yr reward Tho none deserve 
or merit a reward for wt they doe, 
yet God hath of free-grace promised 
a reward to those who faithfully dis- 
charge yr trust. He will not be 
served for naught. He hath a sure 
recompence of reward for pious ones, 
especially for holy magistrates and 
ministers. God is not unrighteous to 
forget yr work and labour of love as 
ye phrase is in ye 6. Heb. 10. By 
this we may see yt they must be re- 
warded. And now they are not 
recompensed in this world. Here 
they are oft abused for ye love and 
service, here they meet wth scorn, 
contempt and reproach, are evill 
spoked of. Moses and Aaron were 
abused by Cora and his company 16. 
Numb. 2. And others have met wth 
ye like evill treatment. Jeremiah met 
wth soe much as yt he was ready to 
exclaim agst his mother for bringing 
him into ye world 15 Jer: 11. woe is 
me my mother yt thou hast born me 
a man strife, and a man of contention 
to ye whole earth — every one of ym 
doth curse me. And Paul will tell us 
yt he was accounted as ye off-scour- 
ing of all things. 1 Cor: 4.13. we are 
made as ye filth of ye world &c. ; 

Their reward is yrefore in ye other 
world and they must die yt soe they 
may have it. It is given ym after yr 
death 14. Rev. 13. and yr works doe 
follow ym, yr works, ie. ye gracious 
reward of yr trouble, hardship and 


(5. Rea.) Holy men of publick use 
and place must sometimes die to make 
way for ye wrath of God to come 
down upon a sinfull people. The 
death of pious rulers is allwayes in 
mercy to ymselves and sometimes it is 
in judgmt unto ye places where they 
lived. The death of such eminent 
ones is a presage of approaching 
calamities, in ye 57. Isai 1. it's said 
yt ye righteous are taken away from 
ye evill to come. God is wont to take 
such away before he brings, and yt 
soe he may bring an overflowing 
Scourge upon a degenerate and irre- 
claimable generation. Whilst they 
lived they were a means to keep off 
judgmts. God could not to speak 
after ye manner of men soe freely 
and fully pour out ye vialls of his 
wrath upon an impenitent and sinfull 
people whilst they lived, and therefore 
they must be carried to ye grave yt 
soe he may have ye greater liberty to 
accomplish ye ruin of such as would 
by noe means be reformed. See this 
illustrated in 2. particulars. (1) 
They are taken away by death that 
soe they may not see and be grieved 
for those miseries' wch come upon 
those amongst wm they lived. Tho. 
God's servants in ye magistracy and 
ministry may meet wth ill treatmt 
from, yet they are truely sollicitous for 
ye wellfare of yr people. And it would 
be a sad and grievous thine to ym to 
see ym ruined. To see these and 
those dismall calamities overtake ym 
would be an heart breaking sight to 
ym. To see yre land in wch they 
dwell wasted and emptyed of its in- 
habitants by mortall sicknes, by ye 
sword &c, To see yr neighbrs perish- 
ing by famine, pestilence and sword, 
how would it even grieve yr very 
souls to death! How doth pious 
Esther express ye intollerable grief yt 
ye destruction of her people would be 
unto her 8. Esther 6. For how can I 
endure to see ye evill yt shall come 
upon my people ! or how can I endure 
to see ye destruction of my Kindred, 
as if she had said I shall not be able 
to see it for grief. Now God doth 

not delight to grieve his children, nay 
he will avoid it as much as may be soe 
yt wn such terrible judgments can be 
noe longer deferred, he. sends death 
to fetch home such precious ones yt 
they be out of ye noise of them. God 
knew how bitter a cup it would be to 
good Josiah to see ye ruine of Jerusa- 
lem, destruction of ye temple and cap- 
tivity of the people and therefore he 
gives him a gracious promise yt he 
should goe to ye grave before these 
judgmnts overtook them. 2 cron : 34. 
28. Behold I will gather thee to thy 
fathers in peace and thou shalt be 
gathered to thy grave in peace, neither 
shall thine eyes see all ye evill yt I 
will bring upon this place and upon 
ye inhabitants of ye same. (2.) They 
must die that soe they may not by yr 
intercession for a sinfull land any 
longer retard those judgmts wch they 
have deserved and God is now re- 
solved to bring upon ym. They are 
ready to pity and compassionate ye 
case and condition of a sinfull people. 
These righteous ones are earnestly 
desirous of ye wellfare of yose among 
wm they are and wn they see evill 
coming upon ym and in a probable 
way to fall upon ym, they cannot but 
endeavr to yr utmost ye preventing 
of it: Wn God is threatning, a sin- 
full generation they will interpose as 
far as they may wth God on ye be- 
halfe of those who are threatned. noe 
unkindness of a People towards ym 
shall put a period to their prayrs for 
ym. The people of Israel were un- 
kind to Samuel in rejecting his gov- 
ernmt, and asking a King, but yet he 
resolves not to cease praying for ym 
1. Samll: 12:23: moreover as for 
me God forbid yt I should sin agst ye 
Lord in ceasing to pray for you. 
And o how earnestly will they plead 
wth God for ye sparing of sinners! 
How hard did good Abraham plead 
for poor Sodome See in ye 18. Gen 
from 23 vs. to ye end. And tho ye 
destruction of it was not prevented 
yet it may be remarkt yt soe far as 
Abraham requested God granted. 
And assuredly ye prayrs of Gods emi- 



nent Servants have a great deal of 
effecacy to keep of wrath from a peo- 
ple. Lots prayr procured ye salva- 
tion of Zoar from yt general! destruc- 
tion wch came upon ye other cities 
about it. 19. Gen 20.21. — And he said 
unto him See I have accepted thee 
concerning this thing allsoe, that I 
will not overthrow this city for the 
which thou hast spoken. God is un- 
willing to loath to deny ye prayrs of 
his dear ones. The prayrs of his em- 
inent servants doe (wth holy reve- 
rence be it spoken) as it were tie ye 
hands of God. Threfore he takes ym 
away sometimes by death yt he may 
not be hindered by yr intercession 
from cutting down a generation of 
sinners. Wn God is resolved yt 
wrath shall come he stops ye mouths 
of those praying ones, that those shall 
not pray whose prayrs would have bin 
an hindrance to him in his designs. 
1 vse. Is it soe yt pious men of pub- 
lick use and place must die as well as 
others, let this teach us to beware of 
having too great a dependence upon 
any, yet greatest and best of men. 
Men may indeed be both able and 
willing to doe us a kindnes in this or 
ye other respect whilst they live, but 
we must not depend overmuch upon 
ym, because of the mortality of yr 
lives. It is indeed lawfull and a duty 
to value ye friendship of great and 
good men, but it is or interest to re- 
member and considr that they are but 
dying friends and soe to be cautious 
of laying too great a Stress upon ym. 
Upon this consideration ye Lord en- 
deavrs to take off or confidence from 
men because they are mortall crea- 
tures. 2. Isai. 22. Cease ye from 
man whose breath is in his nostrills 
for wherein is he to be accounted of ! 
As if he had said yre is but little help 
to be had from these, ye hear yt great 
ones are mortall yrefore put not yor 
trust in men whose breath and life is 
in yr nostrils ; Stop but yre mouth 
and nose and they must die imediately. 
Wrein is he to be accounted of" ye 
meaning is wt is there I pray in man 

for wch we should put or trust and 
confidence in him ? he is nothing at all. 
We are advised in ye 146. Ps:3. not 
to put or trust in Princes nor in ye 
sons of men and ye reason is given in 
ye next vs. his breath goeth forth and 
he returneth to his earth. 

(2) This truth teacheth us yt 'tis 
ye great interest of a people to be 
continually praying unto God yt he 
would raise up and qualifie others to 
succeed in and to fill up ye places of 
those publick men whom he from time 
to time calls out of ye world. Great 
and good men we heare are mortall 
as well as others, or Godly magis- 
trates and ministers who have ye care 
of or all are dying and must die. This 
we are not only told of from ye word 
of God but have allsoe bin informed 
of in the providence of God, wch hath 
not only formerly but more lately 
sealed this truth to us. Now are not 
such men of great use? Can a peo- 
ple be in any tolerable degree happy 
wthout them? Wt will become of or 
bodies and or souls without such pub- 
lick persons. It will be sad if wn God 
hath called any of his worthies in 
church and state • their places must 
stand empty, and there be none to 
step forward to make good yr ground. 
Now if we would have this prevented 
we must follow God wth dayly and 
earnest prayers, that he would suit- 
ably fit and qualifie those yt are rising 
up not only wth natural! but allsoe 
wth gracious abilities for wtever ser- 
vice for himself and for his people 
they may be now or hereafter called 
to. God only can Spirrit and fit men 
for a publick (wch is a very weighty) 
charge either in civill or Sacred re- 
spects. God is acknowledged as ye 
authr of yt Knowledge and gifts wch 
meetens ym for curious work of ye 
hand &c; 35. Exod. 35. Much more 
are gifts and graces to qualifie for a 
charge of a more publick nature from 
him. And prayer is needfull to ob- 
tain and procure this pouring down of 
his Spirrit, upon those who are to be 
ye Successrs of or pious magistrates 
and ministers yt goe off ye Stage at 


this and ye other time. Let us dayly or churches to flourish, to our owns 

yn pray hard that we may have Josh- and or posterities wellfare and happi- 

ua's to succeed or Moses's, that we ness, both for time and eternity, 

may have Solomon's to succeed or (3) And lastly If godly magis- 

Davids, yt we may have Elisha's to trates and ministers must die and are 

make good ye ground of or Elishas dying, let this teach us to secure ye 

when they come to leave us. This is friendship and presence of an un- 

the way to have or comonwealth and changeable God. 




Orange, Connecticut 

Know all men by these presents, That I, William East of Milford, 
in ye County of new-haven, in the Colony of Connecticut in New England, 
Do upon ye Contract of marriage with mary Plume of the same Town 
Widdow, give, bind and make over my dwelling hous and homlett, and all 
my Land both arrable and meadow ground within ye bounds of Milford ; 
And I Doe Further Ingage that the sd mary Plume and her heirs shall 
quietly and peaceably enjoy all and Singular the premises above sd with 
the Barne and outhouses forever after my decease, or Two hundred pound 
which she pleaseth, without any lett or mollostacon from any person, per- 
sons, from, by, or under me ye shall lay Claime thereunto : The above sd 
promises I Do make over unto ye sd mary as a Dowrie or Jointure upon 
the Anot. aforosd, and this to stand in force to all intents and purposes 
immediately upon the Confumation of marriage, or if it please God to take 
me away by death before marriage, yet this to stand in full power, force 
and vertue; Further I, the sd William East, doe hereby promise and 
Engage not to Claime any interest in any of her Estate either reall or per- 
sonall (by vertue of her interrest) But do leave ye same fully, and whoely 
to herself to dispose when and as She pleaseth, In witness whereof I have 
hereunto set my hand and seale this 4th day of January 1675. 

Signed and delivered in presence of us (Signed) William East. 
Daniel Buckingham 
Samuell East. 

mo$e$ Stuart— Cbe man wbo Unfettered Religious 
Cbougbt in America 



Member of the Connecticut Historical Society and Many Learned Societies— Pastor of the Second 

Congregational Church at Waterburv, Connecticut— Author of Extended Historical 

Kesearches and Frequent Articles in The Connecticut Magazine 

WHEN I was a very small 
boy I was driving with 
my father one day over 
the picturesque hills of 
Wilton, in southwestern Connecticut. 
As we approached a modest farm- 
house, situated upon an elevation from 
which it commanded a broad view of 
the surrounding country, its front 
opening toward the sun-rising, there 
came from it a little old lady of thin 
face and bowed form who greeted us 
cordially and conversed with us in 
what we imagine to have been the 
characteristic language and tone of the 
rural New England of seventy-five or 
a hundred years ago. As we passed on 
I asked: "Who is that old lady?" 
"That is Aunt Betty Stuart," was the 
leply; "the sister of Moses Stuart." 
The answer was not especially illumi- 
nating, as I was as ignorant of 
"Moses Stuart" as of his sister, 
"Betty." It was the first time that I 
had heard the name which is now 
honored in that country town as one 
of its choicest inheritances; a name 
that deserves to be perpetuated among 
those of all the pioneers who have led 
on to the light and culture of our 
advanced civilization. 

First Stuarts in America and 
their Intellectual Attitude 

A question of deep interest, long 
discussed but not yet answered, is 
how to account for the appearance of 
men of unusual brilliancy and force 
of mind under conditions where 

neither heredity nor environment had 
seemed to lend any special aid. 
Moses Stuart's ancestors, for several 
generations at least, had been honest, 
God-fearing tillers of the soil, with 
apparently no broader outlook or 
clearer insight into truth than ordi- 
narily pertained to those thus occu- 
pied. The family was probably of 
Scottish descent. Moses' great-great- 
grandfather, Robert Stuart, appears 
in Nor walk about 1660, where he 
married in 1661 Bethia Rumble of 
Stratford, and a few years afterward 
purchased one of the "home lots" that 
were laid out a little north of Long 
Island Sound. For a hundred and 
forty years their descendants seem to 
have remained for the most part 
within the limits of the town, where 
some of them are probably to be 
found to-day. Their great-grandson, 
Moses' father, Isaac Stuart, removed 
to the upper parish of the town, then 
and now known as "Wilton." On 
Christmas day, 1771, he was married 
to Olive Morehouse, and in 1773 they 
joined the Wilton Church. They 
occupied the then low-roofed, un- 
painted, shingle-covered farmhouse 
already alluded to, from which he 
went forth to serve the colonies in the 
War of the Revolution. He died in 
1820, aged seventy-one. Mrs. Stuart 
survived him for twenty years, dying 
in 1840, aged ninety years, eight 
months and four days. Her grand- 
children regarded her as a remarkable 
woman. "She never seemed to grow 


old, even after she had passed eighty. 
Her senses were alert There was no 
infirmity of years in her quick, keen 
intellect or her manner of expres- 

Prospects of a Boy Born 
in America in 1780 

To these worthy people were born 
four children, three of them girls. 
There was great joy in the father's 
heart, when, March 26, 1780, his son, 
Moses, was placed in his arms. He 
dreamed for him' what seemed the 
noblest things. He would grow up 
to be his helper on the farm. The 
broad acres that he had wearily culti- 
vated would become broader still and 
more fruitful. He would take his 
place in the church, and act his part 
with the freemen of the town, and be 
esteemed and honored as Christian 
and citizen as his predecessors had 
been. He had for him no higher am- 
bition than that he follow the foot- 
steps of his fathers, inheriting at the 
last his own worthy position and per- 
haps ennobling it by greater diligence 
and success. 

But the father soon found that in 
this boy from whom he had hoped so 
much were elements which he had 
not anticipated and with which he 
scarcely knew how to deal. This 
modern Moses seemed likely to be 
anything but a "proper child," as 
judged by his father's ideals. There 
early developed in him an amazing 
and unaccountable fondness for 
books. The library of the farmhouse, 
carefully kept upon a shelf over the 
ample fireplace, comprised the stand- 
ard works usually to be found under 
such circumstances among the clos- 
ing decades of the eighteenth century. 
There was King James' version of the 
Bible, Baxter's "Saints' Rest," Dod- 
dridge's "Rise and Progress," the 
"Farmer's Almanac," and a few 
weekly newspapers. Somewhere in 
the house, possibly hidden away as 
not quite in keeping with the religious 
conceptions of the day, was a book of 
ballads, the authorship of which is not 

recorded. Probably it was some col- 
lection of the "folk songs" of Scot- 
land or of England, those charming 
utterances which, as has been said, 
"spring from the very heart of the 
people, and flit from age to age, from 
lip to lip of shepherds, peasants, 
nurses, of all the class that continues 
nearest to the state of natural men." 
Very likely the book had been handed 
down from generation to generation 
of the Stuart family. Whatever its 
exact character, it was found and 
appropriated by the boy, Moses, when 
he was but four years old, and read 
and reread by him until he had every 
ballad by heart. The other books of 
the family were likewise mastered at 
a very early date by this precocious 
child, as were all the books of the 
neighborhood that could be borrowed. 
In one respect young Stuart fell be- 
hind the usual record of precocity. 
He did not undertake "Edwards on 
the Will," until he was twelve years 
old, but then he read it, according to 
Dr. Sprague, "intelligently and with 
the deepest interest." We hear no 
complaint from the father, but it must 
have been a disappointment and a 
grief to him to find that the son from 
whose co-operation he had hoped so 
much sadly lacked interest in the 
farm and its cultivation; that when 
he sent him out to plow, he would 
find him with the reins about the 
neck, a book in his hands and his 
mind upon the book, while the plough- 
ing was left largely to the discretion 
of the horse! Or that when he had 
directed him to rid a field of its weeds, 
he would hours afterward discover a 
few of the more prominent offenders 
laid low, while the boy was comfort- 
ably curled in some shaded spot ab- 
sorbed in the volume which he had 
carried with him to his task! In his 
father's dooryard, on the north side 
of the house, was a large rock upon 
which the youth is said to have been 
in the habit of studying in the early 
summer mornings. This is now sev- 
eral inches below the sod, and reveals 
its location only in a time of drought. 


when the grass above it withers away 
for lack of earth ! 

Home-Life when the United 
States first became a Nation 

Before, with young Stuart, we 
leave the old home, allow me to say a 
few words regarding it and to quote 
some of the traditions reported by 
aged residents of the town. The in- 
terior of the house is much the same 
as when he lived here, including the 
room in which he was born. The 
old stone chimney so familiar to him 
still stands, and several of the fire- 
places remain as they were when the 
house was built. A maple tree, south 
of the house, that was planted by his 
father, still grows green in the early 
spring and wraps itself in varied 
splendor in the autumn. The old 
well from whose "moss covered 
bucket" the boy drank is still in ex- 
istence although unused. The oldest 
inhabitant of Wilton now living re- 
members distinctly the Stuart family. 
He states that Moses' mother enjoyed 
a great local reputation as a cook. 
Among her ether achievements was 
that of making a famous Indian pud- 
ding every day. This she set over 
the fire on the hearth the first thing in 
the morning, and "it boiled and boiled 
until it was as light as a puff ! When 
placed on the dinner table," as he re- 
lates, it "trembled all over from top to 
bottom." Perhaps this was from the 
well-grounded fear of being immedi- 
ately devoured. 

He relates that a man working on 
the farm once addressed Moses 
Stuart rather familiarly, after he had 
come into prominence. The mother 
rebuked him by saying, "Eben, honor 
to whom honor is due!" These 
glimpses of life in the long ago are 
interesting though homely. The man 
of whom we speak looked back to his 
early days in this old home as in many 
ways charming, and as having nur- 
tured within him some of his most 
healthful tastes. His mother lived 
until he was sixty years old and was 

always the recipient of his warm and 
reverent affection. 

Educating an American Youth 
in Early Days of Republic 

The afterward famous Wilton 
Academy, established by Hawley 
Olmstead of New Haven, had not as 
yet been opened, and the boy having 
exhausted the advantages of the dis- 
trict school was in his fifteenth year 
sent to Norwalk, where he enjoyed 
the instructions of Roger Minot Sher- 
man, so noted in subsequent years as 
a jurist. The first intention was that 
he should simply perfect himself in 
English studies. But at once his 
teacher saw in him indications of un- 
usual ability and advised him to pre- 
pare for college. "He began his 
Latin grammar," writes Professor 
Park, "with a characteristic impetus. 
In one evening he learned the four 
conjugations of verbs. In another 
evening he mastered the sixty rules of 
syntax. In three days the principles 
of the whole grammar were in his 
mind, and he found himself a member 
of a class which had devoted several 
months to the language. While pur- 
suing the Latin and Greek classics, he 
attended also to the French language 
and literature. Several of his older 
schoolmates had devoted many weeks 
to the study of Telemachus. They 
ridiculed him for his attempt to re- 
cite with them at the very beginning 
of his study. He remained with 
them a day and a half, and was then 
transferred to a higher class !" 

In May, 1797, he entered the class 
in Yale that was just completing its 
Sophomore year, he being seventeen 
years old. At this time he was espe- 
cially fond of mathematics, but was 
neglectful of no part of his course. 
He showed then, as afterwards, an 
unusual eagerness for learning in its 
every department. He graduated in 
1799, and a classmate writes: "At 
our commencement he had the saluta- 
tory oration, which was considered at 
that time the first appointment, and I 


do not suppose that a single individ- 
ual of the class thought this distinc- 
tion unmerited." During the year 
after his graduation he taught the 
academy on Greenfield Hill that was 
founded by Dr. Dwight when there 
pastor. Later he served as principal 
of the high school in Danbury where 
he began the study of law. Soon 
giving up teaching he devoted his en- 
tire time to preparation for his chosen 
profession, the law, studying in the 
office of Judge Chapman of New- 
town. In 1802, at Danbury, he was 
admitted to the bar. It was felt by 
those who knew him that he was emi- 
nently adapted to win success and dis- 
tinction in the legal profession. His 
mind was keen and logical, his mem- 
ory of precedents unfailing, while his 
constructive imagination enabled him 
to set an idea or an event before 
others in such a vivid light that they 
could but see its character and its 
bearing! His manner of speaking 
is said to have been such as to "give 
even common things the air of novel- 
ties." To the practice of law he 
looked forward with the utmost 
eagerness and enthusiasm. 

However, one week before his ad- 
mission to the bar, he was elected a 
tutor in Yale College. "My love of 
study," he wrote, "induced me to 
accept the office." Ho held it for two 
years, making his stay at Yale mem- 
orable for the enthusiasm with which 
he inspired his pupils. "His great 
power," said another member of the 
faculty, "was in making a class feel 
that something was to be done. Even 
Dr. Dwight, whose influence in this 
particular surpass Mr. Stuart." Mean- 
way was wonderful, did not in this 
while his devotion to the legal profes- 
sion did not diminish He was con- 
tinually looking for light upon its ob- 
jects and methods. His favorite 
books were biographies of eminent 
jurists, and histories of great legal 
contests. But it was not among mat- 
ters of this sort that he was to find his 
life work. 

Choosing a Profession more 
than One Hundred Years Ago 

If the origin of great minds in ob- 
scure places surprises us, the seem- 
ing insignificance of that upon which 
as a pivot such a soul may turn all its 
forces into new directions, is equally 
surprising. It was a time of peculiar 
interest at Yale. The preceding col- 
lege year, that of 180 1-2, had wit- 
nessed there a remarkable religious 
movement, such as had largely 
changed the spirit of the institution. 
At least one-third of the two hundred 
and thirty students had come to a 
new recognition of moral responsi- 
bility. And although the force of the 
movement had in a measure passed 
by, the atmosphere was still electric 
with spiritual vitality. This Moses 
Stuart may have felt, but as yet he 
gave no sign. 

One day, very likely under the in- 
fluence of the strict instruction of his 
home regarding the Sabbath, he 
called upon President Dwight and 
asked to borrow some book that 
would be suitable for him to read 
upon the holy day. The president 
gave him McKnight on the Epistles. 
At first he read it merely for its lit- 
erary excellence, but as he went on he 
became absorbed in its religious in- 
structions. It threw a light upon his 
motives and revealed them in such an 
aspect as was to him altogether new. 
From it a radiance emanated which 
seemed to bring into clearest relief 
the character of Him who is "God 
over all, blessed forever." He felt a 
new influence stealing into his soul, 
which his first impulse was to resist. 
That struggle for the supremacy of a 
human spirit, which is as old as the 
human consciousness, had been awak- 
ened within him. It continued for 
many days. But at length it ended 
in the complete surrender of himself, 
and enthusiasms, to Him whose right 
to rule he thus joyfully acknowl- 
edged. Of such a change the world 
takes little note, but doubtless it is 
that for whose sake all changes of 


earth and sky, of time and circum- 
stance occur. 

Young Stuart at once looked out 
upon the world with anointed eyes 
and saw its affairs in new relations to 
privilege and duty He loved the 
law, and it seemed to him scarcely 
less attractive now than before. In 
fact he spoke of it all his life as "a 
noble science." But in his horizon 
loomed' that which seemed to him still 
nobler, in fact, so beautiful and glori- 
ous, that he felt that to it he must give 
his life. Theology rather than law 
should receive the unqualified devo- 
tion of his powers. With character- 
istic eagerness he set himself at prep- 
aration for the ministry, under the 
direction of President Dwight. 
"After reading," he says, "Dr. Hop- 
kins' System of Divinity, a number of 
President Edwards' Treatises, several 
of Andrew Fuller's, a part of 
Ridgely's "Body of Divinity," and 
some of Mosheim's Ecclesiastical 
History, and a part of Prideaux's 
Connection, I was examined and 
licensed to preach by the neighboring 
Association of Ministers." He re- 
ceived his license from New Haven 
East Association in 1804. He had 
united with the college church in 
1803. When I licensed, he had writ- 
ten but one sermon, a metaphysical 
dissertation to which a verse of script- 
ure had been prefixed. With much 
care he wrote another, from the text, 
"My father, my father, the chariot of 
Israel with the horsemen thereof," 
and went forth into the world as a 
preacher of the gospel. His special 
equipment seems to us exceedingly 
small and inadequate, but back of the 
limited preparation was a great, glow- 
ing soul, eager to win dominion for 
its Lord. He traveled in Vermont, 
and having preached several times in 
the Church at Middlebury was invited 
to become its pastor. This invita- 
tion he declined. For a little he sup- 
plied to great acceptance the church 
of Dr. Rogers in New York city. 

Intellectual Poise of the 
Scholar of the Last Century 

In 1805, Rev. Dr. James Dana of 
the First Church in New Haven was 
temporarily disabled by the fracture 
of a limb, and Mr. Stuart was invited 
to fill the vacancy for a few weeks. 
Dr. Dana was a minister of the old 
school, refined, polished, classical in 
style, conservative, feeling it his duty, 
and his whole duty, to keep things 
as they were, content if the world 
grew no worse; a man who appreci- 
ated to the fullest extent the dignity 
of the ministry, and who bore his 
great office with exceptional stateli- 
ness and grace. He was a man of 
much ability, had graduated at Har- 
vard at the age of eighteen and re- 
ceived a doctorate from the Univer- 
sity of Edinburgh ; was the man who 
forty-seven years before had been 
settled at Wallingford by the "old 
lights" of that day, and as a conse- 
quence the church, pastor, and all had 
been excommunicated by the "new 
lights" of the consociation. He had 
opposed revivals of religion, and with 
all his heart had protested against 
that so-called "New Divinity," the 
system of theological thought which 
now quietly reposes upon the top 
shelves of our libraries, like fossils in 
their cases, of interest to the student 
of progressive thought and a wonder 
to the curious. He repudiated the 
alleged "improvements" upon Ed- 
wards' theology, made by his succes- 
sors. While in Wallingford he was 
so closely watched, lest his ortho- 
doxy might be questioned, that he had 
acquired the habit of speaking with 
something of vagueness upon doc- 
trinal points and apparently upon 
every point. He did not believe in 
the natural ability of men to repent 
under the preaching of the Gospel, 
and his sermons were not calculated 
to bring them to repentance. During 
his ministry of sixteen and a half 
years, five or six was the average 
annual addition to his church. 

It is scarcely possible to think of a 


greater contrast to him than was pre- 
sented by Mr. Stuart. He despised 
the s old-time ideas of ministerial dress 
and solemnity of speech and de- 
meanor. He sympathized with the 
progressive ideas of the new school 
of theological thought. There was in 
him the impulsiveness of the re- 
former. Regardless of externals 
and of unessentials, he desired to do 
what he could to make the world bet- 
ter. Inspired by a forceful love for 
Christ and humanity, he poured out 
his soul in a simple and earnest elo- 
quence which strangely touched and 
moved. He did not speculate and 
question ; he knew ! All vagueness 
had flown from the pulpit of the 
First Church, and the most positive 
statement had taken its place. Re- 
ligion, as he set it forth, was seen to 
be a living thing, and not the mere 
acceptance of a system of meta- 
physico-theological dogmas. His ser- 
mons grasped men's minds and filled 
them with new aspirations and a new 
realization of the importance of soul 
harmony with the spiritual universe. 

Dawn of the New Thought and 
its Conflict with Conservatism 

Many of the people of the First 
Church at once desired to secure him 
as an associate pastor; especially the 
younger portion of the congregation. 
But to this Dr. Dana very naturally 
objected. How could he consent to 
have at his side a man who ignored 
the things that with him had received 
the devotion of a life-time ; whose 
views regarding the objects and 
methods of the ministry were entirely 
at variance with his own? In defer- 
ence to the pastor's feeling Mr. Stuart 
refused the preferred position. But 
the matter turned out as those things 
are wont to do. Youth and vigor 
triumphed over age and conservatism. 
Dr. Dana's resignation was virtually 
sent in by the church ; Mr. Stuart was 
called to the pastorate, and March 5, 
1806, just as he was completing his 
twenty-sixth year, he was ordained 
pastor of the First Church in New 

Haven. Dr. Dana, deeply wounded 
at heart, never entered the house of 
worship where for seventeen years he 
had officiated, during the pastorate of 
his successor. But he was present at 
the installation of Dr. Taylor who 
followed him and by special invitation 
of the society worshipped with the 
church during the remainder of his 

Mr. Stuart's accession marked a 
new era in the history of the church. 
The petrified state of affairs that had 
existed for seventy years was effec- 
tually broken up. It was the dawn of 
springtime after a long and dreary 
winter. New life and beauty burst 
into view, and the air was filled with 
joy and song. Meetings for free 
conference and prayer that had been 
almost unknown became frequent. 
Even services by candle-light, which 
had been considered almost a scandal, 
were largely attended. Many who 
had thought that a decent morality 
with a regular attendance at church 
was all that could be expected of 
them, awoke to a new recognition of 
the reality and nearness of the spir- 
itual world, and of the obligations 
which it laid upon them. Mr. Stuart's 
manner of preaching was solemn and 
impassioned. His clear, sympathetic 
voice arrested and heM the attention 
of all, while his forceful language, his 
vivid illustrations, his sustained earn- 
estness imoressed every listener His 
enthusiasm was communicated to his 
audience. He was what would be 
called in our day "a revival preacher." 
The common people and the learned 
alike hung with de'ight upon his 

Dr. Porter, of Andover Semi- 
nary, after hearing him, said: "This 
is preaching the glonous gospel of 
the blessed God." It is related that 
upon sacramental occasions his emo- 
tion often choked his utterance* and 
his heart expressed itself in silent 
tears. During his pastorate of three 
years and ten months, two hundred 
persons were received into the com- 
munion of the church, only twenty- 


eight of them by letter from other 
churches. There was evidently in 
him that force of intellect and depth 
of emotion whose combination is 
essential to the most effective preacher* 
As a pastor he seems to have been a 
model, devoting every afternoon of 
the week to his people. Professor 
Park relates that speaking of a negro 
once purchased as a slave by Presi- 
dent Stiles, Mr. Stuart remarked: 
"That negro was the sexton of my 
church, and the most happy man, on 
account of his piety, whom I ever 
knew. I used to call on him oftener 
than on any man in my congregation, 
and it did me more good to hear him 
converse on his religious experience 
than any other man." The words 
are very suggestive as to the pastor's 
sympathy with humanity and willing- 
ness to be taught by the humblest. 

If he had remained in the pastorate, 
as some of his admirers thought it his 
duty to do, his course would evidently 
have been full of joy to others and of 
blessing to the church of God. But 
what may perhaps be a broader work 
awaited him, and for it these New 
Haven experiences were a part of his 

Beginning of Attack on 
Dogmas of Several Centuries 

Until something less than a hun- 
dred years ago there was no oppor- 
tunity in this country for specific and 
thorough preparation for the gospel 
ministry. Candidates for the sacred 
office, after taking a collegiate course, 
studied for a time with some more or 
less noted divine, reading under his 
direction, imbibing his theological 
opinions, constructing sermons for 
his criticism, undertaking something 
of pastoral work in a kind of appren- 
tice way, under his supervision, and 
then, after receiving the "approba- 
tion" of the associated ministers go- 
ing forth to the duties of their chosen 
profession. It was thus that Moses 
Stuart studied with Dr. Timothy 
Dwight; that many another studied 

with Dr. Bellamy up among the hills 
of Litchfield County; that many a 
humble parsonage became a diminu- 
tive "school of the prophets." The 
method had its advantages, and also 
its evident defects. About the middle 
of the first decade of the nineteenth 
century it was felt by many broad- 
minded men that the demand of the 
times was for something more sys- 
tematic in the training of ministers. 
In the great development of theo- 
logical speculation in the preceding 
century the tendency had been to drift 
away from the Bible as the only ade- 
quate source of religious truth. There 
was too great a fondness for accept- 
ing some dogmatic system, and then 
turning to the Bible to secure proof- 
texts for its maintenance and to force 
into the worthy service such as 
seemed reluctant to perform this 
duty. If a scripture passage ventured 
to stand squarely in the way by which 
a theologian would go, and obstruct 
his progress, he assailed it with the 
valor of a knight of old and if he suc- 
ceeded in unhorsing it and leaving it 
helpless by the wayside, he marched 
on from the scene of conflict an 
acknowledged and applauded victor. 
But a new spirit was coming into the 
world of thought. The inductive 
philosophy was making its way. In 
the realm of natural science men were 
beginning to observe before theoriz- 
ing. The phenomena of mind were 
being studied with a view to ascertain 
the principles that they embodied. 
Some dimly felt that the old methods 
in theology were outgrown and must 
be superseded. A greater effort must 
be made to know just the teaching of 
the Bible itself. Thus it might be 
possible to stem more effectively the 
tide which, in eastern Massachusetts, 
at least, was already setting strongly 
toward Unitarianism. The need of 
better rhetoric and more impressive 
elocution in the pulpit may have been 
recognized. The ministry must in all 
ways be better equipped if the New 
England churches were to maintain 
their ancient prestige. 


First School in America for 
Education for the Ministry 

As a result of much thought and 
prayer and effort Andover Theologi- 
cal Seminary was established. It 
opened September 28.. 1808, with four 
professors and thirty-five students, 
Dr. Timothy Dwight of Yale preach- 
ing the initial sermon. After one 
year the Reverend Eliphalet Pearson, 
LL.D., having resigned the chair of 
Biblical Literature, Moses Stuart was 
invited to fill it. The church in New 
Haven objected. "He cannot be 
spared," they exclaimed with one 
voice. "We do not want a man that 
can be spared," answered Dr. Spring 
of Newburyport. Mr. Stuart had 
read nothing of Greek but the New 
Testament and a few books of Ho- 
mer's "Iliad." His knowledge of 
Hebrew was confined to that of a half 
dozen chapters of Genesis which he 
had painfully studied out without use 
of the vowel points. His fitness for 
the place was by no means technical. 
It consisted in his enthusiastic love 
for the Scriptures, his habit of whole- 
souled devotion to whatever task he 
set himself, and his ability so to teach 
as to inspire others with his glowing 
and tireless zeal. Conscious of his 
qualifications and of his deficiencies, 
he felt impelled to accept the position, 
and was inaugurated professor Feb- 
ruary 28, 18 10. Although he was 
not yet quite thirty years of age, he 
had already chosen first the law, then 
the ministry. Both these had had 
their share in preparing him for that 
great work of his life upon which he 
now entered. In 1806 he had mar- 
ried Abigail, daughter of James and 
Hannah (Stoddard) Clark of Dan- 

Mrs. Stuart often, it is said, 
spoke of the contrast between New 
Haven, with its beautiful streets, its 
devoted church and circle of friends, 
and its literary opportunities, and 
Andover Hill as they went to it in the 
winter of 1810. It was bleak and 
desolate enough. A few wooden 

houses had been built, but piles of 
debris and of building materials lay 
along the streets, and its theological 
professors and students were for the 
most part strangers and as yet uncon- 
genial. She felt keenly the change. 
But her husband was too busy to be 
homesick. With characteristic en- 
ergy he took in hand the work of his 
professorship. He found that for the 
study of Hebrew there were no facili- 
ties available. Himself mastering 
the subject as best he might, he wrote 
out lessons in the ancient tongue for 
his pupils, and lent them the manu- 
scripts. In these the Hebrew charac- 
ters were unpointed. Having pur- 
sued this method for a time, he deter- 
mined that he must, should and would 
secure a printing press. This he did 
by personal solicitation. But when 
he had obtained it, there was no one 
who could so manage the Hebrew let- 
ters as to set the type, and although 
he taught the printers he was obliged 
to do a large amount of the work 
with his own hands. 

First Hebrew Text Book 
Printed in America in 1813 

In this manner he was able in 
181 3, three years after going to 
Andover, to publish a grammar of 
the Hebrew language, without vowel 
points, which was the first volume 
issued from that Andover press 
which has since been so fruitful and 
has become so famous. Of course 
it was the first book of the sort pub- 
lished in America. Not satisfied with 
it, he two years later published a sec- 
ond edition. Then he anew investi- 
gated its contents, and as he says, 
wrote "some of it three, four, and a 
small part seven and eight times 
over," and published the third edition. 
This attracted the attention of schol- 
ars across the sea. Professor Lee, of 
Cambridge University, said: "The 
industry of its author is new matter 
for my admiration of him." In 1829 
he had at his command fonts of type 
for eleven Oriental languages and 


When commencing his work in An- 
dover he often consulted Schleusner's 
Greek-Latin Lexicon, and in it fre- 
quently encountered German words 
which puzzled him. There was no 
one at Andover who could explain 
them. At that time scarcely more 
Americans studied German than now 
study Russian or Chinese. But Mr. 
Stuart felt himself challenged by the 
unfamiliar tongue to make himself its 
master. And so at no small expense 
he purchased an outfit for the study 
of German and giving himself to it 
with his accustomed enthusiasm, he 
made such progress that in a single 
fortnight he read the entire Gospel of 
John in that language. Some one 
presented him with a copy of Seiler's 
"Biblische Hermeneutic,"and through 
this he was introduced to the whole 
range of German theological litera- 
ture. He made a thorough study of 
the profound investigations of the 
German universities, and made use of 
them so far as they had a bearing 
upon his department. But more than 
this, he caught the free spirit of the 
German investigators, and while 
always reverent toward the Scrip- 
tures, he encouraged himself and his 
pupils in the most thorough and com- 
prehensive examination of their teach- 
ings. Exegesis thus came to have a 
new meaning and a new importance. 
Certain texts which from time im- 
memorial had been quoted in support 
of some dogma, were now shown to 
have no reference to the theme. The 
modern tendency to treat the Bible as 
literature was already in its inception. 
The movement had begun which was 
so materially to change the face of 
the theological world. And although 
Moses Stuart did not carry the matter 
to its broadest conclusions, there can 
be no question that he set it well on 
its way. "Before I obtained Seiler," 
he writes, "I did not know enough to 
believe that I yet knew nothing in 
sacred criticism." He often said in 
later years that he did not know how 
to begin the study of the Bible until 
he was forty years old. 

Influence of German Philosophy 
on Religious Thought in America 

But now there came to him a 
strange experience. Germany had 
been considered the favorite abiding- 
place of infidelity. While our minis- 
ters for the most part were ignorant 
of the exact results there arrived at, 
imagination pictured them as some- 
thing entirely destructive of their sa- 
cred beliefs. And so when it was 
learned that Professor Stuart had be- 
come familiar with the works of Ger- 
man theologians and that his teach- 
ings in the seminary were imbued 
with the German spirit and moulded 
by German thought, considerable 
alarm was felt among the churches. 
It was believed that no good could 
possibly come from such contact with 
dreamy and vague theological think- 
ing, evolved amid clouds of tobacco 
smoke under the stimulating influence 
of Germany's favorite beverage. A 
storm of censure and reproach swept 
over the conscientious teacher, and 
he was keenly alive to its force. 
"Unsupported," he says, "without 
sympathy, suspected, the whole coun- 
try either inclined to take part against 
me or else to look with pity on the 
supposed ill-judged direction of my 
studies, many a sleepless night have I 
passed, and many a dark and dis- 
tressing day, when some new effusion 
of suspicion or reproof had been 
poured upon me." But he wrote : "It 
is of little consequence what becomes 
of me if the teachings of the glorious 
gospel of the blessed God may come 
in its simplicity, power and authority 
before the public in a manner that will 
attract attention." 

While the attacks were most severe 
an event occurred which entirely 
changed the situation. In May, 1819, 
Dr. Channing, in a sermon at the ordi- 
nation of Mr. Sparks, afterwards 
president of Harvard, delivered in a 
Unitarian church in Baltimore, in his 
fascinating and powerful style set 
forth the claims of Unitarians in a 
manner to dishearten the timid, and 


virtually challenged orthodoxy to de- 
fend itself. The sermon was imme- 
diately published and was widely read 
and greatly admired. And the ques- 
tion was: Who in the name of the 
Lord of hosts could assail this intel- 
lectual giant and destroy his power? 
Moses Stuart stepped forth and by 
the aid of weapons imported from the 
land of the Teutons succeeded in 
crippling his strength. His published 
"Letters to Channing" greatly modi- 
fied the sentiment in favor of Unita- 
rianism that had been gaining ground. 

Downfall of Prejudice and 
Bigotry after Hard Struggle 

It is said that Dr. Lyman Beecher 
of Litchfield had prepared a sermon 
against the dangerous tendency of 
familiarity with German commenta- 
tors and philologists, and was on his 
way to Andover with the intention of 
preaching it in the seminary chapel, 
when the "Letters" that had just been 
published, fell in his way. The con- 
sequence of reading them was that 
the well-meant sermon was consigned 
to the flames. And Dr. Beecher 
shouted, while he wept, "Thanks to 
God for th^ keen and powerful 
weapon Moses Stuart has been wield- 
ing." Tho3e who had most severely 
criticised him acknowledged his learn- 
ing. Those who had thought him 
mistaken in his devotion to German 
literature admitted their error. Pro- 
fessor Porter, who had not been alto- 
gether pleased with his course, said 
to him: "No, you could not have 
written that volume without your 
German aid. You are in the right in 
this matter, and your friends are in 
the wrong; take your own way for 
the future." Thus did Stuart win, 
though at great cost to himself, the 
liberty which his successors have so 
much appreciated and enjoyed. By 
his persistence in spite of the assaults 
of enemies and the frowns of friends 
he broke down the barriers of preju- 
dice and gave to the American min- 
istry all that was best in the results of 
German thought and research. 

Through his influence Andover 
Seminary secured for its library a 
complete set of the works which have 
brought new and broader methods of 
study to American theologians. And 
yet it should be said that after the 
struggle he had made for light from 
across the sea, he was disappointed at 
finding in the writings of noted Ger- 
man authors so much with which he 
was out of sympathy, and which he 
regarded as destructive of the faith. 
To a friend he wrote: "Who is to 
stay the German flood that is coming 
in upon us, not through neology 
alone, but through such men as Tho- 
luck, Neander and the like cast ? 
Both of these have pronounced 
against the authoritative inspiration. 
Tholuck has written three articles 
against it, and Neander has aban- 
doned it in his 'Life of Jesus.' What 
way is there to defend the Bible and 
make it understood again?" He 
sought to do it through the elaborate 
commentaries that he penned, upon 
the Epistle to the Hebrews, the Epis- 
tle to the Romans, the Apocalypse, 
the book of Daniel, the book of Eccle- 
siastes and the book of Proverbs, as 
well as by his daily teachings in the 

After completing one of his vol- 
umes he wrote: "My little book 
on the interpretation of the prophe- 
cies is finished. I shall doubtless see 
a shower of arrows before long aimed 
at me by the prophetic romancers. 
No matter. My shield is thicker 
than that of Ajax for this combat. 
It is an eternal truth that a revelation 
from God must be intelligible, and 
must be vindicated from the abuses of 
those who make it the sport of fancy 
and wild imaginations. I have a 
piece now printing- in the 'Bible- 
otheca' on some difficult passages in 
the Psalms. I have undertaken to 
bring before our public the half neo- 
logical views of Hengstenburg, Ne- 
ander and even Tholuck on Messianic 
prophecies and inspiration, and this 
has led me to say we must have our 
own commentators and theologians. 


We must not, cannot depend on Ger- 
man manufactories. I say nothing 
of John Bull, for there is nothing to 
make a say out of it." 

America's First Contributions 
to Biblical Literature 

The publication of his books 
brought him into correspondence 
with Bible students in Germany, 
in Scotland, in England, and else- 
where, so that although he re- 
mained at home he lived the larger 
life which comes through contact 
with great souls in all the world. 
There is not time to follow this busy 
scholar through his years of toil. But 
his energy and devotion to his work 
knew no holiday. Between the years 
1810 and 1852, besides many articles 
in the Bib. Rep. and Bib. Sac, he 
published some thirty volumes, mostly 
of his own composition, a few of them 
translations from the Latin or Ger- 
man. These included the six com- 
mentaries already alluded to, Greek 
and Hebrew grammars, "Elements of 
Interpretation," "Rules for Greek 
Accent and Quantity," essays on 
"Future Punishment," "Mode of 
Baptism," "Immortality," "The Sa- 
bellian and Athanasian Methods of 
Representing the Doctrine of a Trin- 
ity in the Godhead," "Modern Doc- 
trines of Geology," "The Old Testa- 
ment Canon," "Conscience and the 
Constitution," and so forth. 

The new light that has broken from 
the Word of God during the last half 
century has of course largely de- 
stroyed the value of some of these 
discussions. Some of Mr. Stuart's 
positions regarding inspiration and 
his estimate of the object and scope 
of some of the books of the Bible are 
not those of the theological profes- 
sors of to-day. But to read one of 
his volumes is to be impressed with 
the extent of his research, and with 
the amount of erudition shown. One 
feels regarding Professor Stuart 
somewhat as he feels respecting Dr. 
Bushnell, a kind of pity that while in 
his eagerness for knowledge he came 

so very near the modern conception 
of things, he yet just missed it. He 
must have possessed "the pen of a 
ready writer," or he could not have 
accomplished so much. Nothing that 
I have seen of his impresses one as 
written carelessly, or without much 
thought and study. When sixty- 
seven years old he read all the trage- 
dies of Aeschylus that he might find 
possible idioms and allusions throw- 
ing light upon the Bible. As a 
teacher he was pre-eminent. He 
touched and kindled the souls of his 
pupils with a sort of inspiration, stir- 
ring within them something of the 
enthusiasm which moved his own 
soul. Fifteen hundred came under 
his influence, and it is said that in a 
remarkable degree he stamped his 
own image upon them. His pupils 
found their place not only in the pul- 
pit, but in many a literary institution 
at home and abroad. And thus his 
influence became world-wide. 

Establishment of the Modern 
Conception of Moral Conduct 

Professor Park, who knew him in- 
timately, says: "The great work of 
Mr. Stuart may be summed up in a 
few words. He found theology un- 
der the dominion of an iron-handed 
metaphysics. For ages had the old 
scholastic philosophy pressed down 
the free meaning of inspiration. His 
first and last aim was to disenthrall 
the word of life from its slavery to 
an artificial logic. He made no words 
more familiar to his pupils than 'The 
Bible is the only and sufficient rule of 
faith and practice.' In his creed the 
Bible was first, midst, last, highest, 
deepest, broadest. He spoke some- 
times in terms too disparaging of the- 
ological systems. But it was for the 
sake of exalting above them the doc- 
trines of John and Paul. He read 
the scholastic divines, but he studied 
the prophets and apostles. He intro- 
duced among us a new era of Bibli- 
cal interpretation. The Puritan fath- 
ers of New England were familiar 
with the Greek and Hebrew tongues ; 


but they never devoted themselves to 
the original Scriptures with that 
freshness of interest which he ex- 
hibited, that vividness of biographi- 
cal and geographical detail, that sym- 
pathy with the personal and domestic 
life of inspired men, that ideal pres- 
ence of the scenes once honored by 
our Redeemer, that freedom from the 
trammels of a prescriptive philosophy 
or immemorial custom. Because he 
had done so much and suffered so 
much in persuading men to interpret 
the Bible, not according to the letter, 
but the spirit, not in subjection to hu- 
man standards, but in compliance 
with its own analogies, not by conjec- 
tures of what it ought to mean, but by 
grammatical and historical proofs of 
what it does mean, he has received 
and deserved the name of our patri- 
arch in sacred philology.'' 

"His mission," says Professor 
Park, "was to be a pioneer, to break 
up a hard soil, to do a rough work, to 
introduce other laborers into the vine- 
yard which he had made ready. It is 
no common virtue which is honored 
in every farmer's cottage of the 
town where he has lived for two 
and forty years, and which is ven- 
erated by missionaries of the cross 
on Lebanon and at Damascus. I 
have heard him praised by Tholuck 
and Neander and Henderson and 
Chalmers, and by an Irish laborer, 
and a servant boy and by the fam- 
ilies before whose windows he has 
taken his daily walks for almost half 
a century. His influence as a divine 
is to be widened and prolonged by 
the fact that on the hills and in the 
valleys around his dwelling, there is 
neither man, woman, nor child who 
has known him, who does not feel 
that he was an honest Christian man, 
an Israelite indeed in whom was no 

It is interesting to know the per- 
sonal habits of a great man, and Mr. 
Stuart's daughter, Mrs. Sarah Stuart 

Robbins, now living, revered and be- 
loved at Newton Highlands, has con- 
tributed some facts in this connec- 
tion which we are grateful to learn. 

Of his personal appearance Dr. 
Wendell Holmes wrote: "Of the 
noted men in Andover, the one I re- 
member best was Professor Moses 
Stuart. His house was nearly oppo- 
site the one in which I resided, and I 
often met him and listened to him in 
the chapel of the seminary. I have 
seen few more striking figures in my 
life than his, as I remember it; tall, 
lean, with strong, bold features, a 
keen, scholarly, accipitrine nose; thin, 
expressive lips; great solemnity and 
expressiveness of voice and manner, 
he was my early model of a classic 
orator. His air was Roman, his neck 
long and bare like Cicero's, and his 
toga, that is, his broadcloth cloak, was 
carried on his arm, whatever might 
have been the weather, with such a 
statue-like grace that he might have 
been turned into marble where he 
stood, and looked noble beside any 
statue in the Vatican." 

It was a fractured bone that 
brought Mr. Stuart to the pastorate 
of the First Church in New Haven. 
It was another fractured bone, this 
time his own, that took him out of the 
earthly life. Slipping upon the ice he 
broke his arm and the strain upon his 
slender vitality was so great that he 
survived the accident but a few 
weeks. When he heard the hope ex- 
pressed that his last sickness was unto 
life and not unto death, he replied: 
"Unto the glory of God, but unto 
death. I am prepared to die. O 
God, my spirit is in Thy hand. Have 
mercy, but Thy will be done." 

On Sunday evening, January 4, 
1852, while a severe storm was rag- 
ing about his dwelling, he fell asleep. 
He was seventv-one years, nine 
months and nine days old. He had 
been a preacher forty-seven years, a 
teacher forty-one years, a theological 
professor thirty-eight years. 


My father brought into his daily 
life many of the habits acquired 
when he was a farmer's boy. He 
felt that every moment passed in 
sleep, after the most rigorous de- 
mands of nature were satisfied, was 
lost time. In summer at four, and in 
winter at five, he was astir, and the 
occupations of the day began. In 
summer his garden was his delight 
To this he went when Andover Hill 
was still wrapped in sleep. To bring- 
in the earliest flowers for the break- 
fast table, to surprise his family with 
some fine home-grown fruit gave him 
keen pleasure. Breakfast was often 
a silent meal. Then followed family 
prayers, and from family prayers he 
went directly to his study. When 
the door of this study was shut, the 
room was set apart from the sur- 
rounding world. Immediately every 
member of the family began to move 
about on tiptoe, and whatever words 
were spoken were uttered in subdued 

Out from this closed room came 
first the voice of prayer. Rising 
and swelling, often broken by emo- 
tion, there was a pleading, wailing 
cadence in his voice, touching to 
listen to, tender to remember. Then 
followed intoning passages from the 
Hebrew Psalms, and here the heart, 
mellowed and comforted by near in- 
tercourse with the Hebrews' God, 
found full utterance. Into every 
room of that still house, the jubilant 
words came ringing with their sol- 
emn joy. From the time this chant- 
ing ceased until eleven it must be a 
matter of the utmost importance that 
allowed a knock upon the study door. 

Visitors, no matter from what dis- 
tance, or of what social or literary 
standing, were all denied admittance. 
Two friends of long standing desired 
him to marry them, and he agreed to 
do so provided the hour were after 
half past eleven. They desired to be 
married at ten. "But that is in my 
study hour!" and neither love nor 

money could induce him to comply 
with their request, and another min- 
ister was secured. 

He often repeated the sentiment of 
Heinsius : "I no sooner come into my 
library than I bolt the door after me, 
excluding ambition, avarice, and all 
such vices, and in the very lap of 
eternity, amidst so many divine souls, 
I take my seat with so lofty a spirit 
and such sweet content, that I pity all 
the great and rich who know not this 

Even the ordinary housekeeping 
sounds must be made under pro- 
test. An unlucky fall, the slam- 
ming of a blind, loud voices, all were 
received with a warning thump from 
the study, or a pull at its bell. "I 
must not be disturbed." 

Precisely as the clock struck eleven, 
there came an energetic pushing back 
of the chair and footstool, and the 
whole family drew a long breath of 
relief. Coming out of his room with 
a pale, weary face, the professor went 
at once to his customary exercise, 
never failing to be on the instant 
ready for his half-past twelve dinner 
with his family gathered about him. 
After dinner came the social hour of 
the day. If we had any request to 
make, any plans to proffer now was 
the time. Indeed it was the only 
time when home and its needs seemed 
to have any place in the professor's 
thoughts. Then a newspaper, a re- 
view or some book not connected 
with his work, was in his hand. Gen- 
erally the reading Continued until his 
lecture, which was delivered in the 
afternoon and occupied about an 

This duty over, came the exercise 
again, the early tea ; family prayers, 
and the evening was entered upon at 
the first approach of twilight. Study 
was never severe during these hours. 
Now he was willing to be interrupted, 
and often hailed the visit of an 
acquaintance as a godsend. Nothing 
gave him greater pleasure than to dis- 


cuss with one of congenial taste the 
work upon which he was then en- 

This until nine o'clock, but the mo- 
ment the clock struck that hour, night 
with the time for needed rest had 
come. No guest who understood the 
regime of the student's life lingered 
after that hour, until the professor 
became old and feeble. Then it was 
a great delight to him to have one of 
the students of the seminary come in 
and read to him, and the hour was 

often forgotten in the interest of the 
book. Light literature for the first 
time in his life he indulged in freely. 
With all his devotion to his specific 
themes he was keenly alive to every 
scientific discovery, and every ad- 
vance in the political and literary 
affairs of the world. When the first 
train of cars passed through the 
meadows back of his house, he started 
from his seat at the dinner table, and 
clasping his hands together as if in 
prayer, said fervently: "Thank God! 
Thank God !" 

In the cemetery at Andover, where 
so much of sacred dust reposes, his 
body was laid to rest. Near him lies 
all that was mortal of Professor 
Phelps, who has indeed found "The 
Still Hour;" of Mrs Phelps, his own 
daughter, who now knows life's 
"Sunny Side;" of Harriet Beecher 
Stowe, the nation's admiration and 
humanity's helper; Dr. Leonard 
Woods, the long-time champion of 
orthodoxy; Professor Egbert C. 
Smyth, whose newly-made grave is 
grieved over by hundreds ; and many 
another whose name L widely known. 
Upon a square prism of white marble, 
surmounted by a Greek vase, "erected 
in grateful remembrance by the 
alumni of the Theological Seminary," 
is this epitaph : 

"A meek and earnest disciple ; a 
fervid and eloquent preacher ; a gen- 
erous and cordial friend ; a lover of 
all good learning ; versatile in genius ; 
adventurous in research ; quick in 
acquisition ; an enthusiastic and 
attractive teacher; devoting himself 
with patient and successful toil to the 
revival and cultivation of sacred lit- 
erature ; he is justly entitled to be 
called among the scholars of his na- 

tive country, The Father of Biblical 
Science. The Word which he loved 
in life was his light in death. He 
now sees face to face." 

Professor Stuart was the father of 
seven children, three sons and four 
daughters. The three sons gradu- 
ated at Yale. One of them, Isaac 
William, became a professor in Co- 
lumbia, South Carolina, but spent the 
latter years of his life in Hartford. 
He married a daughter of Stephen 
Bulkley of Hartford, and through her 
inherited the "Charter Oak" estate. 
The daughters were all well educated, 
two of them in New Haven, a third in 
Jacob Abbott's school in Boston, and 
the fourth in New Jersey. 

Two of these daughters married 
Professor Austin Phelps, one of 
whom, Elizabeth, attained great pop- 
ularity by her sketches of New Eng- 
land life. One of her books reached 
a sale of 100,000 copies in a single 

Her daughter, Mrs. Elizabeth 
Stuart Phelps Ward has evidently 
inherited from her illustrious prede- 
cessors the mental keenness and bril- 
liancy which gave them prominence 
and power. 

Recollections of tbe JMiistad Slave £a$e 



Reverend ALONZO N. LEWIS, M.A. 

Member of the Connecticut Historical Society, The Society or the Cincinnati, and other Learned 
Organizations— A Retired Episcopal Clergyman and an Octogenarian 

IN" the summer of 1840, I was 
standing on the "tow-path 
bridge" of the Farmington Ca- 
nal, which ran from New Ha- 
ven, Connecticut, to Northampton, 
Massachusetts, in the little village of 
Plainville, Connecticut. Looking 
northward I saw a canal-boat ap- 
proaching. On the upper deck, in 
two rows, facing each other, sat some 
fifty or more negroes wrapped in 
white woolen blankets, four of whom 
were women. To my childish eyes 
they presented a truly ghostly appear- 
ance! They were landed at "Bristol 
Basin," (Plainville), where they were 
loaded into several large wagons, 
and transported overland to Hart- 
ford (fourteen miles distant), to be 
tried for "murder and piracy on the 
high seas." 

They had been kidnapped from 
Lemboko, in the Mendi country, near 
Liberia. Notwithstanding that the 
slave-trade was prohibited by Spain, 
the negroes were taken to Cuba, where 
Jose Ruiz bought forty-nine of them., 
and Pedro Montez four more. They 
were put on board a sailing-vessel, 
the "Amistad," which means friend- 
ship, to be transported to another 
part of the island. 

They were shackled together to a 
long chain on the lower deck, and 
during the voyage, a stalwart negro 
named Joseph Cinques managed to 
pull a loose nail or spike from the 
floor, with which he unshackled him- 
self and companions. Under his 
leadership they rushed on deck with 
adzes*in their hands (which they had 
found between decks), and killed the 

captain and crew, except the second 
mate and cabin-boy, retaining the for- 
mer to navigate the vessel. They 
then compelled him to head the vessel 
for Africa, which direction they knew 
by the position of the sea. In the 
night, however, he crowded all sail 
for Cuba, putting the vessel under 
scant sail during the daytime while 
he was steering for Africa. He 
missed Cuba and brought up at Mon- 
tauk Point, which the poor blacks 
thought was Africa. They were just 
about to land, and some of them did, 
when they were overhauled by a 
United States cruiser, which took 
them prisoners, and carried them to 
New London, where they were 
brought before United States District 
Judge A. T. Judson, by whom a judi- 
cial investigation was held, which re- 
sulted in their being committed to 
New Haven jail. Their helpless con- 
dition can be better imagined than de- 
scribed. In a strange land, in prison, 
unable to tell their story, they were 
indeed in evil care. 

Professor George E. Day, of Yale 
College, was engaged to teach them, 
but found it impossible to communi- 
cate with them. Professor Josiah W. 
Gibbs, the distinguished linguist, be- 
came interested in them, and made a 
journey to New York city to see if he 
could find some one who could speak 
the Mendian tongue. He had man- 
aged to learn the Mendian numerals 
from one to ten. Accordingly he 
went down to the wharf where the 
vessels engaged in the African trade 
lay, and invited one and another, 
counting on his fingers in Mendian, 




and asking of the sailors, "Can any- 
body speak this?" At last a boy, 
about sixteen years of age, answered : 
"I can." His name was George 
Corey. Professor Gibbs took him to 
New Haven, conducted him to the 
jail, and asked him to address the 
captives. Corey spoke something in 
Mendian, and was greeted with 
shouts and exclamations of joy by the 
negroes. The story of the mutiny 
was soon learned, and their trial re- 
sulted in an acquittal. 

Professor Day found the ring- 
leader, Joseph Cinques, a turbulent 
fellow, hard to manage, but succeed- 
ed in getting him and his comrades 
under control. They were kept in 
jail at New Haven a year or more, 
and then taken to Hartford for trial. 

The case now became a very com- 
plicated one. Ruiz and Montez, the 
Spanish "owners," claimed the Afri- 
cans as their slaves, and the negroes 
claimed they were entitled to freedom 
under the laws. The Spanish gov- 
ernment claimed the captives as the 
property of two of her subjects. Ex- 
citement ran high, and it was no se- 
cret that President Van Buren was in 
favor of giving them up. The Aboli- 
tionists were in the minority, and for 
a time it looked as if the demands of 
the Spanish "owners" would be 
granted. It will do no harm, at this 
late day, to reveal a secret which has 
been carefully guarded, viz., that 
there was a plot to rescue the captives 
if the case went against them. This 
information I received from Profes- 
sor Day. This might have caused a 
war with Spain and the liberation of 

While the captives were in the New 
Haven jail, the annual "May train- 
ing" occurred. The assembling of 
the militia companies on the "Green" 
could be seen from the jail windows, 
and the poor prisoners wefe terror- 
stricken, believing they were about to 
be put to death. 

District Attorney Holabird was 
thoroughly subservient to the slavery 
interests, and claimed that the ne- 

groes should be held subject to Presi- 
dent Van Buren's orders. The Span- 
ish minister demanded that they be 
given up for trial in Cuba. As the 
case progressed the Federal authori- 
ties endeavored, notwithstanding the 
law, to favor the demands of South- 
ern shareholders who were against 
freeing the captives. President Van 
Buren himself went to disgraceful ex- 
tremes in his persistent attempts to 
thwart justice as promulgated by the 

While the demands of slavery were 
supported by the pro-slavery papers, 
the anti-slavery committee in New 
York city appointed a committee 
composed of S. S. Joselyn, Joshua 
Leavitt, and Lewis Tappan to solicit 
funds, employ counsel, and see that 
the interests of the negroes were 
cared for. Seth P. Staples and The- 
odore Sedgwick, Jr., were engaged 
as counsel, and in a communication to 
the president, contended that in ris- 
ing against the captain and crew of 
the "Amistad," the captives had only 
acted in self-defense; that they were 
not legally slaves; and prayed that 
the case be not decided in the secret 
recesses of the cabinet, but by the 
courts. The administration endeav- 
ored to surrender the negroes to the 
Spanish minister, but was thwarted in 
this by the absence of an extradition 
treaty with Spain. Roger S. Bald- 
win was retained as associate coun- 
sel. At the session of the District 
Court at New Haven, January sev- 
enth, 1840, Judge Judson declared the 
negroes to be native Africans and not 
Spanish subjects. He ruled that they 
be transported to Africa. The dis- 
trict attorney, by order of the secre- 
tary of state, appealed the case. Jus- 
tice Thompson affirmed the decision 
of the other court, and the case was 
then appealed to the United States 
Supreme Court. 

The committee appointed to care 
for the Africans then succeeded in se- 
curing ex-President John Quincy 
Adams to defend the negroes before 
the highest court. On the twenty- 


fourth of August Mr. Adams began 
his argument which continued seve- 
ral days, and consumed thirteen hours 
of time, going carefully into all mat- 
ters of law and fact. During his 
address to the court he said: "I am 
ashamed — I am ashamed of my coun- 
try that such an opinion should have 
been delivered by a public officer, 
especially to the legal counsellor of 
the executive. I am ashamed to 
stand up before the nations of the 
earth with such an opinion recorded 
before us as official, and still more, 
adopted by a cabinet which did not 
dare do the deed." 

A week later, Judge Story gave the 
opinion of the court: "that the Afri- 
cans were kidnapped and unlawfully 
transported to Cuba; were there un- 
lawfully purchased; that they were 
not pirates and robbers in taking the 
'Amistad' and trying to regain their 
country; that there was nothing in 
the treaty with Spain which justified 
a surrender; and that the United 
States had to respect the Africans' 
rights as much as those of the Span- 
iards." The opinion ordered the ne- 
groes "to be declared free and to be 
dismissed from the custody of the 
court, and go without delay." Mr. 
Adams wrote to Mr. Tappan: "The 
captives are free." 

Reverend Edward Everett Hale, in 
a recent article, notes the fact that on 
the morning of the day of decision, as 
John Quincy Adams rose from his 
bed, they brought him a paper which 
announced to him that the night be- 
fore one of the leading Southern 
judges had died of apoplexy. In that 
death the balance of the court was 
changed, and the fifty-three black 
men were set free. 

The negroes were splendid speci- 
mens of manly strength and vigor. 
No circus athlete could excel them 
in "ground and lofty tumbling." 
They would stand still, leap into the 
air, and turn a double (or treble) 
somersault before reaching the 
ground. They would extend their 
arms and leap and revolve along the 

ground like a wagon-wheel without 
its tire. There was nothing in the 
acrobatic line they could not do. 

After their acquittal they were 
taken to Farmington. Farmington 
was very early an abolition town, and 
was one of the most noted stations of 
the "underground railroad." Here 
for a year or more the "Amistad" 
captives were taught reading, writ- 
ing, spelling, and the elements of 
Christianity. During their stay they 
behaved with decency and propriety, 
and most of them made good profi- 
ciency in their studies. One of them 
was drowned in the Farmington 
river, and his comrades mourned for 
him with a tenderness and grief that 
was edifying. 

Just before their departure for 
Africa, the missionaries who were to 
accompany them were ordained, and 
an exhibition of the proficiency of 
the negro pupils given in the Farm- 
ington church. I can never forget 
the thrilling effect of the hymn, 

" From Greenland's icy mountains, 

From India's coral strand, 
Where Africa's sunny fountains 

Roll down their golden sand, 
From many an ancient river, 

From many a palmy plain, 
They call us to deliver 

Their land from Error's chain." 

when it was sung by the poor Afri- 
cans, the vast congregation accompa- 
nying them. 

During the exercises, Joseph 
Cinques, the leader in the revolt, 
made a speech in his native tongue, 
acting out how he pulled the nail 
from the floor, hid it under his arm- 
pit when the guard came round, and 
with its aid unfettered his compan- 
ions. His tones, gestures, and inflec- 
tions were faultless and highly ora- 

Several tribes were represented 
among them. The "Congoes" were 
flat-nosed and thick-lipped, but some 
of those from the interior had regu- 
lar, almost Circassian features. They 
were neat in their habits, and careful 
of their clothes. I remember seeing 



one of the women, as she was step- 
ping off the canal-boat, stoop down 
and wipe the dust off her shoes with 
her handkerchief. 

Until recently I never knew what 
became of them after they returned 
to Africa. A few years ago I wrote 
to a colored African missionary in- 
quiring about them, and received the 
following reply: 

11 Grand Rapids, Mich., 
Feb. 28th, 1904. 
Rev. A. N. Lewis, 
Dear a?id Reverend Sir: 

Your letter with inquiry as to what be- 
came of the ' Amistad ' captives after 
their return to Africa is at hand. 

I was in Africa at the Mendi Mission, 

Boothe, British Pherbro, West Africa, in 
'78-79, under the appointment of the 
American Missionary Association, and 
buried Joseph Cinques, the last survivor of 
that noble band, and the leader of the 
mutiny. He died in '79. He had relapsed 
into Paganism, but lived in the Mission 
vicinity. Most of the others remained 
' steadfast in the faith.' Some of their 
children and grandchildren were in the 
Mission when I was there, and one, Albert 
B. Jewett, returned with me to the United 
States and was graduated at the Fiske 
University in '91. He also studied theology 
in the Yale and Chicago Seminaries. 

The Mission stations established by the 
early missionaries who returned to Africa 
with the 'Amistad ' captives, have made the 
communities in which they live largely 

Yours cordially. 

Rev. Albert P. Miller." 


Two travelers thrust upon a thorny way 
And left to tramp the brambles as they 

Go forth — the one with heavy step and 


The other with a spirit light and gay. 
Responsive to the wounds heart's blood doth 

Youth's lusty fires to smoldering embers 

Yet neither — be he free, or sadly bound, — 
May aught about the Whence or Whither 

The jungle cleared: Behold the double 

Where weeds on one spring over and 

In many a rank and rankled scraggy 

But see upon the other flower-crowned, 
How rose and hyacinth and lilac spread 
A sacrificial solace for the dead. 


And on, and on, with eagerness we press, 

Determined to attain to nothing less 

Than grand Utopia, our constant dream. 

But when we think to win the dear 

And make an effort final and supreme, 

We find the goal which all so near did 

Is forward gone and left us far behind. 

Then with renewed exertions and extreme 

We onward dash, to every hindrance blind, 

Upon ideal perfection soul and mind 

But concentrate to reach the golden 

Alas, again we look ahead to find 

The place to which our keen ambitions 

Is Never-Never-Never-Land indeed. 

Painted by Nathaniel Jocelyn when the " Amistad," a Spanish slaver, was held off 
New Haven harbor. The captain and crew were overpowered by the cargo of 
captives under leadership of Cinque. Original portrait now property of New Haven 
Colony Historical Society — See Volume VII, of The Connecticut Magazine 

Sculpture in America * !^JK5SSK 



SCULPTURE was held by the 
first Americans as an inven- 
tion of the devil. The Ameri- 
can Indian's conception of it, 
in its crudest form, was that of a re- 
vengeful power — a god of vengeance. 
The Puritans of New England were 
brothers to the men who decapitated 
the cathedral statuary, asserting it to 
be shameful and immoral. The Quak- 
ers of Pennsylvania looked askance 
upon sculpture and found little in it 
but suggestiveness. The early Dutch 
settlers of New Amsterdam were 
born in a land that was producing 
masters in painting, but they came to 
the New World not to potter in clay, 
but to lay the foundations for large 
commercial institutions and result- 
ant fortunes. The French and Span- 
iards were lovers of the sculptural art 
at home, but America was to them a 
land of romance and daring where the 
flesh and the sword were nobler com- 
panions than bloodless clay. The cav- 
aliers of Virginia were more in sym- 
pathy with the beautiful, and were the 
first to import works of art into the 
New World. 

The way of the wilderness is stern 
and relentless. The call from the 
wilds brings back in its echo the re- 
sponse of man. The rough forest life 
of the path-finders found sympathy 
only in throbbing life. One genera- 
tion passed — and then another — the 
forest rang with the sound of the axe 
and the fields blossomed into the 
fruits of husbandry — still the same 
stoic disposition which held in disre- 
pute the purely aesthetic bound the 
characters of the early Americans. 

I find that it was a woman who first 
•gave sculptural expression to the 
American people — Patience Lovell, 
Iborn at Bordentown, New Jersey, in 
3725. Although there was not a 
statue in that part of the country, she 



: . 

m* '■ 

















began molding miniature heads in 
wax. At twenty-three years of age, 
in 1748, she married Joseph Wright. 
In 1769, she was left a widow with 
three children, and removed to Lon- 
don where she believed there were 
wider opportunities for her talent. 
Tradition claims that she became a 
friend of the king, but on the out- 
break of the American Revolution she 
severely upbraided him and became 
a^ enemy. For a time she was cred- 
ited with acting as a spy for the 
American Revolutionists, and it ; s 
said that she kept them informed re- 
garding the shipments of British 
troops and their destinations. Mrs. 
Wright corresponded with Benjamin 
Franklin who was then residing in 
Paris, and kept in intimate relations 
with her countrymen. In 1785, she 
died in London ; her son, Joseph 
Wright, studied with Benjamin West, 
and returned to the United States as 
an American painter ; her younger 
daughter married John Hoppner, an 
English portrait painter. 

American blood had been inocu- 
lated with art. Interest had now 
been stimulated in sculpture. Aristo- 
cratic homes were beginning to give 
it recognition, and Mount Vernon 
possessed marble busts brought from 

Virginia was the earliest patron of 
sculpture in America, granting to 
Houdon, a French sculptor, in 1781 
and 1785, the commissions to execute 
a marble statue of George Washing- 
ton and of Lafayette. Houdon sailed 
with Franklin from Havre on July 2, 
1785, and made the first contribution 
to the sculpture of the New World. 

The second sculptor who visited 
America was Guiseppe Cerracchi, an 
Italian, who had worked with Canova 
upon sculptures for the Pantheon. 
He came to America in 1791 with the 
plan to present to Congress a monu- 
ment to American Liberty — a colossal 
group, one hundred feet high, in 
which the Goddess of Liberty is rep- 
resented descending in a car drawn by 

four horses, darting through a vol- 
ume of clouds which conceals the 
summit of a rainbow. In her right 
hand she brandishes a flaming dart, 
which, by dispelling the mists of 
error, illuminates the universe; her 
left hand is extended in the attitude 
of calling the people of America to 
listen to her voice. The proposed 
group included figures of Saturn, 
Clio, Apollo, Policy, Philosophy, Na- 
tional Valor, Neptune and Mercury. 
Cerracchi failed to secure the thirty 
thousand dollars for his proposed 
work, and tried to accumulate the 
funds by private subscription. George 
Washington headed the list of con- 
tributors, but the sculptor returned to 
France disheartened, just in time, 
according to tradition, to have his 
head taken off for conspiracy against 

It was but a few years later, in 
1789, that John Dixey, born in Dub- 
lin, came to America with the com- 
mendable ambition of founding a 
school of American sculpture. Many 
Europeans were deceived with the be- 
lief that the land of liberty meant 
necessarily the emancipation of arts, 
and they came and went without ful- 
filling their dreams. 

The foreign elements were, never- 
theless, making an impression on 
American craftsmanship. In Phila- 
delphia was one William Rush, born 
July 4, 1756, and apprenticed as a 
boy to learn the trade of wood carv- 
ing, who gained eminence by design- 
ing the figure-heads of ships. He 
served his youth in the American 
Revolution, and his service to Ameri- 
can art is enduring, especially as a 
founder of the Pennsylvania Acad- 
emy of Fine Arts in which he united 
the fugitive elements of American 
culture. He died January 17, 1833, 
leaving his impress on the political 
and intellectual life of his birth-place. 

The seed of art seemed to have 
been planted, and in New Haven, Con- 
necticut, there appeared Hezekiah 
Augur, born in February, 1791, the 


son of a carpenter. At nine years of 
age he was apprenticed to learn the 
trade of cobbler, but finally became a 
wood-carver and later the first Con- 
necticut sculptor. He is also cred- 
ited with producing the first bracket 
saw and inventing the carving ma- 
chine. In 1833, he was made an hon- 
orary member of the Alumni of Yale 
College, and died in January, 1858. 

Contemporary with Rush, was 
John Frazee, born July 18, 1790, in 
Rahway, New Jersey. He was ap- 
prenticed to a bricklayer, became a 
tavern-keeper, and later a stone-cut- 
ter. He married in 18 13, and on the 
death of an infant son, carved a rep- 
resentation of "Grief" on the tomb- 
stone — his first attempt at the human 
figure. About 1824, he made the 
marble bust of John Weils, a promi- 
nent lawyer of New York, which is 
probably the first marble bust chis- 
eled in this country, and undoubtedly 
the first carved by a native American. 

In 1792, John Henri Isaac Browere 
was born in New York, and in his 
early life went to the Old World to 
prepare himself as a sculptor. After 
experiencing two years of adventure, 
tramping over the continent, he re- 
turned to the United States and in- 
troduced a new process which gave 
him position as a contributor to Amer- 
ican art. 

The first American deliberately 
choosing sculpture as a profession 
and going abroad for serious study, 
was Horatio Greenough, born in Bos- 
ton, Massachusetts, September 6, 
1805. As a child he carved swords 
and pistols, tiny horses and carriages. 
At twelve years of age he copied the 
busts of William Penn and John 
Adams in chalk. At sixteen years of 
age he entered Harvard. During the 
close of his senior year, he boarded a 
vessel about to sail for Marseilles, 
after obtaining permission from the 
government of the college to leave be- 
fore graduation, and his diploma was 
forwarded to him abroad. He arrived 
at Marseilles in the first of the au- 

tumn and proceeded directly by land 
to Rome, where he entered into the 
art life of the Old World metropolis. 

A year later he returned to Amer- 
ica, because of ill health, and mod- 
eled the bust of John Quincy Adams 
and of Chief Justice Marshall. In 
1827, he returned to Italy, where he 
began serious work for greater 
achievements. It was soon after that 
he made the first marble group by an 
American sculptor. It was entitled 
"Chanting Cherubs." 

J. Fenimore Cooper, the novelist 
saw with great regret the neglect 
Greenough experienced, and was con- 
vinced that he lacked only an oppor- 
tunity. Raphael's painting of the 
"Chanting Cherubs" impressed him 
as a group of great beauty and suited 
to Greenough's taste. He gave the 
young sculptor the order, and from 
the print before him he produced the 
group. To convince Americans that 
thev had a countryman superior in 
talent and skill to the Italians they 
were employing, Cooper placed the 
group on exhibition. This is the first 
group from the chisel of an American 
artist. Puritan decency was shocked 
by their nude baby forms, and omi- 
nous mutterings were heard on every 
side. Although we have no record 
of Cooper's instituting a law suit, as 
was his general custom, the bitterness 
of the controversy is proved by 
Greenough's truculent reply to his 
critics in a letter dated December I, 


Cooper martialed his influence to 
force the American people to recog- 
nize Greenough as their "first great 
native sculptor." Through the efforts 
of the novelist, Congress commis- 
sioned Greenough to immortalize 
Washington as "The Father of His 
Country." The story of Greenough's 
"Washington" is a tragedy. He con- 
ceived him as a colossal, godlike fig- 
ure, with lower limbs covered with a 
loose drapery, and seated in a majes- 
tic chair. The statue which was in- 
tended for the national capitol met 


with impudence, ridicule and taunts. 
After being subjected to mtr.h igno- 
miny the figure was placed outside 
the capitol where it still stands. One 
satirist, when interpreting the mean- 
ing of the extended arms, said that 
one pointed to Mount Vernon and 
other to the Patent Office, by which 
he supposed that Washington was 
saying, "My body is at Mount Ver- 
non; my clothes are in the Patent 

I have the deepest sympathy for 
poor Greenough. For eight years he 
had labored on an ideal that an un- 
poetic people could not conceive. 
With the true soul of the poet he 
wrote : "It is the birth of my thought. 
I have sacrificed to it the flower of 
my days and the freshness of my 
strength ; its every lineament has 
been moistened by the sweat of my 
toil and the tears of my exile. I 
would not barter away its association 
with my name for the proudest for- 
tune that avarice ever dreamed." 

With the storm of ridicule came the 
unwavering friendship of a few who 
understood the soul of the young 
sculptor. Edward Everett wrote 
from Italy in 1841 : "I regard Green- 
ough's 'Washington' as one of the 
greatest works of sculpture of mod- 

ern times. I do not know the work 
which can justly be preferred to it, 
whether we consider the purity of the 
taste, the loftiness of the conception, 
the truth of the character, or, what 
we must own we feel less able to 
judge of, the accuracy of anatomical 
study and mechanical skill." 

I recently read a letter which 
Greenough wrote to a friend. In it 
he said: "In future time when the 
true sculptors of America have filled 
the metropolis with beauty and gran- 
deur, will it not be worth $30,000 to 
be able to point to the figure and say : 
'There was the first struggle of our 
infant art?'" 

The tragedy of this first American 
sculptor closed on December 18, 1852. 
The depth of this man's soul is shown 
by some of the last words which he 
wrote in the closing days of his forty- 
seven years of life, which had been 
filled with rebuffs and blasted hopes: 
"I would not pass away and not leave 
a sign that I, for one, born by the 
grace of God in this land, found life 
a cheerful thing, and not that sad and 
dreadful task with whose prospect 
they scared my youth." 

It is but the first of the hundreds of 
tragedies that have been suffered in 
the building of a national art on the 
Western Continent. 

It has been estimated that since the beginning of authentic history war has 
destroyed fifteen billions of human lives. I have seen the estimate put at twice that 
number. The estimated loss of life by war in the past century is fourteen millions. 
Napoleon's campaigns of twenty years cost Europe six millions of lives. 

The Crimean War 1854 750,000 

The Italian War 1859 63,000 

Our Civil War, North and South (killed and died in other ways) 1,000,000 

The Prussian-Austrian War 1S66 45,000 

The expeditions to Mexico, China, Morocco, etc. 65,000 

The Franco-German War 1870 250,000 

The Russo-Turkish War 1877 225,000 

The Zulu and Afghan Wars 1879 40,000 

The Chinese-Japanese War 1804 io,c 00 

The Spanish- American War 5,000 

„ j Americans 5,000 

99 ■'••') Filipinos.. 1,000,000 

/1 -ii a a a a\ \ British.... 100,000 
< kllled and wounded) j Boers 2 .; ooo 

The Russo-Japanese War 450, 500 

These are probably all under the actual facts. 

Benjamin F. Trueblood, 
Secretary American Peace Society. 

The Philippine War. 
The Boer War 

EARLY PAINTINGS IN AMERICA— Family Group by John Singleton Copley, 
The First Native Born American Artist of Exceptional Skill 

FIRST EUROPEAN ARTISTS TO COME TO AMERICA- Now in possession of Yale University 

painting of a group of figures in the United States!' — 

Painting in America -s 

Rare Canuascs of Tirst Artists 
are Preserved in Connecticut 



PAINTING was little known 
by the aboriginal Americans, 
excepting as they used color 
as a personal decoration in 
times of tribal wars or revelry. 
The painters of the Old World 
found it sufficiently difficult to ob- 
tain a livelihood in civilization with- 
out coming to the savage land. 
It is probable that the first artist to 
dare the dangers of the western con- 
tinent was the adventurous Jacques 
le Moyne, who came with the French 
expedition, about 1565, to the coast of 
Florida. The stories of his experi- 
ences were not such as to induce his 
fellow artists to follow him. His 
companions were young Huguenot 
nobles who came to seek gold, but 
found famine. They fell into the 
hands of adventurous Spaniards who 
slaughtered most of them, but Le 
Moyne escaped and fled to the woods. 
In his hiding he saw one of his com- 
rades hewn to pieces before his eyes. 
After fearful suffering the French 
artist reached the coast and was 
picked up by a small vessel and taken 
to England. 

Joannes With, probably from the 
Netherlands, came to America about 
1585 to secure subjects for his art. 
One or two other courageous illustra- 
tors came here for material, but none 
of them remained any length of time. 
Samuel de Champlain, the explorer, 
embellished his records with colored 
views of harbors, block-houses, ani- 
mals, rivers, and skirmishes with the 

The early colonists in their migra- 
tion from the Old World brought no 
such luxuries as paintings. In truth, 
most of them had strong religious 
scruples against art. 

Regarding the first foreign artist of 
real ability to come to America I find 
some controversy. Mr. Charles Henry 

Hart, an authority on American art, 
is confident that Gustavus Hesseluis, 
a Swede, was the first painter to arrive 
in America ; and that his son, John 
Hesseluis, was the first native-born 
artist. He bases his argument on 
manuscript written by Wertmuller, in 
which he records his marriage on 
January 8, 1801, to a granddaughter 
"of Gustaf Hesseluis of the Swedish 
nation, and painter of portraits, who 
arrived from Sweden in ijio." 
Accompanying the manuscript are 
portraits of Gustavus Hesseluis and 
Lydia his wife, painted by himself, 
and now owned by the Historical So- 
ciety of Pennsylvania. Critic Hart 
says that these portraits "show that 
Hesseluis was a painter of no mean 
ability for his time." 

Gustavus Hesseluis was barn at 
Volkarna, Dalarm, Sweden, in 1682, 
the son of a minister. That he was 
truly a painter is proven by an ad- 
vertisement in The Pennsylvania 
Packet December 11, 1740: 

Painting done in the best manner by 
Gustavus Hesseluis from Stockholm and 
John Winter from London. Viz. Coat of 
Arms drawn on Coaches, Chaises, &c, or 
any kind of Ornaments, Landskips, Signs, 
Shew-boards, Ship and House painting, 
Guilding of all sorts, Writing in Gold or 
Color, old Pictures cleaned and mended, 

Hesseluis was in Maryland for 
some time, but in Philadelphia in 1735 
he purchased a house and lot on the 
north side of High street, where he 
resided until his death, May 25, 1755. 

The popular opinion in art circles 
accords the honor of being the first 
pioneer painter in America to John 
Watson, a Scotchman, who came to 
the country in 171 5 and set up his 
easel in a home on a picturesque ele- 
vation in Perth Amboy — then the cap- 
ital of New Jersey — overlooking the 
sea on one hand and on the other the 


i 3 6 


undulating hills and rich lowlands of 
the Jersey shore. The most that 
seems to be known of him is that he 
purchased lands, built houses, painted 
portraits, and lived to a great old age 
in the land of his choice. There were 
many traditions about him, probably 
growing out of his thrifty habits of 
usury and miserliness in his practices. 
He visited Europe, and Dunlap says 
in his history of art that he brought 
back to America many pictures, 
which, with his own, made the first 
collection of paintings in this country 
of which we have any knowledge. 

It is said that a good many of Mr. 
Watson's own pictures were portraits, 
real or imaginary, of kings of Eng- 
land and Scotland, and that in the 
Revolution the militia in that section 
being a rough, undisciplined com- 
pany, took great delight in destroying 
the monarchs in effigy, and along 
with them this first cabinet of fine arts 
was broken up and its treasures 
wasted. Watson died in 1786 aged 
eighty-three years. 

I have authority to state here that 
the first artist to come to America, 
whose work seems to have made any 
lasting impression, was John Smy- 
bert, a Scotchman, who exerted a 
powerful and lasting influence on the 
native-born painters who were his 
contemporaries and successors. Dean, 
afterward Bishop, Berkeley, resigned 
in 1728 the richest church preferment 
in Ireland for a bare maintenance as 
principal of a projected "universal 
college of science and arts" in Amer- 
ica, "to instruct heathen children in 
Christian duties and civil knowledge." 
He invited John Smybert, a young 
artist, born in Edinburgh about 1684, 
who in boyhood was apprenticed to a 
plasterer and house painter, to be a 
professor of drawing, painting and 
architecture in the new institution. 
The project was a failure and Dean 
Berkeley returned to Ireland a disap- 
pointed man, but still with courage to 
do more and good work in his own 

Smybert remained in New Eng- 
land, living in Boston, acquiring fame 
in his profession as an artist, and for- 
tune by his marriage with a daughter 
of Dr. Williams, who was "Latin 
schoolmaster of the town of Boston 
for fifty years." Smybert died in 
175 1, leaving a widow and two chil- 

There appeared about this time a 
number of artists and to have one's 
portrait painted began to be the cor- 
rect fashion. In 1750, there was one, 
Theus, painting portraits in South 
Carolina, Robert Feke in New Eng- 
land, John Greenwood, and several 
others. In the Nezu York Gazette, 
July, 1754, appears this item : 

Just arrived from London with Capt. 
Miller, hereby acquaints all Gentlemen and 
Ladies inclined to favor him in having 
their pictures drawn, that he don't doubt 
of pleasing them in taking a true Likeness, 
and finishing the Drapery in a proper 
manner, as also in the Choice of Atti- 
tudes suitable to each Person's Age and 
Sex and giving agreeable satisfaction as 
he has heretofore done to Gentlemen and 
Ladies in London. 

It is doubtful, however, if either 
art or advertising paid in these pio- 
neer days, for it appears that in 1772 
Kilburn abandoned his practice and 
opened a paint store. 

There came to Boston, about 1750, 
a traveling artist, Jonathan B. Black- 
burn, who painted family groups and 
for fifteen years held a select clientele. 

The first native American artist of 
masterly skill was born in Boston, 
July 3, 1737 — John Singleton Copley. 
He was the son of a Yorkshire farmer 
who had settled in County Limerick, 
Ireland, married, migrated with his 
wife to Boston in 1736, and died in 
the West Indies about the time of his 
son's birth. Widow Copley opened 
a tobacco store in Boston where, 
according to her notices, she sold 
"The best Virginia Tobacco, Cut, 
Pigtail, Spun, by Wholesale and Re- 
tail, at the cheapest rates." 

About ten years after the death of 
her first husband, Widow Copley 

Now in the Art Gallery of the Wadsworth Athenaeum at Hartford, Connecticut 


married Peter Pelham, a mezzotint 
engraver. Under his guidance, the 
boy Copley made his first portrait — a 
painting of his stepfather. About the 
time he was seventeen, young Copley 
had become recognized as a painter, 
and his work already included a min- 
iature of Washington, whose reputa- 
tion was then that of a brave Indian 
fighter. He married, in 1769, the 
daughter of Richard Clarke, a wealthy 
merchant. Copley considered his 
wife the most beautiful woman in 
America and he introduced her into 
many of his paintings. 

The Copley home was an eleven- 
acre farm on Beacon Hill, Boston, 
and in 1767 he wrote: "I am now in 
as good a business as the poverty of 
this place will admit. I make as 
much money as if I were a Raphael 
or a Correggio, and three hundred 
guineas a year, my present income, is 
equal to nine hundred a year in Lon- 

Nevertheless, he sailed for Eng- 
land, in June, 1774, and from thence 
to Italy where he passed the winter in 
Rome. In a letter to his wife from 
Genoa he writes : 

"I judged it best to take advantage of so 
good an opportunity and purchased a suit 
of clothes for the winter. Perhaps it 
would amuse you should I tell you what 
I have bought. I have as much black vel- 
vet as will make a suit of clothes. For 
this I gave about five guineas ($25), and 
about two more for as much crimson 
satin as will line it. This is the taste 
throughout Tuscany; and to-day I have 
bought some lace ruffles and silk stock- 

Because of political disturbances in 
America, he sent for his family who 
joined him in July, 1775. It is said 
that "Mrs. Copley left behind her in 

America, Mrs. Pelham, the artist's 
mother, and in her care an infant only 
a few weeks old, which she was afraid 
to expose to the trials of an ocean 
voyage, and which died soon after. 
She took with her three children, and 
was soon afterward joined by her 
father, Mr. Clarke, and her brothers,, 
who had previously moved to Canada. 
Mr. Clarke was a strong Tory. It 
was to him that the tea was con- 
signed which was dumped into the 
harbor at the 'Boston Tea Party/ and 
in other ways he suffered so heavily 
for his views that he subsequently re- 
ceived a pension from the British gov- 
ernment up to his death." 

Copley was inclined to favor the 
American party in England, but took 
no part in the dispute. It was on De- 
cember 5, 1782, that he listened to the 
king's speech recognizing America's, 
independence. At that time he was 
working on a portrait in the back- 
ground of which he had introduced a 
ship, and upon receiving the news he 
painted on the ship's mast the first 
American flag seen in England. 

Copley's career in London carried 
him to renown, and then began to de- 
cline. During his prosperity his man- 
sion was opened to all Americans vis- 
iting London, but when fortune 
turned he became involved in finan- 
cial difficulties and borrowed money 
to advance his son. It is told that 
"patronage fell off; almost his last 
important work, the equestrian por- 
trait of the Prince Regent, from 
which he had hoped great things, re- 
mained unsold ; his health declined, 
and his life did not long outlast his 
popularity." He died in 181 5 and 
was buried in the parish church at 

Transcribed from Original by BENJAMIN C. LUM 

Whereas David Lumjunr of the County of New Haven in the State of Connecticut hath duly 
applied for a license to employ a manufactory conducted in one wood building, situate in the county of 
New Haven in the State of Connecticut and owned by Sd Lum of the county of New Haven in State 
of Connecticut in the making of Boots and Bootees during the term of one year to commence on the 
eighteenth day of April 1815 and to end on the eighteenth day of April 1816: 

Now Know Ye, That the said David Lum Junr is hereby licensed to employ the said manu- 
factory in the making of Boots and BOOTEES, for the said term of one year as above defined, in con- 
formity with the laws of the United States. WALTER B. BEALE 
Countersigned at Cheshire in the Sd Collection District this 18th day of April, 1815, 
S. Hull Jr., Collector of the Revenue for the Collection District. 


IU Benefaction of a Pioneer Alaskan trader 




THERE was no lack of men 
"who go down to the sea in 
ships, that do business in 
great waters," in the earliest 
days of New England. From each 
small seaport vessels— smaller than 
the tug that now puffs noisily as it 
pulls the prow of the great ocean 
steamer until it points outward for 
its voyage — were ladened with as- 
sorted cargos for barter and 
trade, and sent out with a roving 
commission and a super cargo, 
to exchange the plowshare for spices 
and the spade for silk and satin. 

The super cargo — his occupation 
is gone. The first message that 
crossed the ocean ended his useful- 
ness, and his name is as obsolete as 
his employment. 

But even before modern methods 
and new inventions had outdone the 
venture of the small importer, and 
destroyed the entity of the small 
trading store, the thrifty New Eng- 
lander saw before him wider pos- 
sibilities, and, what was much to his 
liking, greater profit; and so he 
turned his adventurous spirit toward 
the whaling trade, first, to rival 
the Dutch and the English but ult- 
imately to outstrip them. 

Each small seaport on the New 
England coast became its own center 
for the new venture. The agent 
fitted and managed the venture and 
captain and crew were participants 
in the success or failure of the en- 
terprise according to their appor- 
tioned lays — a certain measurable 
communism which is a bit talked 
about now. 

New Bedford led the list and was v 
in its time, the greatest whaling 
port of the world; but Salem, Nan- 
tucket, vSag Harbor, New London,. 
Provincetown, and a host of smaller 
ports, sent from their busy wharves 
the ships, barks, and schooners, 
whose adventurous mariners extend- 
ed the Arctic maps and brought back 
oil and bone, the profit of whose sale 
lined the elm-shaded streets of our 
old New England towns with the 
square white houses, whose pillared 
porticos are still a dignified protest 
against the pseudo Queen Anne 
monstrosities of the later day. ^T^ 

Tempora muiantur: From the. 
bowels of the earth there came a. 





brighter and cheaper light than the 
whale could give, and celluloid vied 
with the bones of cetacean. 

The vessels that had ploughed 
the newly discovered seas lay- 
idle at the wharves until one more 
call for service came. The swift 
blockade runner was carrying be- 
tween Charlestown and Bermuda, 
the material and the sinews of war, 
and Charlestown Harbor must be 

Called, like Quintus Curtius, to 
leap into the gulf for their country's 
good — theirs, however, was a futile 
task. It had its dignity, though, 
that passing of the stone fleet. 

Moritur salutamus: The old fash- 
ioned names, the quaint figure heads ! 
Not oil or bone in the holds that 
had brought home to waiting owners 
so many a rich cargo. Only stones 
that should anchor them in their 

Yet of their day and date more 
than a memory exists. 

Strong and rugged were their 
virtues, these builders of New Eng- 
land, and they left more behind 
them than the old-fashioned house 
with its look-out on the roof where 
the owner watched for the incoming 
of his ship. 

Undaunted by failure, they pushed 
westward to plant in the outskirts 
of civilization the church and the 
school house which they knew so 
well, or, they sought again in the 
unploughed sea some new harvest 
that they might reap, and, following 
close on the footsteps of the astute 
statesman, brought back from 
Alaska the harvest of the seal. 

And more than all, they have left, 
not a few of them, to the town and 
city, which was their home, endur- 
ing monuments of their sense of the 
stewardship of the wealth which 
they had gathered by their prud- 
ence, their foresight and their cour- 

Coming from the unpromising 
New England farm to the seaport 
•of New England, Henry P. Haven 

saw, as many a New England 
farmer's boy has done, the possi- 
bilities of a wider world. Foresight, 
prudence and thrift combined, made 
him at last the ruling spirit of the 
firm of Williams & Haven, one of 
the widest and best known of those 
sturdy houses which ruled and guided 
the whaling commerce of New Eng- 
land. He pushed with adventurous 
zeal beyond the capture of the whale, 
finding wealth in the wide deposit 
of the Guano Islands where for cent- 
uries the sea bird had brooded un- 
disturbed, and roused the drowsy 
seal of the Shetland Islands by the 
unaccustomed clank of oars. And 
when a statesman, wiser than his 
day and generation, bought the 
wealth of Alaska for a song, he 
followed close on the signing of the 
deed with a knowledge reaped from 
wide experience to keep and control 
for a term of years the great sealing 
grounds which were a part of the 
new acquisition. 

Mr. Haven had three children: 
there was a beloved daughter, 
Anna Haven, who married Frank 
Perkins, the son of an old New Eng- 
land family. In their old granite 
mansion which still stands to utter 
its dignified protest against the shops 
and stores that crowd it, and the 
trolley that jangles its bell before its 
door, is kept undisturbed the cham- 
ber in which Washington slept. 

There was a promising son, 
Thomas Haven, who early entered 
the firm that his father had founded. 
The brilliant prospects of his youth 
were left unfulfilled by his early 

There was a surviving son, 
Henry Cecil Haven, a well known 
physician in Boston, whose interest 
in, and whose benefactions to, the 
Children's Hospital, have earned for 
him a well deserved meed of 

The father, Henry Philomen 
Haven, died in 1876, and divided 
his estate into three parts: one 
portion to his daughter, Mrs. Per- 



kins; one portion to his son, Dr. H. 
C. Haven; and the third portion, 
which would have gone to the son 
who died in early manhood, was 
devised to trustees who were to ex- 
pend the interest for charity until 
the expiration of the lease of the 
Alaska Fur Seal Company, when the 
principal was to be so expended. 

In 1881 the trustees, desirous of 
building some permanent memorial, 
put aside a fund for the building of 
a Public Library in New London. 

The town was quite without a 
Library then, save a so-called Young 
Men's Library which was now and 
then galvanized into temporary life 
b»y enthusiastic young men who soon 
wearied of their task and left it in 
its former state of "innocuous de- 

In 1882 they secured a charter 
from the state and in 1889 com- 
menced the erection of a Library 

In 1898, Mrs. Anna Haven Perkins 
•died, making the Public Library of 
New London her residuary legatee, 
subject to the payment of certain an- 
nuities. The Library was opened 
to the public in July, 1891. 

Both in the selection of a location 
and the choice of an architect, the 
trustees acted most wisely. At the 
head of the main business street of 
the city and opposite the Dutch Col- 
onial Court House built in 1784, it 
stands in the very center of the city. 

No American architect stands 
higher in his profession today than 
the late Henry Hobson Richardson 
whose work may be considered the 
nearest approach to a definite Amer- 
ican style. 

The first drawings were made by 
him and were finished in the office 
of his successors, Shepley, Coolidge 
<& Rutan. The stamp of his in- 
dividuality is plainly upon it. 

The building is of Milford granite 
with brownstone trimmings. The 
entrance is from a recessed portico 
at the meeting of the two streets 
upon which it stands. Near the door 

at the end of the portico is a bas- 
relief in bronze of the founder, by 
Augustus Saint Gaudens. The door 
opens upon the Reading Room with 
its spacious fire-place, wide and deep 
enough for the traditional yule-log, 
and the book stacks are beyond the 
delivery desk, where the building 
extends south from the corner. 

The trimmings are of quartered 
oak and the transoms or the windows 
are stained glass, fac-similies of old 
book plates, a collection as well ex- 
ecuted as selected. 

The Library is fortunate in being 
the possessor of many early Connec- 
cut books from the collection of Miss 
Frances M. Caulkins, the historian 
of Norwich and New London, and 
the half-sister of the founder. Many 
of them are extremely rare and are 
of very considerable value, the rarest 
being the " Saybrook Confession of 
Faith " printed by Thomas Short, 
the first printer of Connecticut, in 
New London, 17 10. 

The foundation of the Library 
would suggest that its specialty, if 
it can afford such a luxury, should 
be in the line of early voyages, 
Arctic and Antarctic explorations, 
and the like, and in this line it is far 
away beyond most libraries of its 

The proof of the pudding is said 
to be in its eating, and perhaps the 
best testimony of the usefulness of 
the Library is in its use, the more 
certainly if its use is guided by a 
discriminating choice of the volumes 
admitted to its shelves. 

The population of New London is 
about 20,000 and the number of 
volumes in the Public Library is 

These figures as to the number of 
volumes per capita, furnish some 
definite basis as to the use of the 

The circulation for the past year 
was 86,842. Of this number, 21,746 
were issued to children. 

This demand for literature for 
children was so marked and seeme 5. 



so important, that the Library added 
a Children's Room by the purchase 
of adjoining property, a step the 
wisdom of which is well demonstrated 
by the fact that these premises are 
already over-crowded. 

The influx of foreigners whose as- 
similation with this country must 
necessarily be slow and difficult, 
suggests to the Library that there is 
something to be done in this line of 

For the Pole, for the Russian, for 
the Italian, books in his own tongue 
which tell him of the purpose of the 
country to which he has come to seek 
liberty, and which by such telling, 
draw the sharp line between liberty 
and license, are of the greatest value 
in securing the stability of the Re- 

They are hard to find and will not 
be widely read, but are seeds sown 
in stony ground that may find some 
fertile spots. 

The record of the reading habit 
in this country shows Connecticut 
standing second. We in New Lon- 
don believe that we contribute to 
that high average. 

No trolley car passes the building 
without making its stop there, bring- 
ing and taking books, and he is 
counted almost an alien and "not 
to the manor born " who is not 
sometimes seen with a library book 
under his arm. 

Not mere binding and paper, but 
from these precincts Lamb walks 
out arm in arm with the man who 
shall learn to love and cherish him 
at his own fireside. Not mere paper, 
for the soul of Tennyson shall sing 
again those lyrics which have made 
his name immortal and he whose 
genius touched the whole gamut of 
life shall tell again, under the even- 
ing lamp, the stories of Romeo and 
Juliet, of Macbeth and of Lear, 
which have made the whole world 


Major Peter Norton was born in Edgartown, Massachusetts, September o, 1718. He was a 

prominent citizen holding the office of sheriff and attained the rank of major in the Continental 

Army. He was a leader in overt acts in resisting British policies and died February 3, 17Q2 


Great-great-great-granddaughter of Major Norton 
We the subscribers, inhabitants of the town of Edgartown, do sincerely and truly 
covenant and agree to and with each other, that from and after the first day of January 
A. D. 1775, that we will not directly or indirectly by ourselves or any for or under 
us, purchase of any person or persons whatever for the use of our families any kind of 
goods, wares or merchandise of the growth, produce or manufacture of Great Britain 
or of the East Indies, imported from Great Britain, except tools for manufacture and 
husbandry, nails, pins and needles, until our Charter Rites be restored, and the Port 
of Boston be opened, and if any person or persons belonging to said town shall refuse 
to sign this or a similar agreement at or before the said first day of January, that we 
will deem them enemies to the country and supporters of the Oppressive Acts of the 
British Parliament. And whereas many of us, the subscribers, are owners of sheep, 
we also agree that we will sell our wool for one shilling per pound until our Rites are 
restored as aforesaid. 

Witness our hands at Edgartown November the 8 — 1774- 

Peter Norton. 
Wm. Jernigan. 



Founder of the Public Library 

at New London, Connecticut 

By Augustus Saint Gaudens 

J! Uindication or the American Aboriginal 



Now in His Eighty-thikd Year 

The venerable writer of this "Vindication of the American Indian" is an antiquarian who for more than 
half a century has been making researches into the apparent "inconsistencies" of history. In telling of 
his experiences Mr. Spier says: " Some years ago I visited Norwich, Connecticut, seeking historical data 
relative to Uncas and the Mohegan tribe. I found no little difficulty in obtaining the facts and authenticat- 
ing them. I have found some reliable old authorities for hitherto unascertained facts. I trust I have not 
been guilty of falling into the romance which is so seductive to writers of Indian life. I can give good 
authority for every statement I make." — Editor 


HE locality from whence I 
pen this sketch is historic. 
Nature and art ; fact and tra- 
dition have made it so. The 
irregular area now traversed by the 
streets of the beautiful city of Nor- 
wich, Connecticut, was early known 
to the white explorers as the site of 
the principal village and the tribal 
center of the Mohegan Indians and 
was also marked by tradition as the 
burying place of Mohegan royalty 
for many generations. But few me- 
morials are now left to confirm the 
tradition. Beneath the turf at our 
feet sleeps the dust of the last Chief 
Sachem of the Mohegans. Before 
us rises a plain granite shaft, on one 
side of whose quadrangular base we 
read the suggestive name Uncas. The 
monument, like the character of the 
chieftain whom it commemorates, is 
simple, severe and enduring, a fitting 
memorial erected by the "Pale Face" 
in honor of their once noble ally and 
faithful friend. At first a rude slab 
of perishable stone marked the spot, 
but with the lapse of years decay and 
mutilation by the vandal hands of 
mere curiosity hunters gradually 
wasted the stone and well-nigh oblit- 
erated the quaint record engraved 
thereon, which, thanks to the appre- 
ciative intelligence of some of the 
local historians of Norwich, has been 
rescued from oblivion and preserved 
to the future historian. 

The following is a copy of the orig- 
inal inscription: 

Here lyeth ye body of Samuel Uncas, 
Chief Sachem of the Mohegans: 
For beauty, wit and sterling sense, 
For temper mild — for eloquence — 
For courage bold — for things wauregan— 
He was the glory of Mohegan: 
Whose death hath caused great lamenta- 
tion — 
Both in ye English & ye Indian nation. 

Truly a quaint and expressive 
eulogy, furnishing doubtless a favor- 
able estimate of the character of war- 
rior chieftain as well as a fine exam- 
ple of the style of epitaph not unfre- 
quent in the burying-grounds of New 
England in its early period. Within 
the shadow of this monument lie two 
generations of the blood of Uncas. 
Two and a half centuries ago the 
great Sachem passed to the hunting- 
grounds of the braves of his ancient 
race beyond the Western sky. A 
small and spiritless band now lingers 
to represent this once interesting na- 
tion. They occupy a reservation 
across the Pequot river (the later 
Thames) about four miles south of 
the city of Norwich, on whose site 
once stood their royal town, Moheag. 
Since a detailed history of any chief- 
tain or tribe is not my aim in this 
article, but rather general reflections 
on the past of the American aborig- 
inal, a few passages of general, with 

I4. 1 ) 


Mohegan tribal, history will give 
coherency to our argument and afford 
the basis for agreeable comment. 

Long prior to the advent of 
the White Man the great family 
divisions of the American race (espe- 
cially those east of the Mississippi) 
had become sub-divided into number- 
less small tribes or petty chieftain- 
cies, many of these comprising but a 
few warriors. A widely extended 
pestilence had greatly reduced their 
numbers, while a state of hostility 
had long existed between many of 
these tribes, and at this epoch an un- 
relenting pedatory warfare threatened 
the extermination of some of the less 
powerful. The Mohegans were one 
of the latter class of the New Eng- 
land tribes — originally a part of the 
warlike nation — the Pequots, later a 
kind of dependency, paying tribute, 
and lastly an independent tribe. 
Like most of these eastern tribes they 
spoke a dialect of the Mohekanuck or 
Stockbridge language and boasted of 
their descent from the Leni-Lenapee 
or unmixed race, which tradition 
affirms had its national center and 
council house upon the head waters of 
the Delaware. At this period the 
"golden age" of Mohegan history had 
passed. The implacable Pequots 
warred upon them on the East, later 
the Narragansetts became a deter- 
mined foe while from the West they 
guarded against the incursions of the 
dreaded Maquas or Mohawks who 
lived in the fertile valley of the 
Maquas river, the chief territory of 
the Shatemuc — our now historic 

These latter forays were encour- 
aged and became more frequent and 
formidable through a treaty nego- 
tiated in 1 617 at Fort Orange be- 
tween the Dutch fur traders of Man- 
hattan and the Iroquois in which the 
Mohegans were unjustly compelled to 
pay an annual tribute to that league. 
This predatory warfare at length 
extended full thirty miles along the 
eastern shore of the Hudson. This 

state of affairs became unendurable to 
the Mohegans. The final crisis came 
in the autumn of 1628 when they ral- 
lied all their warriors, determined to 
overwhelm their long-time antagon- 

This last trial of prowess took place 
on the river banks and near a shore 
island called Rogers Island just 
above, opposite Catskill. Assault 
and defense were alike desperate, but 
the superior strategy and numbers of 
the Iroquois almost extinguished the 
Mohegans. But few of their war- 
riors escaped; assailed on all sides, 
with little respite for more than a 
third of a century, this final heroic, 
yet hopeless defense enlists both our 
respect and pity and invests the his- 
tory of the Mohegans with a halo of 
sad romance. 

As a natural result after these bit- 
ter experiences an alliance was sought 
by Uncas and his tribe with the white 
settlers (who first built on the site of 
Moheag in 1659 and 1660). To the 
whites the relation of defenders was 
a fortunate circumstance, affording 
an offset to the character of aggres- 
sors, as they were regarded by the 
more powerful tribes. A sense of 
greater safety to both white and na- 
tive was the result. Struggling with 
hardships in common, side by side 
sharing more or less in the same 
perils by ambush or open warfare, 
frequently doing mutual acts of cour- 
tesy and humanity — all these tended 
to make lasting the bonds of friend- 
ship. The White had come to the 
Mohegan a stranger, had been re- 
ceived as a friend from the Mohe- 
gans; they had purchased lands, 
learned the needed arts of woodcraft 
and found a resting place and a home. 
To the Mohegan he at once became a 
counsellor and a defender — by his 
added strength and skill rescuing the 
tribe from most certain and speedy 

The Norwich settlers soon began 
to regard themselves as the guar- 
dians of the wasting tribe, while 


the fidelity of these native allies 
showed the grateful estimate in which 
they held these services. This brief 
passage of local history is an ex- 
pressive epitome of the relative des- 
tiny of the two races — one destined to 
show certain and hopeless decrease 
and ultimate extinction, the other to 
as certain increase expansion and uni- 
versal occupation; the latter to trace 
its record on a continent in historic 
acts and refining arts; the former 
soon to be remembered only by scat- 
tered monument, by history and tra- 
dition. Both alike clearly read their 
future. One accepts it as noble 
prophecy to be triumphantly fulfilled; 
the other with characteristic stoicism 
as the decree of fate. To a mind of 
generous impulses there is a melan- 
choly satisfaction in pursuing these 

I am oppressed by a feeling of 
sadness when I recollect that no 
measures, however well intended or 
beneficent, have hitherto been able 
to avert the doom of the Amer- 
ican aboriginal. On this question 
thus far the teachings of the philan- 
thropist and the theories of the 
ethnologist have been alike defect- 
ive. Accepting the convenient the- 
ory of the incongruity of the two 
races, as the barrier to their general 
enlightenment and preservation, is 
but assuming what we should first 
prove. Leaving, therefore, the solu- 
tion of this question to others and 
looking at certain facts as they are 
we are gravely called upon to ask 
whether our efforts to ameliorate 
their condition have been always free 
from the alloy of selfishness and per- 
sonal advantage. Just here historic 
recollections of gross injustice, of 
state and national perfidy are sure to 
mar our otherwise feelings of com- 
placency, and we find ourselves ready 
to make all possible amends by the 
acknowledgment of wrongs done, by 
the vindication of their character 
from unjust aspersion, and by the 

tribute of an appreciative eulogium 
on the virtues of their race. 

This is but the meed of justice, due 
from the strong to the weak, from the 
living to the dead. The season, the 
locality and the contrasted surround- 
ings of the past and the present are 
favorable to this charitable temper of 
mind and give rise to varied and 
pleasing reflections. A little more 
than two hundred years ago, where 
now the towering fane, the din of the 
factory and the noise of trade pro- 
claim the thriving city, the smoke of 
an Indian village rose silently in the 
surrounding forest. The elegant 
mansion now stands where once the 
timid deer fed in safety, and the spin- 
dle is heard where before the artisan 
beaver built his dam undisturbed. 
The piercing shriek of the locomo- 
tive now rends the air where once 
echoed the startling war-whoop and 
the massive steamer floats where be- 
fore sailed the birchen canoe. The 
twang of the bowstring has long 
since given place to the click of the 
rifle, the gay parteare now blooms 
where the wild rose blossomed, and 
the little child of the Pale Face plays 
unharmed where once the deadly rat- 
tlesnake darted on the unwary savage. 

The picturesque surroundings of 
this locality furnish an eloquent proof 
of the sense of fitness and the love of 
the beautiful and grand that so large- 
ly characterized the Indian mind. 
The most striking features of this un- 
rivalled landscape remain compara- 
tively unchanged and we need but to 
add the shadings of local tradition to 
restore the picture to all its native 
loveliness. Framed in an amphithe- 
ater of green hills and wood-crowned 
cliffs, here and there broken by wild 
ravine and rocky gorge, lies a beauti- 
ful expanse of the waters of the Pe- 
quot river (the modern Thames), 
motionless save when from out the 
Southern sound the tidal pulse heaves 
its glassy bosom, or from out its 
depths some finny sport leaps into the 
sunlight. From our right comes the 


noise of the wild waterfall of the 
Yantic; to our left, stealing around 
the base of a rocky chasm, the She- 
tucket with the blended waters of the 
Quinnebourg add their greater trib- 
ute to the navigable Pequot; over- 
looking the city and harbor towers 
Wewacos Hill, while answering sum- 
mits rise on every hand, from whose 
tops the Mohegan brave could gaze 
on the scene of rare beauty, or the 
keen-eyed sentinel watch the ap- 
proach of a savage foe. 

Here all the conditions of beauty of 
support and of defence were fully 
met and seemed to have furnished all 
the needful elements of an Indian 
Acadia. The season of the year is 
now beautifully suggestive. It is 
that charming autumnal interval 
called Indian summer. The mellow 
sunlight, the solemn stillness of the 
air, the fading verdure of the fields, 
the gorgeous drapery of the forest — 
emblems of the dying year — fitly 
symbolize the wasting away of this 
ancient people. Smitten by the touch 
of the White Man, like the forest 
leaves by an untimely frost, in sad- 
ness, in silence and in beauty are they 
passing away. While in the study of 
Indian character we find much to con- 
demn, we as justly admit that their 
record has not always been one of un- 
bridled savagery. In many distinc- 
tive traits we find much that com- 
mands our admiration. Their won- 
derful fortitude, their bravery of 
spirit, their native mental force are 
unquestioned, while their race has 
produced orators whose noble words 
have become historic. 

Children of nature, familiar with 
her in her wildest moods, with all her 
glorious forms and features, they saw 
and felt and uttered the beautiful and 
the sublime. But yesterday, through 
these forests the wily Indian tracked 
his game, and across its mirror lakes 
paddled his bark canoe. Here, with 
his little bow and arrow, the Indian 
boy trained his eye and strengthened 
his sinews for the perils of the chase. 

Along the banks of yonder stream he 
set his rude trap for the otter, and in 
the cool waters of the mountain brook 
caught the gamey speckled trout. In 
this forest-opening, skirted by the 
waters of three rivers for many gene- 
rations, stood the wigwams of Mo- 
heag. Here dwelt the family rude 
and elementary, indeed, yet not with- 
out its sanctities jealously guarded by 
the conventual usages of savage life. 
While the servile condition of the In- 
dian woman has ever been a trait 
compelling our just condemnation, 
the well-known mutual fidelity in the 
marital life, and the uniform virtue 
of the Indian girl and the young 
brave (when not corrupted by contact 
with the baser element of the whites) 
have as justly won historic praise. 

The aboriginal life was not wholly 
filled with shadows. God's impartial 
air and sunshine sent its benediction 
into the rude wigwams as it did for 
other races. Here love had its offi- 
ces ; ambition its incentives, and 
truth its reward. Day brought its 
toil and night its slumber — the sleep 
of Nature's children. Suspended 
from the boughs of yonder tree in his 
little hammock sweetly slept the In- 
dian baby, while the soft night winds 
sang its lullaby and the faithful dog 
watched for its safety. Nor was the 
Indian home life always devoid of 
sentiment and romance. Now and 
then a young Indian "Brave" of finer 
mould dared to ignore the ruder so- 
cial customs of most of his people. 
Did he long for some fair companion 
to grace his wigwam? In such an 
hour, like many a "brave" of other 
races, he sought his "trysting place" 
in the dreamy silence of leafy aisles, 
where, charmed by the mysterious 
witchery of the soft moonlight and 
the welcome seclusion, the Indian 
lover met the "dusky maiden" and 
hopeful, in her ear told the ancient 
tale and won the pledge of youthful 

Just down in the valley, where 
the flames had felled the forest, where 


the sun could quicken the tender 
blade, and mature the filling ear, with 
rudest culture grew the little crop of 
beans and Indian corn. There 
smoked the ears of roasted maize and 
steamed the calabash of tempting 
hominy and the sweeter succotash. 
These luxuries, with the sweets of the 
sugar-bush, the spontaneous fruits of 
field and forest, the tribute of the 
waters and the returns of the chase 
largely supplied the demands of the 
Indian appetite. Conspicuous on an 
elevation here and there crowned by 
graceful elms and sturdy oaks stood 
the ancient Council House where, for 
uncounted moons, blazed the great 
council fire. 

Here, surrounded by scarred war- 
riors and youthful braves Uncas 
and his ancestral Sagamores held 
the "great talk" and administered 
Indian justice. Here, burning with 
unsatisfied revenge, they called for 
war upon their enemies, or, in 
friendly mood, with former foes, si- 
lently smoked the Pipe of Peace. On 
the open green in the midst of the cir- 
cling wigwams, they held the super- 
stitious festival and led the hideous 
War Dance, deprecating the frown of 
the evil and invoking the smile of the 
Good Spirit upon their savage prow- 
ess ere they went to battle, or laden 
with the bloody trophies of war, here 
with furious feasts and fierce exulta- 
tion they celebrated the victories they 
had won and thus worshipped the 
"Good Spirit" whom they believed 
had given them success. 

Nor such as these only. The re- 
volving seasons brought with them 
their annual rejoicings. When the 
Southern sun began to thaw the icy 
bonds of winter and quickened the 
sweet sap of the maple into its earli- 
est flow, then the sugar-bush was 
loudly joyous with rude festivity, and 
when the still warmer sun, the gentle 
showers and the soft breath of spring 
had newly dressed the forest and 
brought the beauty of the blossom and 
the taste of the berry the Indian heart 
again was glad. But more than all, 
when the waning summer and the ma- 
turing autumn brought the golden 
ear, the purple grape, the red cran- 
berry and the abundant nuts of the 
field and forest, then heavenward 
rose the grateful incense of the smok- 
ing herb, then with fantastic rite, wild 
song and harvest dance the warrior 
and the maiden, the old and the 
young anew blessed the bounteous 
year and thus thanked the Great 
Spirit who continued to bless their 
ancient race. 

'Twas thus they lived and loved; 
'twas thus they warred and wor- 
shipped. These things were, but 
are not; this people has almost 
passed away, and with them nearly 
every memorial that might remind us 
that once this was their dwelling- 
place, but kind nature in love to her 
own children has strewed their sleep- 
ing places with wild forest flowers, 
has planted the solemn pine to wave 
above them and bid the plaintive 
winds moan their requiem. 

NEW ENGLAND— By Anna Hunt Moore 

Mighty are the forests of New England 
More aged than the memory of man ; 
Breathing still of Indian's carousals 
Ere the work of Englishmen began. 

Fair are the fields of New England ; 
Fair are the meadows and the hills; — 
Pastures where the wild fruits ripen 
On the banks of sweetly singing rills. 

Long are the turbid plunging rivers, 
Working for their masters as they go, 
'Till swelling into broad and stately courses 
Into Ocean's mightiness they flow. 

Original Sources of American Genealogical Data 

Department Edited by Charles L. N. Camp 






Apr. 9 Sarah, Daughter of William and Mary Watrous, was Baptized. 

June 18 Ebenezer and Lois, Son of Jonathan and Dorcas Chapman . . . 
and Daughter of Henry and Rebecca Lee, were Baptized. 

July 9 Sarah, Daughter of James and Adah Sumner, was Baptized. 

July 1 6 Nathan, Son of Nathan and Bulah Bicknell, was Baptized. 

July 23 Patience, Daughter of Jonathan and Mary Uttly, was Baptized. 

July 30 Hannah, Daughter of Edward and Experience Sumner . . . 
and Craft, Son of Thomas and . . . Butler, were Baptized. 

Aug. 6 Adah, Daughter of Increase and Anna Chedel, was Baptized. 

Aug. 13 Delight, Daughter of Eliezer and Joanna Warner, was Baptized. 

Aug. 27 James and Esther, ye son and Daughter of Ebenezer and Deborah 
owens, was Baptized. 

Sept. 24 Clarissa and Elahan and Lora, Son and Daughters of John and Mary 
Keyes, were Baptized. 

Oct. 1 Eunice, Daughter of Simeon and Tammezin Dean, was Baptized. 

Oct. 8 Elisha, Son of Jonathan and Cloe Avery, was Baptized. 

Nov. 12 Elisabeth, Daughter of Samuel and . . . Sumner, his wife, was 

Nov. 26 Annah, wife of James Snow, was Baptized. 

Dec. 10 Jacob, Son of Jacob Boutell, jun., and Jerusha, his wife, was Bap- 

Dec. 10 Abraham, Son of Abraham Foster and Bethiah, his wife, was Bap- 

Dec. 17 Henry, Son of Nathanael Loomis and ... his wife, was Bap- 


Jan. 14 David, Son of Samuel Bicknell, and his wife, was Baptized. 

Apr. 14 Edmond and Lois, Son and Daughter of James and Annah Snow, 
were Baptized. 

June 9 Zachariah, Abigail, Esther, Timothy, Joanna, Sally, Adah and Amy, 
Sons and Daughters of William and Amy Bicknel, were Bap- 

June 16 William, Son of James and Elisabeth Messinger, was Baptized. 

June 23 Desire, Daughter of Israel and Esther Clark, was Baptized. 

Aug. 4 John, Son of Isaac and Tamezin Perkins, was Baptized. 

Aug. 25 Jesse and John, Sons of Joseph and Irene Trisket, was Baptized. 

Nov. 10 Mary, The Daughter of Jacob and Mary Preston, was Baptized. 

Nov. 17 John, Son of Inglesby Work and ... his wife, was Baptized. 


Mar. 26 Eliezer, Son of Eliezer and Joanna Worner, was Baptized. 

May 4 William Chedel, Son of William and Mary Watrous, was Baptized. 

June 8 Rebecca, Daughter of Henry Lee and Rebecca, his wife, was Bap- 

July 6 Diana, Daughter Captain John Keyes and Mary, his wife, was Bap- 


July 20 Sarah, Daughter of Capt. Reuben Marcy and ... his wife, was 

July 27 Drusilla, Daughter of James and Adah Sumner, was Baptized. 

Aug. 3 Elihu, Son of Josiah and . . . Chaffee; William, Son of Wil- 
liam and Amy Bicknell; James, Son of Ebenezer and Deborah 
Owens, were Baptized. 

Aug. 24 Susanna, Daughter of Jonathan and Bridget Sumner, was Baptized. 

Sept. 14 James, Son of Ezekiel and Dorothy Badger, was Baptized. 

Oct. 5 Simeon, Amos, Justus, Mary, Sarah, Joseph, Sons and Daughters of 
Joseph Snow, Jun., and Mary, his wife, were Baptized. 

Nov. 16 Nathan, Son of Joseph and Irene Trisket, was baptized. 

Dyer, Son of Nathanael Loomis ... his wife, was Baptized. 


June 3 Alva, Son of Moses and Lois Rogers, was baptized. 

July 5 Rozel, Son of Thomas and Ellinur Buttler, was Baptized. 

Aug. ye 2 James, the Son of James Snow and Annah, his wife, was baptized. 

Aug. 15 Sabrina, Daughter of Nehemiah and Mary How; also Josiah, Son of 
Josiah and Tammy Hendee, were baptized. 

Oct. 4 Desire, Daughter of Israel Clark and ... his wife, was Bap- 

Dec. 3 Zachariah, Son of Eliezer and Joanna Warner, was Baptized. 

Dec, 6 Ebenezer and Nathanael, Sons of Ebenezer and Deborah Owens, 

■ t were Baptized. 


May 9 Joseph, Son of Joseph and Irene Triskit, was Baptized. 

May 30 Polly, Daughter of Increase and Anna Chedel, and Ariel, Son of 
Josiah and Tamma Hendee, were Baptized. 

June 6 Zachariah, Son of Maj. John Keyes and Mary, his wife, was Bap- 

Sept. 16 Jeremiah, Lydia, Esther, Nabby, Lodice, Sons and Daughters of Ben- 
jamin and Dorcas Snow, were Baptized. 

Sept. 19 Lydia, Daughter of Capt. Reuben and Rachel Marcy, and Hannah 
and Polly, Daughters of Jonathan and Cloe Avery, were Bap- 

Oct. 3 Eunice, Daughter of Jacob and Jerusha Boutell, were Baptized. 

Nov. 7 Elisabeth, Daughter of Henry Lee and Rebecca, his wife, was bap- 


May 7 Isaac, Son of Isaac, and . . . Perkins, was baptized. 

May 21 Cloe, Daughter of Joseph and Mary Snow, was Baptized. 

June 25 Cloe, Daughter of Jacob Preston and Mary, his wife, and Betsey, 
Daughter of Mary Bicknell and Anna, his wife, were Baptized. 

July 9 Betsey, Daughter of Thomas and . . . wife, was Baptized. 

July 16 Samuel Watson, Son of David and Molly Brown, and Jesse, Son of 
James and Annah Snow, were Baptized. 

Aug. 13 Roxa, Daughter of Moses and Lois Rogers, was Baptized. 

Aug. 23 Maverick, Stephen, Arnold and Sally, ye Sons and Daughter of 
Stephen and Sarah Johnson, were Baptized. 

Aug. 27 Molly Snow, wife of Samuel Snow, jnr., was Baptized. 

Sept. 10 Sally, Meriam and Mary, Daughters of Elijh, jnr., Wales, and Mary, 
his wife, together with ye mother and Samuel and Daniel, Sons, 
and Molly, Daughter of Samuel and Molly, his wife, Snow, were 



Apr. 24 Jonathan, ye Son, and Eunice and Annice, ye Daughters of Jona- 
than and Hannah Snow, were Baptized. 

Apr. 29 Rossel, ye Son of Samuel Snow and Molly, his wife, was baptized. 

May 20 Alva, Son of Josiah and Tammy Hendee, was Baptized. 

Nov. ye 4 Hannah, ye Daughter of Joseph and Irena Triskott, was Baptized. 

Nov. 11 Almyra, ye Daughter of Neh'h and Mary How, was Baptized. 

Nov. 18 Elizabeth and Bithiah, ye Daughters of Joseph and Elizabeth Wood- 
ward, jnr., was Baptized. 


June 30 Benjamin, Son of Isaac Perkins and Tammazin, his wife, was Bap- 

June 30 Nabby, Daughter of David and Molly Brown, was Baptized. 

Aug. 1 1 David, Son of Nathan and Elizabeth Wright, was Baptized. 

Aug. 25 Erastus, Son of James Snow and Annah, his wife, was Baptized. 

Sept. 19 Betsey, Daughter of Benjamin Snow and Dorcas, his wife, was Bap- 
Polly, Daughter of Simeon Tiffany and Esther, his wife, was Bap- 

Nov. 13 Lucy, Daughter of Samuel Snow, jr., and Molly, his wife, was Bap- 

Oct. 13 Susanna, Daughter of Joseph Triskit and Irena, his wife, was Bap- 
Willard, Son of Jonathan Snow and Hannah, his wife, was Baptized. 
Dec. William, Son of Josiah Hendee and Tammy, his wife, was Baptized. 

July 4 Eleazer, Son of Isaac Perkins and Thomazin, his wife; Likewise 
Molly, Daughter of David Brown and Molly, his Wife, were 
Baptized by Mr. Judson. 


Mar. 21 Molly Kendle, Baptized ; Likewise Eliphlet, Son of James and Han- 
nah Snow and Ralph, Son of Joseph and Mary Snow, by the 
Revd Mr. Cook Welch. 

Mar. 29 Stephen, Son of Josiah and . . . Hande, his wife, was Baptized 
by the Revd Mr. Cook Welch. 

Aug. 23 Eli Kendall and Phebe Kendall were Baptized and Taken into ye 
church of Christ in Ashford by ye Revd Andrew Judson . . . 
also Charlotte Bicknall and Bulah Huntington were Taken into 
Said church, and also Becka, Daughter of David and Mary 
brown, was baptized; likewise . . . Daughter of ye Said 
Charlottee Bicknall, was baptized by ye Said Revd . . . 

Oct. I Sibbil Mason, Wife of John Mason, was taken into the Church of 
Christ in Ashford by the Revnd Mr. Williams. 

Nov 13 Rev. Andrew Judson Baptized — 
Cyrel son to Josiah Hendee 
Benjamin & Experience son & daughter to Benjn Snow 

Children of Sister Eunice Torrey, Wife of 
David Torrey; at his House. 


Nov 13 Chelsea son to Israel Clark 

Annah daughter to James Snow 

Minor son to Joseph Snow & Irena daughr to Br & Sister 
Jos. & Triscott. 
Dec. 14th Phebe ye wife of Zecheriah Bicknall was Restored to the Chh. 
by making her acknowledgment for the Sin of f ornecation. 
Dec. 28 Ely Kindall was Restored to this Church by his making his 

confession before this Chh. & Congregation for the Sin of 


June 21st Betsey daughter to Zecheriah Bicknal Junr. by Phebe his 

Wife baptized by Revd. A. Judson 
Oct. nth Hannah, Daugtr of Sister Hannah Richards wife of Thadeus 

Oct. 18 Hannah, Daughtr of Sisr. Hannah Owen, wife of Benjamin 

Nov. 29th Mira and Alvah, Daugtr and Son of Br Eli and Sister Molly 

Eeby 28 Sarah, Eunice 
David Bicknal 
Jacob Nash 

Mch. nth Mary, Daugtr of Br Isaac and Sistr Tamesin Perkins. 
May 2nd Jabez, Son of Sistr Hannah Richards, wife of Thadeus Rich- 
9th Hezekiah, Son of Br Joseph and Sister Irena Triskett. 
Aug 15th Amenda, Dautr Sistr Molly Snow, wife of Saml Snow. 

22 Sophia, Daugtr of Sistr Molly Clark, wife of Isral Clarke. 


o JP^J^ ) Daughters of Eleazer Warner, they were baptized 

Delight ) at his house ' 
Augt. 7th Ebenezer King, Son of John and Sister Sybel Mason. 
Octr 9th Olinda, Daugr of Benj'n and Sister Hannah Owens. 
Deer 4th Betsy, Dr. Zacheriah, Junr, and Sister Phebe Bicknal. 


Apr. ■ 29 Hannah, Dr. to Br Enoch and Sister Peggy Pond; Almira 

Dr to Israel and Sister Molly Clark. 
July 25 Horatio, Son to Br. Joseph and Sister Irena Triskett. 

Septr. 26 Fanny, Dr James and Sistr Annah Snow. 
Oct. 7th John, Oliver ) 

Phebe, Anna [ Children of Br. John and Sister Phebe Clark. 
Abel, Abigail ) 
28th Almira, Daugr of Br Eli and Sister Molly Kendal. 
Nov. 4 th Alvah Betsey V ^^ q£ Ephraim and gistr Esther 

Edmond y \ s P aldin S> B Y Revd A - Alden at Eastford. 

J 793 
June. 16 Tryphena, Dr of Thadeus and Sistr Hannah Richards. 


Sept. 8th Lucas, Son of Br Enoch and Sistr Peggy Pond. 

ist Chauncey, Son of Sistr Molly Clark, wife of Israel. N. B. 

the child, Lucas Pond, being very sick, it was baptized at 

his house, Lord's day noon. 
Sepr. 22 Sally, Dr of Sistr Sarah Messinger, wife of Joel Phena, Daugr 

of Sister Molly, wife of Saml S — ; Eii, Son of Br. John 

and Sistr phebe Clark. 

Feby 16 Matthew Reed and Dorothy Reed — adults and reed into ye 

June ist Matthew, Son^ 

Olive* ' Dr f of Br Matthew and Sistr Dorothy Reed. 
Daniel, Son 
Oct. 5th Sally, Dr of Zachariah Jun & Sister Philee Bicknal. 

12 Sylvanus Bedlow, Son of Thads & Sistr Hanh Richards 
15 Marcus & Lucas twins Sons to Br Enoch & Sistr Peggy Pond 
were baptized at their home being apprehended nigh to 
death, Dean Mason & wife Sistr Bowtell and Mr. Russell 
Nov. 30 Jarvis Son John Mason & Sistr Sybil 

May 17 David & James Sons of Br David & Sistr Molly Brown 

Septr. 6th Lucy Dr of Sistr Molly Clarke wife of Israel 
Octr. 18th Betsy Dr of Br Enoch & Sistr Peggy Pond 
Nov. 12th Storrs Son of Joel & Sistr Sarah Messinger 

Daniel Son of Br Josiah Hendee 

Elizabeth Wife of Ebenr Whitney an adult upon the profession 
of her faith in Christ, being sick. She died 18th inst. at 
Ebenr Eaton's, her father, being upon a visit. 
Lydia Bethia Dr of David & Sistr Molly Brown 
Andrew Son Sistr Mary Perkins wife of William 
j Betsy Dr of Sistr Hannah Owen wife of Benjn 
( Danl Russell Son of Br John & Sistr Phebe Clark. 
Tryphena Dr Br Eli Kendal & Sistr Tryphena 

Marcus Son of Br Jos. & Sistr Irena Triskett 
Harvey Son of Sistr Molly Clark wife of Israel 
Isaac Son of Sistr Mary Perkins wife of William 
20th Seril Reed Son of Br David & Sistr Molly Brown 

Benjn Clark Son of Br Enoch Pond & Sistr Peggy Pond 
Roxany Dr of Br Eli & Sistr Tryphena Kendal 
Nov. 25 Molly Snow wife of Bilarky (adult) 

Clarina Bailey wife of John 
Saloma Swift wife of Asa 
Rhoda Snow dagr of William (adult) 
Salenda Snow daugr of do do 
William Snow Junr son of do do 
Mehitable Mason daugr of Ebenr Junr do 


3 1 


1 3 










Nov. 25 Eliphalet Mason Son of Ebenr Junr (adult) 

Silas Orcutt Son of John an (adult) 
Lucinda Knowlton daugr of Widw Anna (adult) 
Mary Chaffee daugr of Jonathan (adult) 
Jerusha Marcey daugr of Matthew (adult) 
Betsy Marcy do do do 

Hannah Marcy do do do 

Joseph Clark Son of Sister Susanna Huntington wife — 






Anna Dr 
Annis Dr 

of Sister Hannah Preston, wife of Zera 

of Br Isaac & Sistr Rachel Kindal 


Jan. 27 Isaac Kendal an adult 

Nancy Byles do 

Parcy Chaffee do 
Mar. 31 Sally Gaylord wife of Luther an adult 

Jemima Preston do 

David Maso do Son of Ebenr Junr. 
Apr. 14th William Lee Son Sistr Mary Perkins wife of William 

of Br Jonathan Snow Junr & Sistr Relief his 
wife by Revd. Jona Willard Son Mr Storrs in 

Ruth Dr of Sistr Hannah wife Benja Owen 

Zuruiah adult wife of Hosea Clark. 

Saloma Daugr ) of Sister Saloma Swift wife of Asa at 

Asa Son j their house, Saloma being very sick. 

2 Zera son 

Charles son 

Juliana Daugr 

Isaac Son 

Simeon Marcy Son 

Betsey Dr. 

Esther Dr 

Leander Son of Sister Rebecca Marcy. 

£afy Clark, adopted Dr} of Sistr Esther Fletcher wife 

gaSf° n 1 Gurdon 

9 Salla Dr: Matthew Marcy Son 

James Son: Reuben Son 

Candace Dr: Elijah Son 

Loranda Dr: 

Rachel Dr. : 

Eleazar & Smith Sons 

Cynthia & Clyna Dr 

Mira & Miriam Dr 

Bilarky Son 

Em/ S OrlinSonT \ of Br J ohn & Sistr Annis Hendee ' 
June 16 Roxa Dr: Billy Clark Son of Br Billy & Sistr Olive Snow. 

Betsy & Anna Dr of Sistr Sally wife of Luther Gaylord. 
30 Sally & Fanny Dr ) 

Oren adopted Son V of Br Francis & Sistr Sally Clark. 

Francis Perkins Son ) 

Zachariah Son of Br Zachariah & Sistr Phebe Bicknal. 


of Br James & Sistr Jerusha 
y Clark 

of Sister Molly wife of Bilarky Snow 


July 14th Asa Son: Clarissa Dr ) c c . . n , . ., c T , ^ .. 

Lucia & Anna Dr \ of Slster Glarma Wlfe of J ohn Baile y« 
Aug. 4 Jerusha Dr: Alva Son ) 

Clarissa Dr: Harvey Son [• of Br Hosea & Sistr Zuruiah Clark. 

Hosea Blake Son ) 

Aug. 13 Rufus Kindal an Adult. 


May 25 Charles Son of Br John & Sister Annis Hendee. 

June 8 Peggy Smith Dr of Sistr Hannah wife of Zera Preston. 

Pamela Dr of Sistr Sally wife of Luther Gaylord 
July 13th Luther & Lucius Twins Sons of Br James & Sister Jerusha 
Wade Son of Br Hosea & Sistr Zeruiah Clark. 
29th Hezekiah Son of Br Jona & Sistr Relief Snow. 

May 17 Mary Daugr of Sistr Mary & Wm. Perkins. 

Charles Son of Sistr Abigail & Charles Lord. 
Polly Cheney adult wife of Thomas Cheney. 
Henry & Danforth Sons ) of Sister Polly Cheney wife of 
Thomas Son: Polly Dr J Thomas 
Annis Dr of Br John & Sistr Annis Hendee 

Horace Son of Sally wife of Luther Gaylord. 
Thomas William Son of Br Asa & Sistr Salome Swift 
Charles Gardner Son of Br Hosea & Sistr Zuruiah Clark. 
Sukey — Daugr of Bro Francis & Sistr Sally Clark. 
26 Sally Felton adopted Daugr of Br E Pond & Mary Pond his 
Oct. 3 Erastus Wightman Son of Sistr Sukey wife of Wightman 

Lucius Watson Son of Br James & Sister Jerusha Clark. 
Nov. 14 Eleazer Son of Sistr Mary & Wm Perkins. 

28 William Son of Sistr Abigail & Charles Lord. 

Trypena & Tryposa twin Daugtrs of Br Eli & Sist Tryphena 


May 22 Sally Daugr of Sistr Sally wife of Luther Gaylord. 

29 Francis Son of Sistr Esther wife of Gurdon Fletcher. 
Sept. 28 Phebe Daugr of Br Zacheriah & Sistr Phebe Bicknal. 

18 Elizabeth Dr of Sistr Hannah wife of Zera Preston. 

May 13 Caroline Emma Daugr of Sistr Abigail wife of Charles Lord. 

June 10 George Son of Sister Mary wife of Wm Perkins Esq. 

Sept. 23 John Son of Br Asa & Sister Saloma Swift. 


June 23 Louisa Daugr of Sistr Mary wife of Wm Perkins Esq. 

Molly Cook wife of Aaron Cook. 

30 John Son of Sister Polly Cheney, wife of Thomas. 
Aug. 11 Edwin Son of Sister Abigail wife of Chas. Lord. 

18 Nehimiah Howe Son of Sistr Lucinda wife of Dyer Clark. 








J 3 



Sept. 22 Elvira Minerva Daugr of Sistr Desire wife of Enoch Pond 

Oct. 13 Newman Son of Br Oliver Clark. 

July 12 Tamesin Daugr of Sister Mary wife of Wm Perkins. 

19 Marian Delia Daughter of Sister Desire wife of Enoch Pond Jr. 
Sept. 27 Hannah Daughr Brother Jonathan Snow Jr & Sister Relief. 

Mar 17 William Holbrook Son of Br William Snow Jr by Mr. Storrs. 

Octr 2nd Amariah Read Son of Sister Olive wife of Amariah Williams — 
by Mr Welch. 

Jan. 17 Lucius and Rufus Sons of Br Zechariah & Phebe Bicknel — by 

Mr. Storrs. 
18 Charles Son of Sister Mary wife of Wm Perkins — by Mr. Storrs. 
July 16 Andrew Judson Son of Sister Lucinda wife of Dyer Clark — by 

Mr. Storrs. 

John Perkins Son of Sister Mary wife of William Perkins. 


J 793 
June 16 Benja. Hutchins of Mansfield & Lois Babcock 

July 11 John Hendee & Annice Russ of Mansfield 

Aug. 18 Erastus Root of Windsor & Mary Wright of Ellington 

22 Lemuel Warren of Plainfield & Priscilla Spalding 
Richard Ware & Anna Russell 


Apr. 20 Zera Preston & Hannah Smith 

Aug. 10 John Stowell Longmeadow & Polly Keys 

Sept. 25 Henry Durkee Hampton & Sally Russell Ashford 

28 Elisha Peck & Sarah Rider 
Oct. 12 Paul Horton & Ruth Livingston. 

Nov. 2 John Fitch (Windsor Vermt) & Phebe Work Ashford 

Jan. 1 Jona. Gould Junr. & Patience Dyer both of Ashford 

Apr. 30 Nathan Eastman Ashford & Miss Back, Hampt. 

May 21 Mr. Daniel Mecham Stafford & Widw Jerusha Bowtell 

Billings Babcock & Zebia Winter 
June 18 Ezekiel Coller (Oxford) & Hepzibah Smith 

Sept. 20 Ephraim Brown & Sally Snow 

30 George Steel (Hartford) & Betsy Babcock 
Nov. 5 Asa Swift (Mansfield) & Saloma Snow 

25 Capt. Benja Hayward (Woodstock) Mrs. Eliza Messinger 

Jan. 3 Eliphaz Parish & Jerusha Downing Brooklyn 

Mar. 3 John perry to Eunice parish 

9 Benjamin Cressy (Pomfret) & Anna Robinson 


May 5 James Cook (Franklin) Apama Phelps Mansfield 

22 Capt. Roswell Burnham & Miss Betsy Babcock 
29 Bela Bibbins (Windham) & Elisabeth Farnham 

Sept. 22 James pearl & polly Watkins 

Nov. Benjamin Eastman & Sylvia Jones 

Dec. 22 Abner Bowtel & Cynthia Lewis 

Jan. 17 Jonas Hannah (Burr, N. Y) & Achsah Knowlton 

Feb. 1 Eliakim Williams (Tolland) & Damaris Cary, Mansfield 

2 Chester Storrs & Damaris Clark, both Mansfield 

19 Ebenr Weeks Esqr (Stubon N York) & Miss Olive Keys, Ash- 

Mar. 27 Jack Torry & Sylvia Clark (Negros) 

28 William Pierce (Woodstock) & Betsey Brown 

27 Capt Amos Snow (S. Brimfield) & Eunice Burnham 
Alexander Coburn & Susanna Mason Woodstock 

Mr Lemuel Brooks, Montpelier, Vt. & Rhoda Barber, Ashf'd 
Samuel Frizel, Cazenosia, N. Y. & Polly Tiffany, Ashford 
Lieut. Jacob Preston (Hampton) & Mrs. Mehitable Knowlton 

King Hayward, Woodstock & Lucy Pain, Ashford 
Jesse Adams, Pomfret & Merriam Smith, Ashford 
John Work & Hannah Pain Ashford 
Nathan Huntington, Ethalear Butler, Ashford 
Daniel Reed, Ashford, & Augustina Fenton Mansfield. 
Dr. Samuel Willard, Stafford, & Abigail Perkins 
Lovel Bass & Polly Russ both of Mansfield. 
Reuben Abbott & Polly Snow Ashford 

20 Ephraim Dean, Woodstock, & Percy Brown, Ashf'd 

29 Seth Eastman & Betsy Lyon Ashford 
John Ellis, Walpole, Mass. & Molly Richards, Ashford 

Dyer Clark & Lucinda Holt, Ashford 
John Foot (Tolland) & Betsy Cary, Mansfield 
Jedediah Wentworth & Betsy Webb, Ashford 
Doctr Vine Utley, Winchester, & Rebecca Marcy Ashf'd 
Samuel Whipple & Mary Chaffee, Ashford 
William Gilmore, Stafford & Rhoda Snow, Ashf'd 


23 James Bugbee, Mansfield & Thirza Welsh, Ashf'd 
16 Perly Coburn, Woodstock, & Sally Pond, Ashf'd 

Vine Goodale & Freelove Eaton both of Ashf'd 

Josiah Hendee, Walpole, N. H., & Eunice Russ, Mansfield 

Samuel Baldwin & Sally Clark both of Mansfield 

David Bosworth & Susanna Lee of Thompson 

Philip Turner & Bethia Walker 

Samuel Bicknal Junr & Sally Marcy 

Nathan Lilley, Tolland, & Hannah Huntington, Ashford 

28 Jonathan Stowel & Elizabeth Stebbins, Ashford 
Dec. 4 Alva Simmons & Tryphena Burnham, Ashford 












3 1 






j an. 











2 3 




















1 9 







Jan. 25 Joseph Colton, West Hartford & Sabrina Howe, Ashford 

Feb. 8 Jonathan Chapman, Cavendish, Vt. & Huldah Peck, Ashford 

Harvey Utley, Pomfret & Caty Richards, Ashford 
Capt Asaph Smith & Widw Tiffany both of Ashford 

Prince Hull, Hartford & Bathsheba Snow- 
Stephen Fielder Palmer & Percy Simmons 
Geo. White, Philada, Pennsyla & Percis Hall, Mansfield 
Henry Hill, Lebanon & Lodice Snow 
Ira Swift, Mansfield & Polly Munson Dana 
Isaac Burnham & Rebecca Horton of N. Y. 
Oliver Clark & Betsy Butler both of Ashford 

William Bicknal Junr, Belchertown & Nancy Byles 
Stephen Utley & Sally Chapman, both Ashford 

22 Samuel Snow and Elizabeth Robinson, Ashford 
Lieut. Luther Warren & Pamela Woodward 

Jany 1 Doctr Jno Kittredge, Eastown, N. Y., & Anna Knowlton 

12 Ebenezer Mason Junr & Marth Howard 

Benjamin Snow & Abigail Sherman of Pomfret 
Apr. 25 Harvey Abbott, Providence, R. I. & Sally Clark, Ashford 

May 20 Sabin Baker, Dedham, Mass. & Nabby Richards, Ashford 

Aug. 19 Asahel Aldrich, Douglas, Mass. & Betsy Case, Ashford 

Sept. 16 Archibald Babcock & Hannah Richards 

Oct. 28 Enoch Pond Junr & Desire Clark, Mansfield 

Nov. 15 Hector De Poise & Betsy prince (Negros) 

Jan. 20 Thomas Stebbins, So. Brimfield, Mass. & Sally Torry 

31 Josiah Spalding, Richfield, N. Y. & Jemima Bosworth 
Feb. 24 Stephen Chapman & Roxalany Cogswell 

Mar. 21 Ebenezer Byles Junr & Betsy Marcy 

27 Thomas Young Junr & Polly Phillips 
James Eaton & Fanny Richards 

June 16 Weston Willington & Sally Saunders 

Aug. 8 Luther Chapman & Betsy Leonard, Thompson 

Sept. 22 Capt John Hendee & Esther Twist of Union 

Darius Barlow (Woodstock) & Almira Sumner 

25 Dean Amos Kendal & Miss Lois Clark 
Oct. 16 Darius Ainsworth, Woodstock, Elizabeth Hayward 

Nov. 5 David Read & Wealthy Warren 

24 Samuel Snow Junr & Jerusha Jackson, Lisbon 

28 Asa Crane (Mansfield) & Wealthy Babcock 
Benjamin Bowen & Nancy Franklin 

Dec. 8 Washington Swift & Hannah Aspenwal, Mansfield 

Apr. 3 Timothy Wales, Bolton, & Widw Snow 

23 John Lummis Junr & Freelove Saunders 


May ii David Wright & Laodicea Utley 

Nathaniel Richardson (Roxbury, Mass.) & Nabby H. Pond 
Aug. 24 Aaron Wedge (Brookfield, Mass.) & Sarah Snow- 

Sept. 2 Ephraim Dean & Hannah Dodge, Hampton 

Nov. 13 Timothy Babcock Junr & Martha Bugbee Junr. 

Dec. 30 David Warren (Tolland) & Hannah Smith 


Mar. 10 Jonathan Snow & Mary Hall of Franklin 

22 Ingoldsby Work 2nd, Sarah Tufts, Ashford 


Jonathan Burnham & Betsy Gaylord 
Moses Richards & Betsy Bicknell 
Elijah Huntington & Hannah Colburn 


Nov. 26 Horatio Franklin & Polly Smith 

1 8 13 

Feb. 10 Row Cooly (Sunderland) & Mira Snow, Ashford 

Oct. Stephen Chandler (Pomfret) & Nabby Holmes 


Jan 2 Hosea Smith & Lydia Boutwell 

12 Denison Grant & Sally Boyles 
20 John A. Tarbox & Hannah Marcy 
Michael Richmond & Polly Byles 
Joseph Griggs, Eastford & Mary Mason 
Samuel Spring & Elizabeth Works 
William Foy & Nancy Obrian 
Samuel Collins & Sally Bicknell 
3 Benjamin Work and Polly Davis 


Jan. 26 Hyde & Cynthia Richards 


Apr. 1 Mr. Sabin Kendal & Betsy Griggs Eastford 

May 12 James A Adams & Olive Colburn 


Jan. 1 James Bugbee Junr and Clarissa Baily 

Mar. 24 Isaac Pratt & Rebekah Richards, Eastford 

Apr. 16 Henry Work Jr. & Marcia Bolls, Eastford. 










DAYS — By Edith Turner Newcomb 

Slender circles of gold, outheld by unseen hands, 
These days are offered lis, who wondering mark 
The hovering gift in silence, reverent, 
Fearing to break each quivering perfect arc. 

fienry ijimiiston— Emigrated from England in \m 


Ancestral Lines Established 


THE problem of Good Citizen- 
ship is an enigma to the 
sociologists of today. Self- 
government places a moral 
responsibility upon the shoulders of 
every citizen. It takes a strong 
man to become a good citizen of the 
government of the United States — 
so great is the liberty of conscience 
and conduct. It is not strange that 
the foreign citizen, uncaged from 
monarchial rule and thrown on his 
own sense of honor and justice, oc- 
casionally interprets liberty for 
license, but it is remarkable that 
they so soon come to a realization of 
the responsibilities of American cit- 

The future of the Republic depends 
upon the individual citizen, and the 
individual citizen is a product of the 
home — it is here that his true char- 
acter is moulded and it is under this 
environment that he is developed 
through impressionable years. 

Loyalty to home and family means 
loyalty to state and nation. The 
man who feels the responsibility of 

upholding the honorable record of 
his family for generations, will make 
a good citizen. To such a man 
there can be no deeper humiliation 
than to realize that he is the weakest 
and most ignoble of generations of 
strong forebears, and that he has 
stooped to dishonor that which has 
been held sacred by his own blood 
for centuries and for which many 
of them would have sacrificed their 
lives — family honor. 

It is as such that these studies in 
family evolution are of worth. The 
service of these pages is to outline 
chronologically the establishment of 
American families as a guide for 
further research by the present gen- 
eration and a record for the genera- 
tions that are to follow — each one 
taking care not to stain the honor- 
able memory of his forebears but to 
contribute some good quality of 
character to the name with which 
he is intrusted. 

This is the philosophy and the 
science of genealogy. 

BEFORE six years had elapsed 
from the time when Theoph- 
ilus Eaton and the Rev. John 
Davenport had brought their 
sturdy band of colonists to America 
and had founded a settlement at New 
Haven, the first American representa- 
tive of the Humberston family (of 
Norfolk and Hertfordshire in Eng- 
land) had settled in this infant colony. 
The Humberston family is an old and 
respected one in England, where it is 
still represented by many families. 
The name is derived from the river 

Humber, England. Berry, in the 
"Dictionary of Arms," thus describes 
the arms and the crest of the family: 
"Humberston. [Norfolk and Wal- 
kerne, Hertfordshire.] Ar. three bars 
sa. in chief three pellets. Crest, a 
griffin's head, erased, ar. charged with 
three pellets in pale." The family in 
America has spelled the name vari- 
ously. In the earliest records the 
usual orthography is "Humberston" 
or "Humerston ;" at a later period, 
"Humaston," and for the last century, 
almost invariably "Humiston." 



1. Henry Humiston 

1. Henry Humiston, the progenitor 
of all of the name in America, emi- 
grated from England and became a 
settler at New Haven before 1644. 
Here he married August 28, 1651, 
Joane Walker. He died Jan. 16, 

1663, and undoubtedly was buried on 
New Haven Green, for that was the 
"God's Acre" for the early colonists. 
Joane married second December 15, 

1664, Richard Little. 


2. Samuel, b. Aug. 7, 1652. 

3. Nathaniel, b. Jan. 13, 1654. 

4. Thomas, b. Oct. 19, 1655. 

5. John, b. 

6. Abigail, b. May 17, 1661 ; probably died 


2. Samuel Humiston 

2. Samuel, son of Henry and Joane 
(Walker) Humiston, married June 
21, 1677, Hannah Johnson. He died 
Jan. 26, 1690. 


7. Hannah, b. July 21, 1680; m. John 

8. Mary, b. June 17, 1682; m. John But- 
ler Jan. 4, 1702. 

9. Martha, b. Nov. 22, 1685; m. James 
Payne Dec. 10, 1712. 

10. Nathaniel, b. Sept. 21, 1687. 

11. Silence, b. Feb. 7, 1689. 

12. Samuel. 

3. Nathaniel Humiston 

3. Nathaniel, son of Henry and 
Joane (Walker) Humiston, was liv- 
ing at New Haven, 1685. Probably 
left no issue. 

4. Thomas Humiston 

4. Tnomas, son of Henry and 
Joane (Walker) Humiston, married 
at Wallingford, Connecticut, May 31, 
1694, Elizabeth Sanford. 


13. Ebenezer, b. Mch. 14, 1695. 

14. Thomas, b. May 3, 1699. 

15. Joseph, b. Nov. 14, 1705. 

1 5-1. Elizabeth, m. Bassett. 

5. John Humiston 

5. John, son of Henry and Joane 
(Walker) Humiston, married Sep- 

tember 10, 1685, Sarah, daughter of 
John and Kattereen (Lane) Tuttle. 
She was born Jan. 2.2 , 1661. He died 
1696 and was buried in New Haven. 
John Humiston located near the center 
of the town of North Haven on the 
west bank of the Quinnipiac river. 


16. John, b. Oct. 24, 1686. 

17. Lydia, b. Apr. 1, 1689. 

18. Sarah, b. Apr. 8, 1693. 

19. James, b. May 7, 1696. 


11. Silence Humiston 

11. Silence, daughter of Samuel and 
Hannah (Johnson) Humiston, mar- 
ried Oct. 12, 1719, Aaron Perkins. 
Aaron married second Dec. 18, 1723, 
Mary Ailing. No issue by first mar- 

12. Samuel Humiston 

12. Samuel, son of Samuel and 
Hannah (Johnson) Humiston, mar- 
ried Jan., 1708, Mary Clinton. Re- 
sided in New Haven. 


20. Samuel, b. Oct. 27, 1709. 

21. Abigail, b. Dec. 3, 1715. 

22. Mary, b. Oct. 8, 1719; m. May 17, 
1739, Timothy Tuttle. 

13. Ebenezer Humiston 

13. Ebenezer, son of Thomas and 
Elizabeth (Sanford) Humiston, mar- 
ried Oct. 13, 1718, Grace Blakeslee, 
dau. of Ebenezer, b. Jan. 1, 1693-4. 
Resided in New Ha^ven. 


23. Lydia, b. Aug. 1, 1720. 

24. Ebenezer, b. Nov. 1, 1722. 

25. Daniel, b. June 29, 1727. 

26. Nathaniel, b. May 9, 1730. 

27. Desire, b. Oct. 13, 1733. 

28. John, b. Apr. 2, 1741. 

29. Timothy, b. July 2, 1743. 

30. John, b. June 3, 1745. 

14. Thomas Humiston 

14. Thomas, son of Thomas and 
Elizabeth (Sanford) Humiston, mar- 
ried Jan. 16, 1722, Mary Bishop. Re- 
sided in New Haven. 




21, I 





Mary, b. Oct. 10, 1723; d. Mar. 12 

Thomas, b. June 20, 1725. 

James, b. Oct. 12, 1727. 

Elizabeth, b. May 12, 1730; d. Nov. 

Elizabeth, ) « T „-, . „„ T „„„ 
Esther, '[b. July 25, 1732. 

Joy, b. June 14, 1735 • 

Ruth, b. Mar. 27, 1738; d. Oct. 4, 

15. Joseph Humiston 

15. Joseph, . son of Thomas and 
Elizabeth (Sanford) Humiston, mar- 
ried Mar. 27, 1734, Anna Sperry. Re- 
sided in New Haven. 


39. Esther, b. May 9, 1735. 

40. Anna, b. Feb. 24, 1740; m. Joseph 

41. Joseph, b. April 11, 1744. 

16. John Humiston 

16. John, son of John and Safah 
(Tuttle) Humiston, married June 23, 
171 1, Hannah Royce. She was alive 
1760. He died Dec. 7, 1767, and was 
buried in the "Old Cemetery," North 
Haven. Resided in North Haven, 


42. John, b. Apr. 8, 1713. 

43. Caleb, b. Feb. 20, 1716. 

44. Mary, b. June 30, 1718; m. Rev. Ed- 
ward Dorr. 

45. David, b. Jan. 30, 1721. 

46. Sarah, b. Sep. 10, 1723. 

47. Ephraim, ), D 

48. Hannah, \ D ' uec ' 5 ' I73 °* 

18. Sarah Humiston 

18. Sarah, daughter of John and Sa- 
rah (Tuttle) Humiston, married May 
26, 1 7 14, James, son of Nathaniel and 
Ruth (Dickerman) Bradley, the son 
of William Bradley the first settler in 
North Haven. James was born Oct. 
12, 1688, and removed to North Ha- 
ven 1724 where he bought about 400 
acres of land. 


I. Moses, b. May 16, 171 5, m. Sarah 

II. Ruth, b. 1716; m. Samuel Brockett. 

III. Sarah, b. 1718; m. 1748 Capt. 

IV. Miriam, b. 1720; m. Enos Brockett. 

V. Joel, b. 1722; m. Miriam Robinson. 

VI. Lydia, b. 1724; m. John Blakeslee. 

VII. Abigail, b. 1726; m. 1750 Samuel 

Bassett. A dau. of Abigail m. 

Humiston, and res. West Springfield, Mass. 

VIII. James, b. Nov. 5, 1729. 

IX. Dennis, b. 1731; m. Lydia Bassett. 

X. Obed, b. June 21, 1733. 

XI. Zuer, b. 1737. 

19. James Humiston 

19. James, son of John and Sarah 
(Tuttle) Humiston, married Jan. 7, 
1719, Sarah, daughter of Ebenezer and 
Abigail (Heaton) Atwater. She was 
born Apr. 6, 1693 ; married second 
Deacon Timothy Tuttle of Cheshire 
and died his widow May 28, 1761. 
James Humiston was the first of the 
name in Wallingford. James died 
Aug. 17, 1747. 


49. Daniel, b. Nov. 16, 1721. 

50. Stephen, b. Nov. 9, 1723. 

51. Noah, b. Mar. i, 1729; d. Sept. 3, 1729. 

52. James, b. Oct. 28, 1734. 

53. Noah, b. June 13, 1737; d. June 13, 


20. Samuel Humiston 

20. Samuel, son of Samuel and 
Mary (Clinton) Humiston, married 
July 21, 1737, Elizabeth, daughter of 
John and Susanna (Heaton) Allcock. 
She was born July 31, 1708; died Jan. 
2s, 1782. He died Oct. 3, 1788. Re- 
sided in New Haven. 


54. Mary, b. July 6, 1739. 

55. Susanna, b. May 5, 1741; m. Jere- 
miah Parmelee. 

56. Samuel, b. May 5, 1743. 

21. Abigail Humiston 

21. Abigail, daughter of Samuel and 
Mary (Clinton) Humiston, married' 
Jan. 16, 1737, Stephen, son of John, 
and Susanna (Heaton) Allcock. He 
was born Aug. 10, 1714. He settled m 



Amity, now Woodbridge, Connecti- 
cut, and was a large landholder. 


I. Stephen, b. Aug. 22, 1738. 

II. Sarah, m. Solomon Gilbert. 

2^. Lydia Humiston 

23. Lydia, daughter of Ebenezer and 
Grace (Blakeslee) Humiston, married 
Jan. 22, 1 741, Abraham Tuttle. 


I. David, bap. June 3, 1743. 

II. Hannah, b. July 16, 1744. 

III. Sarah, b. Sept. 21, 1748. 

IV. Richard, b. Oct. 20, 1751; m. Mary 

V. Rebecca, b. Feb. 15, 1753. 

24. Ebenezer Humiston 

24. Ebenezer, son of Ebenezer and 
Grace (Blakeslee) Humiston, married 
June 9, 1746, Mary Butler. She died 
Sept. 12, 1783. Resided in North 
Haven, Connecticut. 


57. Reuben, b. Mar. 22, 1747. 

58. Abram, b. May 13, 1749. 

59. Abigail, b. July 28, 1751. 

60. Mary, Mar. 4, 1754. 

25. Daniel Humiston 

25. Daniel, son of Ebenezer and 
Grace (Blakeslee) Humiston, married 
Mar. 19, 1752, Desire Dorman. 

26. Nathaniel Humiston 

26. Nathaniel, son of Ebenezer and 
Grace (Blakeslee) Humiston, married 
Jan. 7, 1752, Desire Taylor. Resided 
in Hamden, Connecticut. She was 
one of the members who formed the 
Hamden East Plains Church, now the 
Whitneyville Congregational. He 
died Nov. 25, 1793. She died Sept. 
4, 181 5. Both buried in the Hamden 
Plains Cemetery. 

«6l. Ebenezer. 

62. Hannah, b. June 16, 1757; m. Daniel 

63. Ruth, b. Dec. 10, 1759; probably other 

29. Timothy Humiston 
29. Timothy, son of Ebenezer and 
Grace (Blakeslee) Humiston, mar- 


Timothv was under the 

command of Gen. Amherst at the tak- 
ing of Quebec and died Jan. 6, 1829, 
at Harwinton, Connecticut. 

64. Esther, b. Aug. 25, 1786. 
64-1. Abner and others. 

32. Thomas Humiston 

32. Thomas, son of Thomas and 
Mary (Bishop) married Abigail Ray. 
He was a soldier in the Revolutionary 
War. Ensign Thomas died Apr. 1, 
1802. His wife died Dec. 18, 1802, 
age 71. Resided in North Haven, 


65. Abigail, b. Mar. 21, 1753; m. David 

66. Elizabeth, b. Apr. 9, 1757; d. Mar. 26, 


67. Lydia, b. Mar. 2, 1760. 

68. Esther, b. March 11, 1762; m. Calvin 

69. Phebe, b. Dec. 7, 1764; d. Sept. 4, 


70. Thomas, b. Oct. 21, 1767; d. Aug. 28, 


71. Joshua, b. Mar. 26, 1771; d. Mar. 26, 


72. Joshua, bap. June 5, 1774; d. Sept. 9, 


73. Ruth, m. Jan. 15, 1774, Jacob 

33. James Humiston 

33. James, son of Thomas and 
Mary (Bishop) Humiston, married 
July 19, 1753, Dorcas, daughter of Ca- 
leb and Abigail (Bradley) Atwater. 
She was born Aug. 26, 1733; died 
Sept. 15, 1759. James married second 
Dec. 11, 1760, Abigail Bishop. He 
was a deacon in the North Haven 
Church from 1773 until his resigna- 
tion about 1780. Resided in North 

Children: By First Marriage. 

74. Mary, b. May 19, 1754; d. Nov. 21, 


75. James, b. Feb. 23, 1756. 

76. Caleb, b. May 16, 1758; d. Sept. 25, 


Child: By Second Marriage. 

77. Caleb, b. May 27, 1762. 

37. Joy Humiston 

37. Joy, son of Thomas and Mary 
(Bishop) Humiston, married Aug. 


10, 1758, Hannah Grannis. He was 

alive 1786. Resided in North Haven. 


78. Hannah, b. Dec. 11, 1758. 

79. Mabel, b. June 19, 1761; m. Elisha 

80. Ezra, b. Aug. 13, 1763. 

81. Bennet, b. July 8, 1766. 

82. Joy, b. Oct. 28, 1768. 

41. Joseph Humiston 

41. Joseph, son of Joseph and Anna 
(Sperry) Humiston, married Eunice 
Cooper. Joseph located in Hamden, 
Conn., and became a prosperous far- 
mer and died Mar. 28, 1795. Buried 
in Hamden Plains Cemetery. His 
widow married Joseph Ford and died 
July 17, 1842, age 89. 


83. Jesse, ), g (died young. 

84. Justus, [ D * I/bo ' \ m. Elizabeth Har- 

85. Ezra. 

86. Jere, b. Mar. 19, 1790. 

87. Hannah, b. Sept. 28, 1786. 

88. Joseph, died young. 

89. Ethel, b. 1792, d. Nov. 5, 1812. 

90. Anna, m. Moses Gilbert. 

John Humiston 

42. John, son of John and Hannah 
(Royce) Humiston, married first 
June 5, 1738, Mary Sanford. She 
died Mar. 8, 1742. Married second 
Dec. 29, 1742, Ruth Culver. She died 
Dec. 31, 1769. Married third June 
21, 1770, Thankful Tyler. John Hu- 
miston settled in Litchfield, Conn. 

Children: By First Marriage. 

91. Mary, b. May 10, 1739. 

92. John, Feb. 25, 1741-2. 
Children: By Second Marriage. 

93. Thankful, b. Nov. 26, 1743. 

94. Noah, b. Dec. 20, 1745. 

95. Damaris, b. Feb. 10, 1746-7. 

96. Amos, b. May 30, 1749. 

97. Titus, b. Nov. 30, 1751. 

98. Ruth, b. June 9, 1753; m. David 

99. Lois, b. May 30, 1755. 

100. Enos, b. November 27, 1756; d. Sept. 
12, 1760. 

101. Martha, b. Jan. 9, 1760; d. May 10, 

102. Keziah. 

43. Caleb Humiston 

43. Caleb, son of John and Hannah 
(Royce) Humiston, married Nov. 14, 

1738, Susanna, daughter of Samuel 
Todd. She was born Dec. 7, 1718, and 
died Sept. 24, 1806. He died Mar. 6, 
1776, and was buried in Plymouth 
Hollow Cemetery. Esquire Caleb re- 
moved from North Haven to North- 
bury Parish, Waterbury, now Ply- 
mouth, Conn., and became a promi- 
nent citizen, holding many offices of 
public trust. The locality in which he 
lived is called Humiston Hill. 

103. Jesse, b. Dec. 12, 1739; died soon. 

104. Sarah, b. Dec. 9, 1742. 

105. Hannah, b. June 25, 1745. 

106. Susanna, June 19, 1747; m. 


107. Jesse, b. Dec. 4, 1749. 

108. Mehetable, b. Jan. 1, 1852. 

109. Content, Aug. 3, 1754; d. unm. Feb. 

3. 1773- 

no. Phebe, b. Dec. 4, 1756. 
in. Annise, b. July 24, 1759. 

112. Martha, Dec. 20, 1762. 

45. David Humiston 

45. David, son of John and Han- 
nah (Royce) Humiston, married Nov, 
1, 1743, Ruth, daughter of Joseph 
Bassett David Humiston located, with 
others of his brothers and sisters, in 
Northbury, Conn. 


113. Rhoda, b. Jan. 17, 1745; d. Sept. 13, 

114. Joel, b. Apr. 14, 1747; d. Sept. 22, 

115. Lydia, b. July 30, 1749; d. Sept. 18, 

116. Rhoda, b. May 27, 1751. 

117. Joel, b. Nov. 12, 1853; removed to 
Southwich, Mass. 

118. Lydia, b. Mar. 1, 1756. 

119. David, b. Feb. 12, 1758. 

120 Ashbel, b. June 8, 1760, removed to 

121. Chloe, b. Nov. 5, 1762, m. Jan. 10, 
1796, Edward Turner. 

122. Bede, b. June 8. 1765. 

123. Hannah, b. June 8, 1768. 

46. Sarah Humiston 

46. Sarah, daughter of John and 
Hannah (Royce) Humiston, married 
first Nov. 19, 1740, Thomas Turner. 
He died 1749. She married second 
May 12, 1752, Samuel Tuttle. He 
was born Feb. 12,1727; died at North 
Haven Nov. 23, 1784. 



Children: By First Marriage. 

I. Titus, b. May 30, 1741; m. Sarah 

II. Alexander, b. Nov. 25, 1743. 

III. Jesse, b. Oct. 7, 1746; m. Phebe 

IV. Sarah, b. July 2, 1749. 
Children: By Second Marriage. 

V. Susanna, b. Apr. 17, 1753; m. James 

VI. Jemina, b. 1755; m. Chapin Byron. 

VII. Samuel, b. 1759; m. Chloe Todd. 

VIII. Lemuel, b. 1760; m. Lydia Bas- 

IX. Daniel, b. Oct. 4, 1765; m. Hannah 

X. Lydia, m. Caleb Blakeslee. 

47. Ephraim Humiston 

47. Ephraim, son of John and Han- 
nah (Royce) Humiston, married Dec. 
1, 1757, Susanna Bassett. She was born 
1736; died May 25,1813. He died May 
3, 1806. Lieut. Ephraim was a large 
landholder of North Haven, where he 
died and was buried in the "Old Cem- 
etery." He served in the Revolution- 
ary War. He continuously held im- 
portant churchly trusts from 1757 to 
1 79 1, to which he was elected by his 


124. Sarah, b. Nov. 19, 1760; bap. June 
25, 1761. 

125. Susannah, b. Oct. 5, 1763; m. 
Samuel Mix, Jr. 

126. John, b. Oct. 3, 1758. 

127. Ephraim or Abram, b. Feb. 3, 1766. 

128. Joel, b. Aug. 15, 1768. 

129. Street, b. June 28, 1771. 

130. Mary, bap. Mar. 5, 1775. 

131. Caleb, bap. Aug. 8, 1781. 

48. Hannah Humiston 

48. Hannah, daughter of John and 
Hannah (Royce) Humiston, married 
Apr. 5, 1754, Ephraim Allen. Re- 
sided in Waterbury, Connecticut. 


I. Lidda, b. Sept. 19, 1756. 

II. John, b. Jan. 13, 1758. 

III. Russell, b. Apr. 30, 1762. 

49. Daniel Humiston 

49. Daniel, son of James and Sarah 
(Atwater) Humiston, married Lydia 
Rowe. She was born 1726 ; died Jan. 1, 
1809. He died July 27, 1767. He 

was a farmer of Cheshire, Connec- 


132. Sarah, b. Dec. 14, 1744. 

133. Hannah, b. Mar. 2, 1745; d. Aug. 23, 

134. Stephen, b. July 17, 1751; d. Sept. 8, 

135. Lydia, b. Mar. 17, 1754. 

136. Patience, b. Nov. 28, 1756; m. 

137. Daniel, b. Apr. 10, 1759. 

138. Daniel, d. Nov. 7, 1783. 

139. John, b. June 30, 1761. 

140. Jesse, b. Mar. 12, 1764. 

141. Catharine, b. Oct. 6, 1766. 

52. James Humiston 

52. James, son of James and Sarah 
(Atwater) Humiston, married first 
Feb. 4, 1755-6, Abiah Ives. She died 
Dec. 19, 1761. James married second 
May 19, 1762, Hannah, daughter of 
Matthias Hitchcock. She was born 
Mch. 9, 1737. James settled on a 
farm at Gitteau's Corner, Walling- 
ford, now known as the Humiston 
Farm. He died Feb. 8, 1812. 


142. James. 

143. Linus. 


56. Samuel Humiston 

56. Samuel, son of Samuel and 
Elizabeth (Allcock) Humiston, mar- 
ried Dec. 15, 1767, Mary, daughter of 
John Gills. She died June 6, 1820. He 
died June 20, 1809. Samuel was a 
captain in the Revolution. "His chil- 
dren were all daughters and during 
the absence of men in the Army, they 
had to go out into the fields to work. 
One time word came from the Captain 
that the British Regulars were pass- 
ing over the Neck Bridge (New Ha- 
ven) in the direction of his home. His 
wife was sick abed; she told the 
daughters to drive the cows up over 
the hills, to save them. After the 
British had crossed the bridge they 
tore it away ; but the Captain ran his 
horse across one of the stringers while 
the beholders expected to see him fall 
into the river." 



144. Molly, b. Aug. 16, 1768; m. Allen 

145. Beda, b. Apr. 10, 1770; m. May 
29, 1788. Ira Todd. 

146. Esther, b. May 23, 1774. 

147. Betsey, b. Mar. 25, 1776. 

148. Lyman, b. Sept. 27, 1778. 

149. Phila, b. Feb. 27, 1781. 

150. Samuel Green, b. July 24, 1783. 

151. Siliman, b. Nov. 10, 1785. 

152. Julia, b. Aug. 22, 1788; m. Mar. 6, 
18 1 1, Elam Bassett. 

153. Wyllys, b. July 17, 1790; bap. Oct. 
12, 1790. 

154. Loly, b. July 28, 1794. 

61. Ebenezer Humiston 

61. Ebenezer, son of Nathaniel and 
Desire (Taylor) Humiston, married 

Hannah . Ebenezer was a 

farmer of Hamden, Conn. He died 
Sept. 4, 1815. She died Sept. 4, 1846; 
age 89. Both are buried in the Hamden 
Plains Cemetery. 


155. Esther, b. 1777. 

156. Ruth. 

157. Benjamin, b. 1783; d. Jan. 12, 1813. ' 

158. William, b. 1785. 

159. James, b. 1787; d. Dec. 3, 1810, in 
Litchfield, Conn. 

160. Charles. 

161. Rhoda, b. 1791; d. July 15, 1808. 

162. Elizabeth, mar. Carrington. 

163. Lovina), « d. Sept. 10, 1798. 

164. Lovisa \ 79 ' d. Sept. 22, 1798. 

165. Nancy, b. 1799; d. Sept. 23, 1813. 

75. James Humiston 

75. James, son of Deacon James and 
Dorcas (Atwater) Humiston, married 
Feb. 26, 1777, Phebe Bassett. He was 
a member of the school committee in 
North Haven, 1780. 

yy. Caleb Humiston 

yy. Caleb, son of James and Abi- 
gail (Bishop) Humiston, married 
Sarah Bishop of North Haven. 

166. Esther, b. 1793. 

79. Mabel Humiston 

79. Mabel, daughter of Joy and Han- 
nah (Grannis) Humiston, married 
Sept. 3, 1783, Elisha, son of William 
Munson. He was born Oct. 10, 1756. 


I. Aaron, b. Oct. 24, 1783. 

II. Laura Elmore, b. Juue 6, 1786. 

III. Hannah Mariah, b. June 3, 1789. 

IV. Chloe, b. Apr. 9, 1793. 

V. Linus Joy, b. 

84. Justus Humiston 

84. Justus, son of Joseph and Eu- 
nice (Cooper) Humiston, married 
Elizabeth Harmon of New Marlbor- 
ough, Massachusetts. She was born 
1786; died Apr. I, 1848. He died 
Oct. 3, 1855. Justus was a farmer of 
Hamden, Conn. 


167. Sylvia, b. Feb. 3, 1805. 

168. Eunice, b. 1807; d. Apr. 5, 1812. 

169. Eliza, b. 1816. 

170. Harmon, b. Jan. 15, 1818. 

171. Elihu, b. Nov. 15, 1820. 

172. Maria S., b. Nov. 5, 1825. 

173. Austin, b. Mar. 1829. 

86. Jere Humiston 

86. Jere, son of Joseph and Eunice 
(Cooper) Humiston, married Mary 
Ray of Massachusetts. He died Dec. 
29, 1872, at Fond du Lac, Wis. 


174. Ethel. 

175. Forbes, b. Sept. 28, 1820, in Great 
Barrington, Mass. 

176. Joseph. 

177. Ezra. Other children in Family. 

87. Hannah Humiston 

87. Hannah, daughter of Joseph and 
Eunice (Cooper) Humiston, married 
1812 Ezra, son of Daniel Tuttle. He 
was born Feb. 1, 1769; died Jan. 1, 
1827. She died Sept. 1, 1866, at Mid- 
dle Haddam, Conn. 


I. Elizabeth, m. July 10, 1851, Rev. 
Benjamin Hopkins. 

II. Lucy, m. Rev. Henry Colton. 

III. Mary, b. 1820; d. Jan. 17, 1849. 

91. Mary Humiston 

91. Mary, daughter of John and Mary 
(Sanford) Humiston, married Oct. 
26, 1762, Ashur, son of Jacob and 
Elizabeth (Barnes) Blakeslee. Ashur 
was born May 23, 1738, died May 3, 



92. John Humiston 

92. John, son of John and Mary 
(Sanford) Humiston, married Dec. 
14, 1769, Hannah Sanford. Resided 
in Litchfield, Conn. 


178. Sherman, b. Sept. 24, 1789. 

93. Thankful Humiston 

93. Thankful, daughter of John and 
Ruth (Culver) Humiston, married 
Oct. 25, 1764, Amos, son of David 
Dutton. Thankful died Feb. 22, 1768. 


I. , son, b. Feb. 8, 1768; d. Feb. 16, 


94. Noah Humiston 

94. Noah, son of John and Ruth 
(Culver) Humiston, married Nov. 17, 
1768, Lucy Barnes. Resided in 


179. Tempe, b. Aug. 21, 1769. 

95. Damaris Humiston 

95. Damaris, daughter of John and 
Ruth (Culver) Humiston, married 
Nov. 19, 1767, Abel, son of Capt Ste- 
phen Seymer. 


I. Ziba, b. Oct. 3, 1768. 

II. Lucy, b. July 3, 1770. 

III. Martha, b. Mar. 11, 1772. 

IV. Titus, b. July 6, 1774- 

V. Polly, b. July 3, 1776. 

VI. Abel, b. Aug. 13, 1777. 

VII. Damaris, b. Sept. 4, 1779. 

VIII. Merril, b. June 29, 1781. 

IX. Dorcas, b. Feb. 1, 1783. 

X. Robert, b. Sept. 16, 1785. 

XI. Norman, b. May 8, 1789. 

96. Amos Humiston 

96. Amos, son of John and Ruth 
(Culver) Humiston, married Nov. 5, 
1 77 1, Abigail Allen. Resided in 
Waterbury, Conn. 


180. Enos, b. Mch. 11, 1772. 

181. Thankful, b. June 26, 1773; d. Feb., 

97. Titus Humiston 

97. Titus, son of John and Ruth 
(Culver) Humiston, married Dec. 20, 

1775, Beulah Batchelor. Resided in 
Litchfield, Conn., and Binghampton, 
N. Y. 


182. Elisha, b. Nov. 5, 1776. 

183. Content, b. Dec. 24, 1777; d. Aug. 
5, 1781. 

184. Live, b. Aug. 17, 1780. 

185. Lyman, b. Jan. 14, 1782. 

186. Isaac, b. June 14, 1783. 

187. Polly, b. Aug. 24, 1784. 

104. Sarah Humiston 

104. Sarah, daughter of Caleb and 
Susanna (Todd) Humiston, married 
May 17, 1764, Deacon Stephen, son of 
Thomas and Susanna (Southmayd) 
Bronson. He was born June 30, 1735 ; 
died Dec. 15, 1809. She died July 27, 
1822. Resided in Waterbury. 


I. Marcia, b. Dec. 17, 1764; m. 1794, 
John Kingsbury. 

II. Jesse, b. June 9, 1766; d. Feb. 4, 1788, 

III. John, b. Aug. 4, 1768; d. Jan. 22, 

IV. Susanna, b. Dec. 27, 1770; d. Oct. 21, 


V. Content, b. May 14, 1773; d. Mar. 28, 

VI. Bennet, b. Nov. 14, 1775; m. 1801, 
Anna Smith. 

VII. Susanna, b. Apr. 6, 1780; m. Joseph 

105. Hannah Humiston 

105. Hannah, daughter of Caleb and 
Susanna (Todd) Humiston, married 
Dec. 25, 1766, Daniel, son of Daniel 
Lord, of Lyme, Connecticut. He was 
born Apr. 4, 1742 ; married second Jan. 
10, 1788, Abigail Dickinson. He died 
Dec. 22, 1817. Hannah died in Litch- 
field, Dec. 16, 1786. 


I. Elizabeth, b. Apr. 24, 1768; d. June 9, 

II. Huldah, b. May 27, 1770; d. Dec. 14* 

III. Patty, b. Feb. 21, 1774; d. Nov., 

IV. Phineas, b. Feb. 10, 1777. 

V. Patty, b. Sept. 2, 1782; m. Jesse 

VI. Hannah, b. Dec. 14, 1786; m. Wil- 
lis Lord. 

107. Jesse Humiston 
107. Jesse, son of Caleb and Su- 
sanna (Todd) Humiston, married Abi 


Blakeslee. He was a soldier in the 
Revolutionary War. He died Feb. 

§23, 1837. Resided in Plymouth, 


188. Sidnia, b. Apr. 20, 1786. 

189. Caleb, b. 1788; d. July 19, 1839. 

190. Bennett, b. Aug. 7, 1795. 

191. Morris, b. April 5, 1797. 

108. Mehitable Humiston 

108. Mehitable, daughter of Caleb 
and Susanna (Todd) Humiston, mar- 
ried May 7, 1770, Isaac, son of Thomas 
Fenn. He died Mar. 18, 1825. She 
died Nov. 23, 1825. Resided in 
Watertown, Connecticut. 


I. Linus, b. Aug. 30, 1770; m. Oct. 27, 
1793, Mary Curtiss. 

II. Abijah, b. June 3, 1772; m. May 19, 
1793, Nancy Rexford. 

III. Mehitable, b. June 30, 1776; m. 
Silas Booth. 

IV. Sabia, b. Apr. 2, 1779; m. Mar, 26, 
1801, Aaron Fenn. 

V. Rosetta, b. Dec. 6, 1781 ; m. Anthony 

VI. Bede, b. Jan. 10, 1786; m. 


109. Phebe Humiston 

109. Phebe, daughter of Caleb and 
Susanna (Todd) Humiston, married 
Mar. 29, 1774, Jesse, son of Thomas 
and Sarah (Humiston) Turner. He 
was born Oct. 7, 1746. She died Oct. 5, 

no. Annise 1 ' Humiston 

no. Annise, daughter of Caleb and 
Susanna (Todd) Humiston, married 
July 5, 1775, Samuel, son of John Sut- 
liff. He was born 1750; died Oct. 14, 
1828. She died June 6, 1825. 


I. Betsey, b. Feb. 8, 1776; m. Abel 

II. Martha, b. Oct. 29, 1778; m. Jona- 
than Warner, 

III. Roxy, b. Mar. 3, 1780; m. 


IV. Giles, b. Mar. 18, 1782; m. Betsey 

V. Content, b. Jan. 28, 1784; m. Caleb 

VI. Asanath, b. Nov. 28, 1785 ;m. 


VII. Huldah, b. Nov. 23, 1787; d. July 25, 

VIII. Samuel Todd, b. Jan. 25, 1790. 

IX. Dennis, b. Sept. 12, 1792. 

X. Esther, b. May 29, 1796. 

XI. Lester, b. Sept. 26, 1798; m. 


XII. Annis, b. Sept. 11, 1800; m. David 

in. Martha Humiston 
hi. Martha, daughter of Caleb and 
Susanna (Todd) Humiston, married 
Jan. 5, 1781, General Daniel, son of 
Deacon Daniel and Martha (Ray) 
Potter. He was a graduate of Yale 
College (1780) and a man of great in- 
fluence in Northbury, Connecticut. 
He died Apr. 21, 1842. 

I. Horace, d. 1841. Yale College 1804. 

II. Anselm, m. Julia Warner. 

III. Minerva, m. Rev. Luther Hart. 

IV. Tertius Daniel, b. Sept. 25, 1793. 

116. Rhoda Humiston 

116. Rhoda, daughter of David and 
Ruth (Bassett) Humiston, married 
Dec. 26, 1774, Jacob, son of Elihu and 
Rebecca (Stanley) Daggett, of Attle- 
boro, Massachusetts. He was born 
May 1, 1748; died Feb. 6, 1796. She 
died Aug. 31, 1831. 


I. Sarah, b. Jan. 5, 1776; m. Rev. Sher- 
man Johnson. 

II. Chauncey, b. June 7, 1779; m - Mehi- 
table Mulford. 

III. Rebecca, b. Dec. 14, 1781; m. 
Napthalia Daggett. 

IV. Nancy, b. May 27, 1784; m. Ben- 
nett Johnson. 

118. Lydia Humiston 
118. Lydia, daughter of David and 
Ruth (Bassett) Humiston, married 
Timothy, son of Stephen and Sarah 
(Ball) Atwater. He died May 6, 
1830. She died June, 1843. Resided 
in Plymouth, Connecticut. 

I. Ruth, b. July 30, 1782; m. Randall 

II. Elam, b. July 7, 1785; m. Chloe 

III. Wyllys, b. Oct. 6, T790; m. (ist> 
Fanny Purdee. 



IV. Lydia, b. June 5, 1794; d. Sept. 17, 

V. Lydia, b. 1798; m. Elam Fenn. 

VI. Timothy, b. Oct. 16, 1799; m. Eunice 

122. Bede Humiston 

122. Bede, daughter of David and 
Ruth (Bassett) Humiston, married 
May 8, 1803. Richard, son of Stephen 
and Sarah (Ball) Atwater. Bede died 
Nov. 1, 1843. 


I. Newman, b. Oct. 17, 1804; m. Erne- 
line Butler. 

II. Susan, b. May, 1S06; d. Feb. 11, 1874, 

126. John Humiston 
There is also a John Humiston, a 
descendant of David and Ruth (Bas- 
sett) Humiston, married . He 

located in the eastern part of Ply- 
mouth, Connecticut. 


192. Carlyle. 

193. Austin; resided in White Hall, N. Y. 

194. , dau. m. Meginnis. 

195. John ) . 

196. Lydia f twms ' 

127. Ephraim Humiston 

127. Ephraim A., son of Ephraim 
and Susanna (Bassett) Humiston, 
married Eunice, daughter of John and 
Lois (Beadles) Hull. Ephraim A. 
settled on the old Henry and Russell 
farm in Wallingford, Connecticut, and 
died there. 


197. Sherlock, b. June 19, 1793. 

198. Hiram, b. Apr. 30, 1802. 

199. Diana, b. Mar. 13, 1797. 

200. Willis, b. Dec. 3, 1808. 
200-1-Horace, b. Aug. 12, 1799. 
200-2-George, b. Sept. 1, 1804. 

128. Joel Humiston 

128. Joel, son of Ephraim and Su- 
sanna (Bassett) Humiston, married 
Jan. 12, 1797, Emelia Mix. Resided 
in North Haven, Ct. 


201. Lydia, b. Dec. 14, 1800; bap, July 17, 

131. Caleb Humiston 
131. Caleb, son of Ephraim and 
Susanna (Bassett) Humiston, mar- 
ried Polly . He resided in 

North Haven and made brick there 
in 1803 and later. 


202. Loyal Porter; d. July 25, 1815, a. 
4 mo. 

132. Sarah Humiston 

132. Sarah, daughter of Daniel and 
Lydia (Rowe) Humiston, married 
Jan. 22, 1761, Samuel, son of Samuel 
and Sarah (Hall) Hull. He was 
born Aug. 12, 1737; married second 

Hannah ■. Sarah died Sept. 4, 

1775. No issue by first marriage. 

135. Lydia Humiston 
135. Lydia, daughter of Daniel and 
Lydia (Rowe) Humiston, married 
Mar. 17, 1774, Peter, son of Peter and 
Rebecca (Bartholomew) Hall. He 
was born June 7, 1748; died Sept. 25, 
1832. She died May 2, 1805. 

I. Jesse. 

II. Wooster. 

III. Roxy, b. 1779; d. Sept. 26, 1856. 

IV. Marcus. 

V. Major Atwater, b. July 18, 1785; d. 
Mar. 28, 1848. 

VI. Philo, m. Thankful Morse. 

VII. Albert. 

VIII. Peter Ufford. 

IX. Sally. 

X. Betsey. 

140. Jesse Humiston 
140. Jesse, son of Daniel and Lydia 
(Rowe) Humiston, May 2, 1786, 
married Lois, daughter of Amos and 
Abibail Doolittle, of Cheshire. Lois 
was born 1760; died Feb. 8, 1847. 
He died Mar. 12, 1832. He resided 
on a farm about a mile west of the 
railroad depot in Cheshire, Connec- 


203. Daniel, b. Sept. 23, 1788. 

204. Jesse A., b. Dec. 22, 1790. 

205. Alma. 

206. John, b. Aug. 21, 1798. 

2o6i£. Lois, b. June 3, 1796; d. May 
13, 1816. 

142. James Humiston 
142. James, son of James Humis- 
ton (No. 52), married . 

James was the proprietor of the mills 
about a mile west of the village of 
Wallingford and was extensively en- 


gaged in wool carding and cloth 
dressing as well as milling. 

207. Chauncey. b. Apr. 19, 1793. 

208. Nancy, b. Dec. 9, 1790; m. Almon 

209. Elizabeth, b. Apr. 14, 1795 ; m. Har- 
mon Morse. 

210. Maria, b. Nov. 22, 1830: m. Samuel 

an. Lyman, b. June 17, 1808; m. Jennie 

212. Charles, b. June 5, 1799; m. Lucy 

212-1-Daniel, b. June 21, 1797. 
212-2-Alexander, b. Jan. 3, 1802. 

143. Linus Humiston 
143. Linus, son of James and 
Hannah (Hitchcock) Humiston, 
married Oct. 3, 1802, Rebecca 
Rice. Linus went to Ohio many- 
years ago with his family. When in 
Wallingford he resided on the old 
Humiston farm, Gitteau's Corner. 

213. Miles, b- July 19, 1803. 

214. Samuel, b. Oct. 29, 1806. 

215. Philo, b. Dec. 21, 1807. 

216. Mary, b. Nov. 8, 1804. 

217. Hannah, b. Apr. 10, 1810. 
217-1-Russell, b. Oct., 1811. 
217-2-George, b. Apr. 6, 1813. 


146. Esther Humiston 

146. Esther, daughter of Samuel and 
Mary (Gill) Humiston, married Sept. 
26, 1799, Daniel, son of Joseph and 
Lydia (Bassett) Pierpont, of Ham- 
den, Connecticut. He was born May 
16, 1775; died Nov. 16, 1851. She 
died Aug. 17, 1864. 


I. Bede, b. Dec. 10, 1800; m. Meritt 

II. Elias, b. Apr. 21. 1803; d. Aug, 31, 

III. Esther, b. Sept. 1, 1805; m. Ezra 

IV. Harriet, b. Feb. 13, 1808. 

V. Sally, b. Dec. 10, 18 11. 

VI. Jared, b. June 24, 1814. 

VII. Rufus, b. Mar. 5, 1818. 

147. Betsey Humiston 

147. Betsey, daughter of Samuel and 
Mary (Gill) Humiston, married Jan. 
29, 1795, Benjamin, son of Lud Mun- 
son. He was born Dec. 19, 1771 ; died 
May 28, 1815. She died Nov., 1834. 

Benjamin was a school-teacher and 
resided in (Northford) Branford, 
Abingdon, Ohio. 


I. Mary, b. Dec. 8, 1795; d. Jan. 10, 1839. 

II. Henrietta, b. Mch. 8, 1798; d. July 28, 

III. Betsey, b. Mch. 10, 1800; d. Jan. 24, 

IV. Benjamin, b. Feb. 20, 1803 ; d. July 
6, 1825. 

V. Julius, b. Sept. 15, 1805; d. Sept. 19, 

VI. Lois Jennet, b. Aug. 31, 1809. 

149. Phila Humiston 

149. Phila, daughter of Samuel and 
Mary (Gill) Humiston, married Oct. 
22, 1801, Jesse Andrews. Resided in 
New Haven, Connecticut. 


I. Allen, b. Jan. 23, 1803. 

II. Jesse, b. Mch. 26, 1805. 

III. Franklin, b. Aug. 16, 1813. 

IV. Laura, b. Sept. 24, 1816. 

150. Samuel Humiston 

150. Samuel G., supposed son of 
Samuel and Mary (Gill) Humiston, 
married Ruth, daughter of Israel 
Holmes. He was proprietor of the 
old Burton Tavern, Waterbury, about 
1820, and later. 


218. Esther S., bap. Jan. 28, 1821. 

219. Mary Isabella, bap. May 19, 1822; d. 
Dec. 26, 1822. 

220. Ruth Holmes. 

151. Silliman Humiston 

151. Silliman, supposed son of Sam- 
uel and Mary (Gill) Humiston, mar- 
ried Sarah . Resided .in Mer- 
edith, New York. 


221. Austin. 

155. Esther Humiston 
155. Esther, daughter of Ebenezer 
and Hannah Humiston, married Ira 
Wolcott of Hamden, Connecticut. He 
was born 1771 ; died Mar. 25, 1843. 
She died Feb. 25, 1872. Resided in 
Hamden and are buried in the Centre- 
ville Cemetery. 


I. Vashti, b. 1801; d. Oct. 18, 1820. 

II. Abiah, b. 1803; m. Henry Leek. 

III. Laura, d. May 31, 1823, a. 9. 

IV. Mary, d. Oct. 7, 1833; a. 22. 



V. Ira, drowned June 20, 1838, a. 29. 

VI. Jason, drowned June 20, 1838, a. 22. 

VII. Jeremiah. 

156. Ruth Humiston 

156. Ruth, daughter of Ebenezer 
and Hannah Humiston, married Bar- 
ney Avis. Resided in Hamden, Con- 


I. Mary Elizabeth; m. Samuel H. Bald- 

II. -, dau. m. Dorman. 

158. William Humiston 

158. William, son of Ebenezer and 
Hannah Humiston, married Aug. 16, 
1807, Betsey Ann, daughter of Daniel 
Talmadge. She was born 1789; died 
Aug. 25, 1862. He died June 23, 
1853. Resided in Hamden, about a 
mile west of Centreville. 

222. Maria, b. Apr. 4, 1808; d. Feb. 8, 

223. Maria, b. June 18, 1811; d. Sept. n, 

224. Chester, b. Aug. 5, 1814; d. Feb. 23, 

225. Jane, b. Dee. 27, 1815; d. unm. Feb. 
17, 1900. 

226. Caroline, b. Apr. 23, 1820; d. unm. 
Jan. 29, 1900. 

227. Willis, b. Mar. 19, 1824. 

160. Charles Humiston 

160. Charles, son of Ebenezer and 

Hannah Humiston, married 

-. He became a sailor and was 

lost to family. 

228. Charles, became a sailor. 

166. Esther Humiston 

166. Esther, daughter of Caleb and 
Sarah (Bishop) Humiston, married 
Dec. 18 1 6, Lyman Goodyear. He was 
born Sept. 2^, 1792 ; died Jan. 7, 1874. 
She died Aug. 26, 1856. 

I. Sarah, b. Sept. 5, 1817; m. James 

II. Esther, b. Oct. 30, 1822; d. unm. 1848; 

III. Austin, b. May 31, 1828; m. Ann J. 

IV. SusaduahP., b. Nov. 27, 1832; d. 
Dec. 2i, 1863. 

167. Sylvia Humiston 
167. Sylvia, daughter of Justus and 
Elizabeth (Harmon) Humiston, mar- 
ried Sept. 26, 1827, Elihu, son of 
Enos and Mary (Todd) Dickerman. 
He was born May 14, 1802 ; died Oct. 
31, 1893. She died Aug., 1899. Re- 
sided in North Haven. 

I. Elihu Justus, b. Sept. 6, 1828. 

II. Charles, b. Nov. 29, 1830. 

III. Elizabeth Sylvia, b. Dec. 13, 1835. 

169. Eliza Humiston 

169. Eliza, daughter of Justus and 
Elizabeth (Harmon) Humiston, mar- 
ried Sydney Benham. She died 1889. 
Resided in Hamden, Connecticut. 


I. Sidney. 

II. Eunice. 

170. Harmon Humiston 

170. Harmon, son of Justus aad 
Elizabeth (Harmon) Humiston, mar- 
ried Jan. 1, 1844, Maia L., daughter of 
Eli and Sophia (Bassett) Dickerman. 
She was born Nov. 8, 1819 ; died Apr. 

4, 1904. He died Mar. 23, 1904. Re- 
sided in Whitneyville, Hamderr. 
Served as deacon in Congregational 

171. Elihu Humiston 

171. Elihu, son of Justus and Eliz- 
abeth (Harmon) Humiston, resides 
unmarried in Whitneyville, Hamden, 
Connecticut. He occupies the farm 
and the house built by his paternal 
grandfather, Joseph. His sister, Maria 

5. (172), resides here also. 

173. Austin Humiston 
173. Austin, son of Justus and 
Elizabeth (Harmon) Humiston, mar- 
ried Dec. 3, 185 1, Julia Bradley. He 
died Nov. 13, 1866. Resided in Ham- 

229. Lucy E., b. Sept. 15, 1854. 

175. Forbes Humiston 
175. Forbes, son of Jere and Mary 
(Ray) Humiston, married Martha 
Maria, daughter of Titus Dawson. 
She was born Feb. 4, 1822. He was 
a railroad policeman. 




230. Edward Ray, b. Jan. 8, 1845. Res. 
Fairbault, Minn. 

231. Eunice Rebecca, b. Jan. 16, 1847. 
Res. Winona, Wis. 

178. Sherman Humiston 
178. Sherman, son of John and 
Hannah (Sanford) Humiston, mar- 
ried Dec. 28, 1812, Polly Tompkins. 
Resided in Litchfield, Connecticut. 

232. Laura, b. Oct. 1, 1813. 

233. John, b. July 11, 1815. 

234. Belinda, b. June 11, 1820. 

235. Phebe B., b. May 3, 1823. 

182. Elisha Humiston 
182. Elisha, supposed son of Titus 
and Beulah (Batchelor) Humiston, 

married Elizabeth . Located in 

Abingdon, Ohio. 


236. Hartson. 

188. Sidnia Humiston 

188. Sidnia, daughter of Jesse and 
Abi (Blakeslee) Humiston, married 
Sherman Pierpont, a great-grandson 
of Rev. James Pierpont of New 
Haven. He was born June 29, 1783 ; 
drowned in Lake Erie. 

I. Minerva, b. Sept. 4, 1809; m. Sher- 
man Woodward. 

II. George, b. May 21, 1819; m. Caro- 
line Beach. 

190. Bennett Humiston 

190. Bennett, son of Jesse and Abi 
(Blakeslee) Humiston, married Feb. 
23, 1826, Emily, daughter of Aaron 
and Mary (Camp) Warner. She was 
born May 3, 1805 ; died Mar. 8, 1889. 
He died Sept. 6, 1876. Resided in 
Plymouth, Connecticut. 


237. Bennett, b. Sept. 6, 1830. 

238. Morris, b. Dec. 1, 1832. 

239. Emily Annis, b. Feb. 17, 1840. 

240. Caleb, b. May 30, 1843. 

191. Morris Humiston 

191. Morris, son of Jesse and Abi 

I (Blakeslee) Humiston, married Eliza 
Clark. She was born 1797; died Dec. 
7, 1836. He died May 7, 1828. Re- 
sided in Plymouth, Connecticut. 

195. John Humiston 
195. John, son of John Humiston, 
married Jan. 5, 1831, Loly, daughter 
of Abraham and Mary (Barnes) 
Tuttle. She was born Mar. 22, 1808. 
Resided in the southwest section of 
Southington, Connecticut, and was a 
large landholder. A stream near 
farm is called Humiston Brook. 


241. Darius, b. Nov. 16, 1835. 

242. Philenda, b. Mar. 1839; m. 


201. Lydia Humiston 
201. Lydia, daughter of Joel and 
Emelia (Mix) Humiston, married 
Ward Peck. Resided in North 
Haven, Connecticut. 


I. Joel. 

II. Lucretia. 

III. Edwin. 

IV. Fannie. 

203. Daniel Humiston 

203. Daniel, son of Jesse and Lois 
(Doolittle) Humiston, married June 
16, 1816, Julianna, daughter of Jared 
and Achsah (Doolittle) Ives. Daniel 
was a prominent citizen of Cheshire 
and served as selectman and as a repre- 
sentative of the town in the State Leg- 
islature. He died Oct. 22, 1865. His 
wife died Dec. 23, 1833. 


243. Chauncey Ives, b. July 13, 1818. 

244. John Daniel, b. Sept. 20, 1820. 

245. Julia Ann, b. 1822. 

204. Jesse Humiston 

204. Jesse A., son of Jesse and Lois 
(Doolittle) Humiston, married Oct. 
14, 1818, Lois, daughter of Reuben 
Preston. Resided in Cheshire, Con- 
necticut; died Nov. 16, 1841. 


246. Lauren A. 

247. Lois. 

248. Franklin. 

206. John Humiston 
206. John, son of Jesse and Lois 
(Doolittle) Humiston, married 
Rhoda, daughter of Samuel Nichols, of 
Wolcott, Connecticut. Resided in 
Cheshire, Connecticut. 




249. Jesse, removed to New York State. 

250. John Latimer, resides in Cheshire. 


220. Ruth Humiston 

220. Ruth, daughter of Samuel G. 
and Ruth (Holmes) Humiston, be- 
came an excellent teacher and con- 
ducted a private school in Waterbury, 
Connecticut. She was a graduate of 
Mount Holyoke and a favorite of its 
founder, Mary Lyon. Under Ruth 
Holmes Humiston's tuition the dullest 
were stimulated and the brightest 
wisely guided, and an impression re- 
mained with her pupils which no after 
experience could obliterate. 

221. Austin Humiston 

221. Austin, son of Silliman and 
Sarah Humiston, married Dec, 1842, 
Phebe J. Baldwin. She was born 
Apr. 19, 18 14. Resided at Meredith, 
New York. 


251. Orlando, d. 1863. 

252. Amanda, living 1874 at home. 

22j. Willis Humiston 
227. Willis, son of William and 
Betsey (Talmadge) Humiston, mar- 
ried Sept. 15, 1850, Eunice, daughter 
of Javin and Rhoda (Cooper) Wood- 
ing, of Hamden, Connecticut. She 
was born Sept. 28, 1830; died May 
28, 1903. He died May 10, 1895. 
Willis was a farmer of Hamden and 
resided upon the old home farm west 
of Centreville, Hamden. He built 
and operated the saw-mill on Shepard 
Brook near the junction of the roads. 

253. Oswin W., b. Oct. 5, 1851. 

254. Milo Bennett, b. Aug. 8, 1854. 

255. Dwight L., b. Feb. 15, 1857. 

256. Myron W.,.b. Apr. 14, 1861. 

257. Alice M., b. Nov. 30, 1867. 

258. Alva S., b. Jan. 11, 1869. 

259. Bessie A., b. Apr. 30, 1871. 

229. Lucy Humiston 
229. Lucy, daughter of Austin and 
Julia (Bradley) Humiston, married 
Christopher Turner. She died May 

7, 1896. Buried in Whitney ville Cem- 
etery, Hamden, Connecticut. 

236. Hartson Humiston 

236. Hartson, son of Elisha and 

Elizabeth Humiston, married Mary 

Elizabeth Church. He died June, 



260. Cyrus J., b. Sept. 17, 1833. 

261. Mary E. 

262. Helen. 

263. Francis. 

264. Joanna. 

237. Bennett Humiston 

237. Bennett, son of Bennett and 
Emily (Warner) Humiston, married 
Mary Camp. He died Nov. 15, 1883. 
Removed from Plymouth, Connecti- 
cut, to Illinois, and died there, leaving 
no issue. 

238. Morris Humiston 

238. Morris, son of Bennett and 
Emily (Warner) Humiston, married 
Nov. 7, 1857, Catharine C. Newton, 
daughter of William and Mary (Leav- 
enworth) Newton. She was born 
Dec. 18, 1840. Reside in Plymouth, 


265. Bennett N., b. Dec, 27, 1858. 

239. Emily Humiston 

239. Emily Annis, daughter of Ben- 
nett and Emily (Warner) Humiston, 
married June 14, i860, George Wood- 
ruff. Reside in Eldorado Springs, 

240. Caleb Humiston 

240. Caleb, son of Bennett and Em- 
ily (Warner) Humiston, married Oct. 
1, 1891, in Bridgeport, Mrs. Mary 
(Heaton) Preston, daughter of Levi 
and Avis Heaton, of Northfield, Con- 
necticut. She died June 12, 1900. 

241. Darius Humiston 

241. Darius, son of John and Loly 
(Tuttle) Humiston, married Aug. 11, 
1855, Olive, daughter of Erastus and 
Lucia (Lane) Todd, of Liberty, New 
York. She was born Nov. 19, 1836. 
Resided in Wolcott, Connecticut. 



Widow resides in Waterbury, Con- 


266. Glenwood Carlyle, b. Mar. 31, 1858; 
d. July 4, 1867. 

267. Warren Todd, b. June 21, 1861. 

243. Chauncey Humiston 

243. Chauncey Ives, son of Daniel 
and Julianna (Ives) Humiston, mar- 
ried Mary Smith. He died Nov. 11, 
1884. Resided on the home farm in 
Cheshire, Connecticut. 

244. John Humiston 

244. John, son of Daniel and Juli- 
anna (Ives) Humiston, married Em- 
ily, daughter of Russell Barnes, of 
Cheshire. Resided in New York city 
and died there Jan. 19, 1867. His 
widow married John Upson. 

246. Lauren Humiston 

246. Lauren A., son of Jesse and 
Lois (Preston) Humiston, married 
Hannah Moss. Resided in New 
Haven. Connecticut. 


268. Nellie, rn. Edward Williams. 

247. Lois Humiston 

247. Lois, daughter of Jesse and Lois 
(Preston) Humiston, married Elam 


I. Theodore. 

II. Eliza. 

III. Emelia. 

248. Franklin Humiston 

248. Franklin, son of Jesse and 
Lois (Preston) Humiston, married 
Ellen, daughter of Major and Hannah 
(Beecher) Lounsbury, of Bethany, 
Connecticut. Resided in New Haven, 


269. Lauren A., b. July 29, 1857. ' 


252. Oswin Humiston 
252. Oswin W., son of Willis and 
Eunice (Wooding) Humiston, mar- 
ried Oct. 12, 1876, Kate, daughter of 
William and Jane (Mix) Turner, of 
Hamden. She was born Dec. 31, 

1854. Resides in Hamden, Connect- 


270. Arthur, b. Aug. 16, 1877. 

271. Florence, b. Nov. 16, 1878. 

272. Frank, b. Aug. 8, 1880. 

273. Willis, b. Apr. 11, 1882. 

274. Violet, b. Dec. 6, 1883. 

275. Herbert, b. Dec. 25, 1886; d. Jan. 4, 

276. Bertha, b. Apr. 18, 1891. 

253. M. Bennett Humiston 

253. Milo Bennett, son of Willis 
and Eunice (Wooding) Humiston, 
married Georganna Whiting, of Ham- 
den. She was born Sept. 29, 1855. He 
is a carpenter and resides at Pines- 
bridge, Beacon Falls, Connecticut. 


277. Lulu. 

254. Dwight Humiston 

254. Dwight L., son of Willis and 
Eunice (Wooding) Humiston, mar- 
ried Nov. 2y, 1879, Kate, daughter of 
Elbert and Catharine (Bailey) Downs, 
of Bethany, Connecticut. She was 
born Oct. 21, 1862. Removed from 
Hamden to Bethany, 1893, where he 
has served as selectman and as repre- 
sentative of the town in Connecticut 


278. Lillie May, b. Oct. 16, 1882. 

279. Wallace Dwight, b. May 2, 1886. 

280. Ruby Amy, b. Nov. 17, 1892. 

281. Leita Katie, b. Jan. 29, 1897. 

255. Myron Humiston 

255. Myron W., son of Willis and 
Eunice (Wooding) Humiston, mar- 
ried Oct. 5, 1887, Jessie, daughter of 
Alfred and Harriet (Thorpe) Lane, of 
North Haven. She was born Dec. 21, 
1863. Reside in Hamden, Connect- 

256. Alice Humiston 

256. Alice M., daughter of Willis and 
Eunice (Wooding) Humiston, mar- 
ried Burton, son of Charles and Caro- 
line (Hinman) Cadwell, of Hamden. 
Reside in Centreville, Hamden, Con- 

257. Alva Humiston 

257. Alva S., son of Willis and Eu- 
nice (Wooding) Humiston, married 



Sept. 26, 1893, Jane, daughter of 
Vinus and Sarah (Sanford) Warner, 
born Sept. 18, 1873, of Hamden. He 
is a market gardener of Hamden, 

258. Bessie Humiston 

258. Bessie A., daughter of Willis 
and Eunice (Wooding) Humiston, 
married May 6, 1891, William, son of 
Albert and Elizabeth (Wilcox) Morse, 
of North Haven, Connecticut. He 
was born Mch. 1, 1868. Reside in 
Hamden, Connecticut, in house built 
upon the site of the old William Hu- 
miston homestead. 


I. Raymond, b. Sept. 28, 1893. 

II. Elizabeth, b. Nov. 2, 1897. 

III. Stanley, b. Sept. 25, 1900. 

IV. Ethel, b. Apr. 18, 1902. 

259. Cyrus Humiston 

259. Cyrus J., son of Hartson and 
Mary (Church) Humiston, married 
May 17, 1856, Elizabeth Ann Weir. 
She was born Jan. 2, 1839, and resides 
at Newton, Kansas. Cyrus was burned 
to death near Abingdon, Illinois, Nov. 
25, 1902, and was buried in the Hu- 
miston Cemetery by his father and 
grandfather. Resided at Newton, 


282. Carrie A., b. Apr. 8, 1857. 

283. Mary Ellen, b. Nov. 7, 1859. 

284. Cyrus Hartson, b. Mar. 16, 1862; d. 
Oct. 25, 1885. 

285. Joanna, b. Jan. 11, 1864. 

286. Lucretia, b. Dec. 5, 1865. 

287. Edward Kennon, b. July 30, 1868. 

288. Henry Merton, b. Feb. 17, 1871; res. 
Ordway, Col. 

289. Anna May, b. Nov. 22, 1872. 

290. Frank, b. Mar. 16, 1874. 

291. Bertha, b. May 7, 1876. 

292. William Weir, b. Sept. 2, 1878; d. 
Aug. 2, 1879. 

266. Warren Humiston 
266. Warren T., son of Darius and 
Olive (Todd) Humiston, married Isa- 
bel, daughter of Robert Munson of 
Nova Scotia, Canada. Reside in 
Watertown, Connecticut. 

293. Glenwood Warren, b. Oct. 2, 1888. 

294. Ralph Carlyle. 

295. Clyde. 

296. Ellsworth Munson. 

297. Joseph Harold. 

298. Olive Ellen. 

299. Harry Darius ) , . 

300. Hugh Robert f twms * 

268. Lauren Humiston 

268. Lauren A., son of Franklin 
and Ellen (Lounsbury) Humiston, 

married . Resides in 

New Haven, Connecticut. 


301. Lylia May. 


269. Arthur Humiston 

269. Arthur O., son of Oswin and 
Kate (Turner) Humiston, married 
Anna, daughter of Francis and Idella 
(Gibson) Johnson, of New Haven. 
She was born Jan. 17, 1879. Reside 
in Hamden, Connecticut. 


302. Ruth Johnson, b. Nov. 28, 1901. 

270. Florence Humiston 

270. Florence, daughter of Oswin 
and Kate (Turner) Humiston, married 
Nov. 25, 1903, William, son of Wil- 
liam and Dora (Rau) Euerle, of 
Hamden. He was born June 26, 
1876. Reside in New Haven, Con- 

I. Harvey William, b. Oct. 7, 1904. 

271. Frank Humiston 

271. Frank, son of Oswin and Kate 
(Turner) Humiston, married July 23, 

1903, Lillian, daughter of and 

Lillian (Hyatt) Wildman, of Nor- 
walk, Connecticut. Reside in Ham- 
den, Connecticut. 


303. Dorothy, b. Feb. 16, 1905. 

278. Lillie Humiston 
278. Lillie M., daughter of Dwight 
and Kate (Downs) Humiston, mar- 
ried Apr. 15, 1903, Wilfred, son of 
James and Jane (Hotchkiss) Meginn, 
of Bethany, Connecticut. He was 
born June 13, 1881. Reside in Nau- 
gatuck, Connecticut. 




Westford in Ashford 

June by Mr. Horton of Union, Elisabeth, Daughter of Solomon Mason, 
by Sarah, his wife. 

Moors, son of Ebenr Dimock, by mary, his wife. 
Theophilas Wilson, Son of Abijah Brocks, by lucy, his wife. 
Sarah, Dtr of Ebenezer Walker, by Hannah, his wife. By Mr. 
Willard of Stafford, 
all before Elijah Whiton, Esq., and Ezekiel Holt, chh. members. 


Aug. 23 By mr. weltch of mansfield. 

Tryphena, Daughter, and Elijah, son of James old. By mary, 

His wife. 

Amasa, Son of Ebenezer Walker, Junr, by Hannah, his wife. 

Mary, Daughter of Jonathan Abbe, by Allis, his wife. 

Vine, son of Stephen Coye, by Anne, his wife ; present, Deacon 

Whiton, John Smith and other members of the chh. John 

Holmes, clerk. 


July 21 By Mr. Martin of Westford. 

Reuben and Edward, Sons, and Rebeckah, Daughter, of Rubin 

mercy, by Rachel, his wife. 

Josiah, Son of Thomas Butler, by Elisabeth, his wife. 

Rebeckah, Daughter of Henry lee, by Rebeckah, his wife. 
Aug. 7 by Mr. Leonard of Woodstock. 

Rachel, Dtr of John Squier and Mary, Dtr of Joseph Holmes, by 

Hannah, his wife. 
Aug. 11 by Mr. Putnam of Pomfret. 

Anna, Dtr of Sam'l Bicknal, by Deborah, his wife. 

Ariel, Son of Ingelsbe work, by mary, his wife. 

Sala, Dtr of Anson Tufts, by Sarah, his wife, by Revnd Ebenezer 

martin of westford. 

SPRING— By Agnes E. Blanchard 

Spring, dancing forth in tricksy mood, 
Winter's discarded ermine found 
In the depths of a Dryad wood 
Lying tarnished upon the ground. 
Straightway she donned the robe of state 
And on the mossy throne she sate. 

Icicle fringes broken hung, 
Frost-wove spangles glittering clung, 
The melting snow-clods trickling strung 
Bead after bead, that falling rung 

Like fairy bells ; while rainbows flung 
Their shattered arcs the drops among. 

One rosy shoulder bursting through 
Lit up the garment's sombre hue; 
Then the ambient mist of morn, 
Flying swift from radiant dawn, 
Dropped its trailing wings of white 
And veiled the nymph from mortal sight. 

The air is sweet ! The robins sing ! 
For God hath wrought another Spring! 




Conducted by Charles L. N. Camp 

This department is open to all, whether subscribers or not, and no fees are required. The queries should be as 
precise and specific as possible. The editor of this department proposes to give his personal attention to questions 
free of charge. Extended investigations will be made by him for a reasonable compensation. Persons having old 
family records, diaries or documents yielding genealogical information are requested to communicate with him with 
reference to printing them. Readers are earnestly requested to co-operate with the editor in answering queries, many 
of which can only be answered by recourse to original records. Querists are requested to write clearly all names of 
persons and places so that they cannot be misunderstood. Queries will be inserted in the order in which they are 
received. All matters relating to this department must be sent to The Connecticut Magazine Hartford, marked 
Genealogical Department. Give full name and post-office address. — Editor 



192. Bartholomew. Can you give 
me information regarding Jona- 
than Bartholomew (who served 
at White Plains, N. Y., during 
the Revolutionary War), to ena- 
ble me to further my interests in 
the Society, Daughters of the 
Revolution? Anna Cook Bar- 
tholomew, wife of Jonathan, 
drew a pension. Any facts or 
information concerning him will 
be greatly appreciated. 

(E. B. A.), Charleston, S. C 

193. Rugg-M eacham. Who were the 
parents of Lucy Rugg, who, it 
is said, (see Berkshire County 
Gazetter, part 1, page 399), mar- 
ried, June 22, 1756, at place not 
named, James Meacham, of 
New Salem, Franklin County, 
Massachusetts"? When and 
where was she born and what 
was the place and date of their 
marriage? According to Perry's 
"Origins in Williamstown" the 

family removed from New Sa- 
lem to Williamstown, Massa- 
chusetts, in 1762, with four 
children ; subsequently they had 
seven more, and the mother, 
Mrs. Lucy (Rugg) Meacham, 
died in Williamstown, June 22, 

1803. Answers to any of these 
questions, with authority there- 
fore, would be highly appreci- 

(F. J. C), Syracuse, N. Y. 
194. Sherman. I am a descendant of 
the Reverend John Sherman of 
Watertown, and have the line 
complete except the maiden 
name of the wife of his grand- 
son, John Sherman of New Ha- 
ven. The daughter, Lydia, of 
the last named, was my great- 
grandmother, having married 
my grandfather, Titus Bradley, 
of North Haven. The genera- 
tions as I have them are as fol- 

1. Rev. John of Watertown 
(1614-1685) m. Abigail, his son, 

2. Captain Daniel of New Haven 
(1642-1716) m. 1664 Abiah 
Street, his son. 

3. John of New Haven (1673- 

1728) m. Dinah ? 

Who were the father and 
mother of Dinah, wife of John 
Sherman of New Haven (1673- 
1728) ? He was the son of Cap- 
tain Daniel Sherman of New 
Haven (1642- 1728) and grand- 
son of Reverend John Sherman 
of Watertown (1 614- 1685). 

(A. B.), Cleveland, O. 



195. (a.) lames. Wanted, the an- 
cestry of Captain John James, 
of Preston and Stonington, Con- 
necticut. He was a Revolution- 
ary officer who came with the 
Ohio company of associates to 
the northwest territory in 1790, 
accompanied by his family. His 
wife was Esther Denison 
(daughter of William Denison 
and Hannah Tyler). 

(b.) Tyler. Wanted also the 
ancestry of Hannah Tyler, who 
is said to have lived in Preston, 
Connecticut. It is said that 
Captain John James was twice 
married, but if so, Esther Deni- 
son was his second wife. They 
were married in 1763 and lived 
in Stonington and Preston. 
Mrs. Denison and Hannah Tyler 
were married Jan. 20, 1738. 
She died in 1797, aged 86. 

(C.P.O.), Lima, Ohio. 

196. Sutherland-Caldwell. William 
Caldwell, born 1695 in England, 
was impressed into British Navy 
and deserted in Boston, Massa- 
chusetts, 1712, while a mere boy. 
He settled in Connecticut and 
about 1740 married Abigail Suth- 
erland; had several children. 
Afterward (about 1758) went 
to Nova Scotia and died there 

Wanted, location in Connecti- 
cut, date of marriage, names of 
parents of Abigail Sutherland 
and names and dates of birth of 

(C. T. C), Washington,' D. C. 

197. Read. Wanted, the ancestry of 
Jonathan A. Read, born (prob- 
ably) at Brookfield, Connecticut, 
1762, died Feb. 13, 1826. His 
children were Aphia, who mar- 
ried Daniel Barnes Nov. 16, 
1812; Betsey, Lucinda, Ann, 
Hansen and Tilley. Jonathan 
had two wives ; would like their 
names. Were his parents Jona- 
than Hansen Read and wife 

Lucinda, who owned land in 
New Milford in 1789-96? 

(H. K. R.), Danbury, Conn. 

198. Miller. I desire to ascertain the 
parentage of Thomas Miller of 

Springfield, Mass., b. ? 

married 12 Aug., 1649, at 
Springfield, Mass., to Sarah, 
daughter of Samuel Marshfield. 
d. (killed by the Indians) at 
Springfield, Mass., 5th Oct., 


From what place did he come 
to Springfield, Mass.? 

The above Thomas Miller's 
grandson, Ichabod Miller, lived 
in Simsbury, Conn., afterwards 
Granby, where he was associ- 
ated with a Mr. Elliott in the 
manufacture of steel. Ichabod's 
son, Samuel, moved to New 
York State in 1789 and bought 
a farm, a portion of which was 
in the family, belonging to my 
father, until 1893. 

(C. C. M.), Marshall, Mich. 

199. Daniels-Rathbun. Darius Dan- 
iels left New London when a 
boy (about 1810) and came to 
Hartford. I would like to know 
whether or not he was born 
there. Can he be connected 
with the descendants of Robert 
Daniels of Massachusetts? In 
any case I would like his parent- 
age. He married Mary Rath- 
bun at Canterbury, Conn., about 
1815. Would like Mary Rath- 
bun's ancestry. She was a 
daughter of Joseph Rathbun. 

Bugbe-Jones. Billings Bugbe 
lived in Ashford, Conn., where 
some of his children died 
(Elisha, May 19, 1825) ; (Caro- 
line, June 6, 1825). Does Bill- 
ings Bugbe come from the 
Woodstock Bugbee's? I would 
like his ancestry in any case. 
He married Mary Jones who 
came from out in that neighbor- 
hood. Would like her line back. 
(E. L. U.), Hartford, Conn. 



200. She pard-W kite. Jesse Shepard 
of Plainfield, Conn, (son of Da- 
vid Shepard and Mehitable 
Spaulding), born in Plainfield, 
July 6, 1744, married Sarah 
White. Would like date and 
place of Jesse Shepard's death. 
Also the ancestry of Sarah 
White. Was her father a Revo- 
lutionary soldier ? service desired 
if any; Daniel Robertson, junior, 
born in Coventry, Conn., 21st of 
December, 1721. Would like 
the date of his death and place 
where he died. 

Uriah Brigham, born Nov. 3, 
1722, married Lydia Ward, May 
22, 1745, lived in Tolland 
County, Conn. Was Uriah 
Brigham a Revolutionary sol- 
dier? if so, how did he serve? 
date of his death desired; also 
the parentage of Lydia Ward. 

Who were the parents of the 
widow Wiswall who married 
William Bradford (son of Gov- 
ernor Bradford) and was his 
second wife? Who did their 
son, Joseph Bradford, marry? 
and the names of his children 

Was Mrs. (Wiswall) Brad- 
ford's name Fitch before she 
married Wiswall ? Whose 
daughter was she? 

(A. B. G.), Pulaski, N. Y. 

201. (a.) Adam, S. Eliashib Adams 
married a daughter of Miles 
Standish, grandson of Miles. 1 
What was her name? They 
lived in Bristol, Mass. Elia- 
shib 3 said-be son of Edward 1 * 
(Henry 1 of Braintree) had son 

Eliashib 4 married Miss ( ?) 

Tracy of Preston, Conn. Was 
she a descendant of Stephen or 
Thomas? They had a son Elia- 
shib 5 who married Molly, daugh- 
ter of Timothy Webb of Wind- 
ham, Conn. Was he descend- 
ant of Christopher of Braintree? 
Wanted, name of his wife. 

Chester Adams, born 1780, 

married Elizabeth Watts of 
Worthington, born 1778. Want 
her ancestry. John 7 , born 1804, 
married Mary Ann Bryant of 
Chesterfield, Mass. Want Bry- 
ant lineage. 

(b.) Baldzvin. Mr. ( ?) Bald- 
win, 1 of Waburn, Mass., left five 
sons. One Samuel, 2 settled in 
Weston, married a daughter of 
Captain Jones, "a highly re- 
spectable family." What was 
her name and lineage? 

Their son, Samuel, 3 born 
Weston, 1743, died in Windsor, 
Mass., 1826, was a captain in 
Revolutionary War, married 
Millicent Cutler, daughter of 
Captain Ebenezer Cutler, of 
Revolutionary War, and first 
wife, Phebe Wyman, said to be 
a descendant of Francis of 
Waburn, 1640. Want Wyman 
lineage in full. 

Ephraim 4 married Tryphena 
Moor or More of Stillwater, 
N. Y., daughter of Captain 
Moor, an early settler of Wind- 
sor. Want her mother's lineage 
and More line back to immi- 

(c.) Ross. Will some one give 
Betsey Ross' — of flag fame — 
history? Who her husband 
was, where from, from what 
Ross line, etc.? Also her moth- 
er's lineage. 

(d.) Terrill. Please give the chil- 
dren of Roger 2 Terrill and 

Sarah ( ?) of Woodbury. 

Is it thought that Sarah was a 
Sherman or Mitchell? In some 
way the descendants of Job Ter- 
rill, son of Daniel and Mary 
(Fitch) Terrill were related to 
Mitchell's. Will some one 
kindly publish list of children 
born to Roger 3 Terrill who mar- 
ried Elizabeth Sherman (grand- 
daughter of Sarah Mitchell, 
wife of Samuel Sherman), giv- 
ing dates of birth, marriages, 



(e.) C lark e-F it ch-Ter rill. Would 
like names of wives of John 
Clarke, of Hartford, Saybrook 
and Milford, and of Farmer 
George Clarke, his brother, date 
when they came to America, 
death, date of birth of Elizabeth, 
daughter of John, and Ruth, 
daughter of George. When did 
Ruth marry Thomas Fitch. 
Date of their deaths? Date of 
birth, marriage and death of 
daughter, Mary, wife of Job 
Terrill, and list of their children 
wanted. Especially date of 
birth of Mary, born about 1740, 
married about 1758 John Dibble, 
died about 1784. 

(f.) Brezvster-Payn. At Coven- 
try, Connecticut, Sept. 23, 1756, 
Stephen Payne married Re- 
beckah Bushnell, daughter Na- 
than of Lebanon. Kingsley's 
Lebanon records say he was the 
son of Benjamin and Mary 
(Brewster) Payne, born June 
2 6> 1735. Would like proof of 
this from Bible, probate, or 
other records, and want ancestry 
of Benjamin Payne; when did 
Mary (Brewster) Payne die? 

(g.) Kinne-Cogswell. Was Na- 
thaniel Cogswell's wife, Huldah 
Kinney, the daughter of Joseph 
and Kezia (Peabody) Kinney? 
Nathaniel Cogswell's sister Ju- 
dith married Jacob Kinney (son 
of Joseph). Did they have a 
son, Daniel, who married Aug. 
25, 1758, at New Milford, Conn., 
Huldah Cogswell, daughter of 
Nathaniel? Nathaniel's parents 
were Edward and Hannah 
Brown, daughter of Nathaniel 
and Judith (Perkins) Brown of 
Ipswich, Mass. ; later Edward 
was of Preston and New Mil- 
ford, Conn. His parents were 
William and Maria (Emerson) 
Cogswell of Ipswich. Would 
like Emerson data, parentage of 
Judith Perkins, married 1675 
Nathaniel Brown; also parent- 

age of Kezia Peabody above, 
and of the mother of Joseph 
Kinney, Elizabeth Knight of Sa- 
lem, Mass., who married before 
1680 Thomas Kinney, born 
March 11, 1655. Any aid on 
any of above families gratefully 

(h.) Lord Graves. The will of 
Deacon George Graves, of Hart- 
ford's founders, is said to be in 
Probate Court, Hartford 1673- 
1674. Does it mention his 
daughter, Sarah, wife of Rich- 
ard Lord? They must have 
been married before 1638, for 
their daughter, Sarah, was born 
there, dying Nov. 15, 1705, 
age sixty-seven, widow of Reve- 
rend Joseph Haynes, who died 
May 14, 1679. A late Graves 
genealogy does not give her 
among children of Deacon 
George, while all records we had 
so stated. Would like date of 
birth, marriage and death of 
Sarah, wife of Richard Lord. 
He died May 17, 1662, age fifty- 
one. Is buried at New London. 
Oldest tomb-stone east of Con- 
necticut river still in existence. 

(i.) Caulkins. Who was wife of 
John Caulkins (Hugh)? Where 
were they born, died, married? 
Their daughter, Mary, married 
Samuel Gifford; when? Sam- 
uel was son of Stephen and 
Hannah Gore or Gove. Want 
ancestry of both. 

(j.) Sluman. Who was Thomas 
Sluman who married Dec, 1668, 
Sarah Bliss? 

(k.) Darling - Childs. Want an- 
cestry of Samuel Darling, bom 
1695, married about 1718, prob- 
ably at Newport, R. I. "Widow 
Macomber," formerly Susanna 
Childs, born 1680. Believed to 
be daughter of Jeremiah and 
Martha Childs of Swansea. She 
died 1758, and Samuel 1760. 
Both buried in Grove Street 
Cemetery, New Haven. Will 



be grateful for aid in these 
(1.) Strong -Ford. Have now 
three different years for mar- 
riage of Elder John Strong to 
Abigail Ford. Some one please 
give correct date; also for her 
death, age at death, etc. Was 
her mother's name Abigail? 
Want date of birth, death and 
marriage of Experience Strong, 
daughter of Elder John; she 
married Zerubabel Filer (Wal- 
ter) Windsor. They had daugh- 
ter Jane, born either January or 
July, 1671. 
( A. R. H.), Anadarko, Okla. 

202. Nott. Whatever became of the 
sloop "Guilford" after my grand- 
father, Captain William Nott 
who commanded, was ordered 
to assist in the attack on the 
British fleet in Long Island 
harbor during the Revolutionary 
War? My mother died when I 
was about two and a half years 
old and my father when I was 
about fifteen, and I do not know 
where my grandfather or grand- 
mother are buried. I think they 
lived in Wethersfield at one time 
and also my uncle, William 
Henry Nott, who was a boat 
builder, I am told. My father 
was in the War of 1812 and I 
was a member of the 16th C. V. 
Inf., serving three years, eight 
months in the Civil War, a pris- 
oner of war at Andersonville, 
Charleston and Florence rebel 
prisons. I would be much 
pleased if I could learn a way to 
find out about my grandparents 
and uncle. 

(W. H. N.), Bristol, Conn. 

203. (a.) Webb. Would like infor- 
mation concerning ancestors of 
Mary Webb, who married Lieu- 
tenant John Pratt of Saybrook, 
Conn., March 8, 1732. 

(b.) 5**7/. Was Ezra Sill, of 
Lyme, Silltown, in the Revolu- 

tionary War? If so, will you 
kindly give his record? 

(c.) Hale. James Hale, of Ash- 
ford, Conn., was in the Revolu- 
tion. Would like his service 
and anything further that is 
known about him. 

(d.) Pratt. Asa Pratt, of the 
Lieutenant William Pratt fam- 
ily, married Abigail Denison, 
Oct. 7, 1759. Was she a daugh- 
ter of Professor James Denison 
and his wife, Martha (Doty) 
Denison, of Lyme? I would 
like to learn her ancestry. 

(e.) Ashee. Who were the par- 
ents of Sarah Ashee who mar- 
ried Samuel Utley April 9, 
1 69 1 ? They were probably of 
Stonington, Conn. 

(f.) Utley. Samuel Utley, grand- 
son of the above, married Han- 
nah Abbot in Aug., 1748. I de- 
sire information concerning her 

(F. M. C), Hornell, N. Y. 

204. Clark. Wanted, the family and 

ancestry of Priscilla , wh) 

was the wife of Joseph Clark of 
Chester, Conn. She died Dec. 
24, 1 79 1, aged 96. One author- 
ity places her as the daughter of 
Ruth Hungerford and Joseph 
Shipman, but Ruth Hungerford, 
daughter of John 3 was born 
Aug. 1, 1705, so this cannot be 

(E. A. C), Pittsfield, Mass. 

205. Dexter. Any information, es- 
pecially ancestry, concerning 
Elisha Dexter who married So- 
phia Livingston in Connecticut, 
and soon went to or near Avon, 
N. Y., to live. A son, Reve- 
rend Ransom Dexter, senior, is 
said to have been born in Erie, 
Pa., some other children in 
Avon, N. Y., and others in Oak- 
ville, Ontario, Canada. He was 
in Washington's army. Sophia 
(Livingston) Dexter died about 
1830. I have written to all my 
relations whom I know of, and 



many others. I have seen the 
two recent Dexter genealogies, 
but this branch seems not to ap- 
pear. The Livingston branch 
lived in Duchess or Columbia 
County, New York, according 
to all family tradition. 

(L. A. D.), Chicago, 111. 

206. (a.) Rogers of New London. 
Who were the parents of Eliza- 
beth, wife of James Rogers 
(James 2 James 1 ) of New Lon- 
don? On what authority is her 
maiden name given as Elizabeth 
Harris in Selleck's "History of 
Norwalk," and in Baker's "His- 
tory of Montville?" "Hemp- 
stead's Diary" states that she 
died Jan. 31,1713. The "Rogers' 
Genealogy," by J. S. Rogers, 
notes that the grave-stone in- 
scription gives the date of her 
death as Feb. 28, and her age 
thirty-two. Could she have been 
that daughter of James and 
Sarah (Denison) Harris who is 
stated in N. H. Morgan's "Har- 
ris Genealogy" to have married 
William Rogers? J. S. Rogers, 
in the "Rogers' Genealogy," 
states that William Rogers' wife 
was the daughter of Samuel 
Harris and that Mr. Morgan's 
book is undoubtedly in error. 

(b.) Sarah lackson. Who were 
the parents of Sarah Jackson 
who married, July 19, 1752, Eli- 
jah Bingham (Joseph, 2 Thom- 
as 1 ), of Windham? She died 
Dec. 7, 1809, aged seventy-nine, 
or in her seventy-ninth year. 
Could she have been the daugh- 
ter of Samuel and Sarah (Har- 
ris) Jackson, who was baptized 
at New London, July 11, 1731? 
(H. S. W.), New York, N. Y. 

207. (a.) Marshall-Banks. Thaddeus 
Marshall of Greenwich, Conn., 
born 1 707, married Mary Banks, 
daughter of Joseph and Hannah 
Banks. Can someone give 
names of their children? It is 
particularly desired to find con- 

nection between Thaddeus Mar- 
shall and one Gilbert Marshall, 
died 1795, who is thought to 
have been either son or grand- 
son of Thaddeus. Whose son 
was Joseph Banks? Whose 
daughter was Hannah? 

( b. ) Marshall - Brown. Gilbert 
Marshall of Greenwich, died 
1795 ; married Sarah Brown 
who survived him. Dates of 
their births and marriage de- 
sired. Who were her parents? 

(c.) Marshall. Sylvanus Mar- 
shall, Captain in Revolution, 
born in Greenwich May 4, 1746 
(old style), died Sept. 28, 1833. 
Who were his parents? His 
wife died about 1828. Who was 

(d.) Marshall. Information de- 
desired of the Quaker Thomas 
Marshall, who was arrested in 
Greenwich, 1658, as a heretic. 
Was John Marshall, wheel- 
wright, whose will, dated May 
2, 1712, disposed of lands in 
Stamford and Greenwich, a son 
of his? This John and many of 
his descendants were Quakers. 
John's will names wife Eliza- 
beth and several children. Was 
she his only wife or could he 
have been also the John Mar- 
shall who married Sarah Webb 
of Stamford? Was he the 
Greenwich proprietor of 1672? 
When was he born? Who were 
Elizabeth's parents? 

(J. A. M.), Portchester, N. Y. 
208. (a.) Southworth. Mary South- 
worth (daughter of Constant 
Southworth married David 
Alden 3 son of Joseph Alden 2 ). 
When was she born? Date of 
marriage wanted. 

(b.) Dunham. When in 1670 was 
Hannah Dunham (daughter of 
Daniel Dunham) born? 

(c.) Rockwell. Rebecca Rock- 
well married Andrew Currier, 
junior. She was daughter of 

1 84 


Josiah Rockwell. When did 
she die? 
(d.) Edson. Timothy Edson, born 
June 19, 1722. Lived at Staf- 
ford Hollow, Conn. When did 
he die? 

(e.) Nott. Patience (wife of Ser- 
geant John Nott) died at Say- 
brook, Conn. Date of death 
(f.) Orcutt. Susan Orcutt, 
(daughter of Lieutenant Solo- 
mon Orcutt), born 1758; full 
date wanted; married Captain 
Timothy Edson of Stafford, 
Conn. ; date of marriage want- 

(g.) Perrin. Thomas Perrin was 
living at Hebron, Conn., in 
1719. He married previous to 
1709. Sarah — — , who was 
she? When born and date of 
death? Thomas Perrin mar- 
ried for his second wife Sarah 
Hartwell Jan. 27, 1742. She 
died July 11, 1742. Who were 
her parents? When was she 
born? Who was Thomas Per- 
rin's parents? 

(h.) Talcott. Samuel Talcott (son 
of Captain Samuel Talcott and 
Hannah Moseley) was born 
July 23, 1733, at Glastonbury, 
Conn. ; buried at Eastbury, 
Conn., March 1, 1780; his first 
wife was Mary Smith ; he mar- 
ried her 1757. Full date want- 
ed of her birth. Death and 
name of her parents. He mar- 
ried second Sarah. Full name, 
birth, death and parents wanted. 

(i.) Yeamens. Who were the 
parents of Elijah Yeamens born 
at Tolland, Conn., died at Tol- 
land March 4, 1750. Wanted 
date of birth. Marriage and to 
whom? A son, Elijah, junior, 
was born Jan. 17, 1738, and 
married June 24, 1762, Amy De- 
lano of Tolland, Conn. A 
daughter, Abigail, was born 
Feb. 20, 1735. 
209. Clark. I want to know if you 

can help a little on my Clarks. 
Thomas Clark married first 

Hannah and second Ruth; 

left Conn, and settled in New 
Jersey ; he is said to be a son of 
Thomas Clark of Milford, 
Conn., who married Ann Bishop, 
widow of Jordon. I want to run 
Thomas Clark's line back. There 
are so many Thomas' and Dan- 
iels I don't know where to begin- 
Also if you can tell me who 
Elizabeth Clark was who mar- 
ried William Pratt? Was she a 
daughter of Daniel Clark who 
married' Bathsheba Griswold? 
(H. N. B.), Alexandria, Virginia. 
210. (a.) Willis. Wanted, the an- 
cestors of Susannah Willis, born 
1746, and married Daniel Bar- 
ber 1764. Her sons were Abra- 
ham, Amasa, Alpheus, Daniel, 
William, Comfort and Ithamar. 
(b.) Weller. Wanted, the an- 
cestors of Elizabeth Weller, 
born 1776, and married Amasa 
Barber, 1794. Her sons were 
Abraham, Comfort, Selah and 
Eldridge Gerry. Did she be- 
long to the Pittsfield or New 
Milford family of Wellers ? 

The Daniel Barber mentioned 
is the son of Daniel and Naomi 
Barber of Windsor. Stiles, in 
his history, speaks of but two 
children. I have found six 
others in Duchess County, N. 
Y., where the marriage of Dan- 
iel second to Susannah Willis 
took place in 1764. 

The Connecticut family of 
Barbers has never appeared in 
print very extensively to my 

I have a theory that Susannah 
Willis was the daughter of 
Comfort Willis of Comforts 
Bridge, or rather of one of his 
sons as he was of a generation 
older. My information is from 
Mitchell's "History of Bridge- 
water, Mass." 

(M. W. K.), Syracuse, N. Y. 

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ing standpoint, present peculiarities all 
their own. They import their raw mate- 
rial, they export the finished product. So 
congested is the territory served by the 
railroad systems in this locality that it pre- 
sents to visitors the appearance of a vast 
railroad switching yard for the receipt and 
delivery of freight. It is dependent upon 
transportation facilities even for food. In 
these circumstances the story of the rise 
and progress of a city like Hartford, the 
capital of Connecticut, has an interest and 
charm peculiarly its own. Happy in its 
physical surroundings and in its site on the 
banks of the beautiful Connecticut, it was 
no less fortunate in the character, accom 
plishments and purposes of its founder. 

Hartford has a great future. As the 
capital of Connecticut it should inevitably 
be a great city — great in its population, in 
its industries, in its wealth, in its public 
undertakings for the general good. 

From any point of view, the picture pre • 
sented by modern Hartford is interesting 
and inspiring. From a business stand- 
point old things have passed, or are rapidly 
passing away, and the great stores and 
industrial enterprises of the city are assum- 
ing aspects altogether metropolitan. For 
these new phases of enterprise so far as the 
stores are concerned, the electrifying and 
extension of the street railway system are 
largely responsible. The population of the 

city proper could hardly warrant or suppot 
our large department stores — which ar 
unsurpassed in the excellence and variet 
of their wares by any establishments i 
New England. Such concerns are rer 
dered possible only by the fact that th 
improved trolley service has enabled ther 
to supply the wants of an urban and run 
population of perhaps 250,000. 

It must be conceded that proposed trolle 
extensions are full of promise for Han 
ford's merchants. 

With two lines already running t 
Springfield, it is proposed to establish 
third, by way of Tariffville branch of th 
Central New England Railroad, which wij 
make the trip between the two cities in a] 
hour and a half. To the south it is inev 
table that Middletown will soon conne(| 
with Hartford by some kind of electric seij 
vice, while it is now possible to ride a 
trolley from Hartford to New Havei; 
Rockville is promised a trolley service ov<| 
the steam lines, which will cover the dij 
tance to Hartford in forty minutes. TI 
great advantage of the trolley to the sulj 
urban population lies in the frequency (j 
its service — a service which makes it po \ 
sible for the visitor to come to the city I 
such hours as are most convenient. Will 
these improvements in transportation arj 

added facilities for access to the cit 
Hartford is to-day realizing the dream J 
its founders — of being the trading an 
shopping center of the Connecticut valley!, 


Rank with the Strongest Financial Institutions 

in the Country 


OF HARTFORD <£ Established 1857 

Resources Over Five Million Dollars 


Foreign Exchange— Letters of Credit— Safe Deposit Boxes 
Largest National Bank in Conn, on the "Honor Roll" of 1906 




Transact a General Banking Business 
Foreign Drafts and Letters of Credit 


State Street, HARTFORD, CONN., Opposite City Hall 


It Invites New Business, Large or Small. — Safe Deposit Boxes to Rent 

Connecticut £ruet ant> 

Safe 2)epoeit Company 

CAPITAL $300,000. SURPLUS $400,000 

M. H. Whaples, Pres. H. R. Redfield, Asst. Treas. 

J. P. Wheeler, Treas. A. P. Day, Secy. 


Transacts a General Trust 
and Banking Business . . 

Officers : 
Atwood Collins, Pres. Chas. Edw. Prior, Jr., Ass't Treas. 
Chas.Edw. Prior ,V.Pres. and Treas. Francis Parsons, Secy. 


The Insurance Stronghold of America 



Assets $19,054,843.56 
Surplus to Policy Holders $4,819,909.59 

Losses Paid over $110,000,000 

'The Leading Fire Insurance Company of America 1 

Wm. B. Clark, President W. H. King, Secretary 

A. C. Adams, Henry E. Rees, A. N. Williams, Assistant 





Of Hartford, Conn. 


Capital $i, 000,000. Assets $5,401, 598.31 
Surplus to Policy Holders $1,922,305.24 

J. D. Browne, President. Chas. R. Burt, Sec. 

W. T. Howe, Asst. Sec. John A. Cosmus, Asst. Sec. 


Assets $22,000,000 

Surplus over $1,000,000 

Purely Mutual Policies to Protect the Family 

Please Mention The Connecticut Magazine when patronizing our Advertisers. 


Are Unsurpassed in the Excellence and Variety of their 
Wares by any Establishments in New England 





Specialists in Ladies' and Children's Ap- 
parel, Millinery, Laces, Silks, Dress 
Goods, Linens, Gloves, Hosiery, 
Corsets and Underwear 




"Hartford Silk Store 9 


and Silversmiths Carry Unexcelled Stocks of Precious! 
Gems, Watches and Silverware 

C. H. Case & Co, 

9 ftSSS Established 1868. 

Diamonds, Watches and Jewelry, 






Gold and Gold Hilled Watches 

A. Specialty 

High Grade Watch Repairing. 


Precious Stones, Kich Jeuielry, Silveraiafef 

Clocks, Bronzes, Porcelains, Etc. 
18 Asylum Street, Hartford, Conn 


12 Asylum Street, Hartford, Conrj 


Have Planned Many of the Finest Business Structures! 
Public Buildings and Residences in New England 


Catlin Bldg. Cor. Main and Asylum 

Architects of the Hotel Garde, Highland Court, 
Universalist Building, The Howard, etc., in Hart- 
ford and numerous buildings and residences 
throughout New England. 




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Enterprising and Reliable. Their Energy and Square 
Dealing Brings Trade from all parts of Connecticut 




Importer of Finest Grade 



Manufacturer of the Sultan Rug Fastener 
75 PEARL ST., HARTFORD. Telephone 1086 






It is a feature that is valued by thousands of 
Connecticut families. 

THE TIMES is Connecticut's Representative Newspaper. 

Daily, $8 a year. Address THE TIMES, 

Semi-Weekly, $1 a year. Hartford, Ct. 



Manufacturers and Retailers of 


Full Dress, Prince Albert and Tuxedo 

Suits for Rent 

64—66—68 Asylum Street, Hartford, Conn. 



Frayer and Foster 




The Return of the Gibson Girl 

A new series of "Gibson Heads" is now offered by The 
New York Sunday World. These drawings are from the 
pen of the world-famed artist, Charles Gibson. The pic- 
tures are in India black, on a buff background, upon art 
paper, and each is ready for framing. The first "Gibson 
Girl" art supplement wiil be given next Sunday. Get the 
set. Order from newsdealer in advance. 

Nearly Everybody in Hartford reads 

^j\t |f inning post 

Modern, Popular-Priced and Independent. 


Are Skilled in their Profession. Have your Dentistry 

done in Hartford 


Room 80, Sage-Allen Building, 
902 Main Street . . . Hartford 


904 Main Street, 
Ballerstein Building, Hartford, Conn. 


Room 75, Brown-Thomson Bldg. 


Room 30 Ballerstein Building 
go 4 Main Street 



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iff 1^ 


* H 





I .gong 

-■,;.-. . 

m^ Jm 

This deformity of the upper jaw on the 
right was a resuJt of this habit. The habit is 
caused by obstructions in the nose or throat, 
or both. To prevent it consult a throat and 
nose specialist to the end that the child may 
breathe in the only proper way, i. e., through 
the nose. But, if it has not been prevented, 
the condition can be corrected, as the cut on 
the left will show; as they are both from re- 
productions in plaster of the same jaw. The 
one on the right was taken in November, 
1904, and the other in July, 1905. For further 
information in regard to this work call on 


Rm. 77, Sage=Allen Bldg., Hartford, Conn. 

He will be glad to show the models here 
illustrated, as well as numerous others that 
will surely interest you. 


Place Contracts with the Strongest and most Con- 
servatively Managed Insurance Companies in America 

f^rajnk: g. burinthajvi 

Cife ana Accident Insurance 

General Agent 
State Mutual Life Assurance Co. 
of Worcester, Mass. 

Boom 50 
Sage-Allen Bldg. 
Telephone 262 

Fire Insurance Agency 

65 Pearl Street, Hartford, Conn. 

Telephone 280 


Make it the Business Hub of Connecticut; the Shopping 
Centre of the State; the Concentration Point of Connecti- 
cut's Business Interests. 

Let the people outside of Hartford know you are doing 
business in Hartford. 

Establish your name all over the state as an enterprising 
Hartford Business Firm. 


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Handle extensive propositions in all parts of Connecticut. Place 

your interests in their hands. Investments in Hartford 

Real Estate pay big dividends 


Our Lines are Real Estate and Fire Insurance. 

Large deals a specialty. Property interest in 
Real Estate and Fire Insurance handled to any 
amount anywhere in the United States. 

The J. M. Brafly Realty Company, 

Rm. 58 and 58-A, Hills Block 

Hon. J. M. BRADY. 


Mr. E. F. O'BRIEN. 

e. c. halliday 

Hartford and Greater New York Real Estate a 

Room 71, Sage- Allen Bldg., Hartford 


49 Pearl Street, Hartford 






THE Hartford 

Printing Co. 


Book and Job Printers 


Printers and Publishers of GEER'S 
alogy of the Gallup Family for Sale. 


Trade Mark 


Sell and 

Make to 


Alter and 


I Repair j 


Furs, Clothing, Rugs, Etc. 

Insured against Moth, Fire and Burglars 


Formerly of Pratt Street 

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Incorporated under the Laws of the State of Connecticut for the purpose of collecting in per- 
manent form the various phases of History, Literature, Art, Science, Genius, Industry and all 
that pertains to the maintenance of the honorable record which this State has attained— For 
this commendable purpose the undersigned are associated as members of the re-organized 
Connecticut Magazine Company, invitingthe co-operation of the home patriotic. 

Attorney GEORGE V. SMITH, President 

HERBERT RANDALL, Vice-President and Treasurer 

EDWARD O. DORMAN, Assistant Treasurer and Business Manager 


EDWARD B. EATON, Field Manager and Member Board of Directors 

Hartford, Connecticut New York New Haven, Connecticut 

Editorial Offices Foreign Advertising Business Offices 

George P. McLean, ex-Governor of Connecticut; Professor Henry W. Farnum, Yale 
University; George S.Godard, State Librarian; William B. Clark, president JEtna In- 
surance Co.; Edwin S. Greeley, vice-president Yale National Bank; Charles A. Jewell, 
estate, Jewell Belting Co. ; Hon. Charles M. Jarvis, vice-president P. & F. Corbin Co. ; 
Samuel Hart, president Connecticut Historical Society; Albert C. Bates, librarian 
Connecticut Historical Society; James Nichols, president National Fire Insurance 
Company; Atwood Collins, president Security Co.; John M. Holcomb, president, 
Phoenix Mutual Life Insurance Co. ; William H. Watrous, late of S. L. & G. H. Rogers 
Co. ; Hon. Frederick A. Betts, former Insurance Commissioner; Dr. Gurdon W. Russell, Park 
Commissioner; Henry T. Blake, president Park Commissioners, New Haven; John G. Root, 
ex-Mayor of Hartford; Daniel R. Howe, sec'y and treas. Hartford Street Railway Co. ; Frank 
C. Sumner, sec'y and treas. Hartford Trust Co. ; Francis H. Richards, Patent Attorney; Car- 
not O. Spencer, School Fund Commissioner; Henry Roberts, Ex-Governor of Conn. ; Joseph 
G. Woodward, historian Conn. Soc. Sons of Am. Rev. ; Heirs Judge Dwight Loomis, ex- 
Associate Judge Supreme Court of Errors; Rev. Francis Goodwin, Park Commissioner Hart- 
ford, Commissioner of Sculpture ; Mary Elizabeth Wright Smith, vice-president at large 
Connecticut Woman's Suffrage Association; James J. Goodwin, vice-president Conn. Historical 
Society; Lewis E. Stanton, president, Hartford Bar Library Association; estate Henry C. 
Robinson, John T. Robinson and Henry S. Robinson; Joseph H. King, president American 
National Bank; Dwight C. Kilbourn, clerk of courts, Litchfield County; Eli Whitney, presi- 
dent New Haven Water Co. ; P. Henry Woodward, former secretary Hartford Board of 
Trade; Francis R. Cooley, banker; Appleton R. Hillyer, vice-president ^tna National Bank; 
Samuel E. Elmore, president Connecticut River Banking Co. ; Thomas J. Boardman, presi- 
dent Wm. Boardman & Sons Co. ; William Newnham Carlton, librarian Trinity College ; Judge 
Edwin B. Gager, Judge of the Superior Court; Theodore Lyman, Attorney at law; Kate E. 
Gris wold, publisher Profitable Advertising; Richard O. Cheney, vice-president State Board 
of Trade ;Estate of Henry S. Goslee, Attorney ; Ernest B. Ellsworth, Attorney at Law ; William 
H. Richmond, B. M. Des Jardins, H. Phelps Arms, Charles W. Frey, Mrs. Josephine E. S. 
Porter, Herbert Randall, Mrs. C. R. Forrest, Hon. Stephen Walkley, Mrs. Henry F. Dimock, 
Edwin Stanley Welles, Charles E. Thompson, Franklin Clark, Mary B. Brainard, Mrs. Frank- 
lin Farrell, E. J. Carroll, Francis Trevelyan Miller, Edward B. Eaton, Hon. Stiles Judson, Jr., 
Mrs. Antoinette Eno Wood, Dr. Henry Putnam Stearns, Rev. Lewis W. Hicks, Edwin Cone 
Hunt, A. H. Randell, Dr. Charles C. Beach, William F. J. Boardman, Howard C. Buck, 
Daniel D. Bidwell, The Smith-Linsley Co. ; Geo. V. Smith, and others. 

Connecticut Industries 

With an Invested Capital of $373,283,580, Giving 

Employment to 181,529 Mechanics, Paying 

them Annually in Wages $87,942,628 

Connecticut last year Produced 

Goods valued at $369,082,091 

Fourth of a series of able articles on Connecticut's Manufactures and it 
Markets, including first complete compilation of Connecticut's huge industria 
interests for public library and reference use throughout the country — Attention i 
called to the several articles in this issue that are of special interest to those engage< 
in manufacturing — Read the "Development of Steam Navigation," by Seymou 
Bullock, on page 49 — Editor 

CONNECTICUT has begun the 
year with a continuance of the 
remarkable industrial growth 
that has carried the State to the 
forefront of American business and given 
it a world-wide reputation as the home of 
"honest-made" manufactured .products. 

In a conversation a few days ago with 
the secretary of state he remarked that 
one of the good signs is the multitude 
of new "infant industries" that are 
coming to the front. In Meriden sev- 
eral factories have been established for 
the manufacture of silk braid and 
the city may yet earn the title of 
the "Silk City" as well as the "Silver 

In Bristol the New Departure Manu- 
facturing Company, that started in the 
most modest way a few years ago, has 
grown to such proportions that it has 
recently merged a rival company and has 
installed a plant in Germany to handle its 
rapidly growing European trade. 

New Haven, Bridgeport and Water- 
bury are increasing the size of their 
plants and many new industries are being 

New Britain is experiencing an indus 
trial upbuilding that gives promise o 
going much higher. 

The concerns throughout the Stat' 
seem to be holding established markets 
and under the ablest management. 

While it has been predicted that abusi 
ness reaction must soon come, and tha 
the country is in danger of over-produc 
tion, there is little evidence of it now 
other than the occasional tight mone; 

It was stated at the State Labo 
Bureau a few days ago that never befor 
has labor and capital been working mor 
energetically and harmoniously. Con 
necticut is practically free from industria 
strife and both employee and employe 
are united in the protection of thei 
mutual interests. 

Interviews with the five state fre 
public employment bureaus show tha 
during the first month of this year ther 
were 833 applications for employment 
331 males and 502 females, and 653 o 
the number secured situations, 243 male 
and 410 females. There were 765 appli 
cations for help, of whom 253 wante< 


Hartford has a combined capital of $28,358,583— 11,179 mechanics last year received wages of $6,562,236 and form 
materials valued at $11,587,130; produced $25,973,651 in finished product— Hartford covers 11,520 acres; its grand list 
exceeds $65,000,000 and population 90,000— Hartford has exceptionally strong transportation facilities by steamboat 
from New York; from all railroad points via N. Y., N. H. & H. R. R., and a network of electric railways to subur- 
ban communities. 



David Tilton, Prop. Established 1879 

Wood Screws op Every Description 

Our specialties are brass and bronze metal 

screws — Flat, Round and Oval Heads. 


John T. Austin, Pres. John Spencer Camp, Vice-Pres. 
L. R. Cheney, Sec. and Treas. 

Builders of 
Electric and 


25 Asylum Street 
Hartford, Conn. 
Manufacturers of 
Patentees of Seal Presses and Rubber Stamp 
Making Machinery. Expert workers in our 
"ine— Best equipped office in Connecticut. 

Established 1869. Capital $200,000 

C. E. Billings, Pres. and Gen. Mgr., P. C. Billings, Vice-Pres. 
and Supt., L. H. Holt, Treas , E. H. Stockee. Sec. 

Adjustable Wrenches, Machine Wrenches, Tool-holders, 
Pliers, Machine Clamps, Lathe Dogs, Machine Hammers, 
Screw Drivers, Ratchet Drills, Hand Vises, Drop Ham- 
mers, Automobile Forgings and General Forgings 


Organized 1883 

Silas Chapman, Jr., Pres. R. K. Erving, Sec. and Treas. 

manufacturers op 
Burr's Patent Combination Index and 
Burr's Improved Trial Balance Sheets 

THE J. B. BURR & COMPANY, Incorporated 
Edgar B. Burr, Pres. II. S. King, Sec. and Treas. 


Sole Manufacturers of 
Patent Eureka Pad and Cover 

Manufacturing and Insurance Printing 
a specialty 


Chartered 1855. Capital $1,000,000 
L. C Grover, Pres.. Wm. C. Skinner. Vice-Pres., F. A. 
Schirmer, Treas., A. L. Ulrich, Sec, W. B. 
Williams, Jr., Asst. Treas. 
Colt Revolvers, Colt Automatic Pistols, Colt Automatic 
Machine Guns, Catling Guns, Gun Mounts and Carriages 
Colt Revolvers adopted by U. S. Army and Navy, Foreign Gov- 
ernments, State National Guards, Municipal Police Departments 


Established 1858, Incorporated 1896 

Asa S. Cook, Pres. and Treas. John F. Cook, Sec. and 
Mgr. M. F. Cook, Asst. Treas. 

Manufacturers of 



Established 1862 

A. F. Cushman, Pres. E. L. Cushman, Sec. and Treas. 

F. H. Dean, Asst. Sec. A. P. Sloan, Supt. 

Manufacturers op 

LATHE and drill chucks, face plate 

JAWS, Etc. 

Hartford, Conn. 


Incorporated 1897. Authorized Capital $20,000,000 

Milton J. Budlong, Pres. W. G. Henderson, Treas. 

H. W. Ktte. Sec. 



Delivery Wagons, Trucks, Ambulances, Patrol Wagons, 

Busses, Broughams, Victorias, Phaetons, Runabouts 


Successor to 

The Hartford Woven Wire Mattress Company 

Henry Roberts, Pres. and Treas. Robert R. Pease, Sec. 



Cots, Cribs, Wire Door Mats, Hospital and Institution Bedsteads 


Incorporated 1894 

C. E. Whitney, Pres. F.L. Bishop, Sec, and Treas. 

E. W. Robinson, Gen. Mgr. 


120 to 124 Allyn St. Telephone 2456 

H. G. Lorentz, Pres. Edwin W. Putnam, Sec. and Treas. 

In either Wood or Metal. 


Frank L. Palmer, Pres. J. A. Hardison, Treas. 
W. F. Bedard, Sec. 

Fancy Leather Goods; Pocket Books; Memo- 
randums; Card and Letter Cases; Safety 
Specie Books; Advertising Souvenirs 
and Leather Specialties. 

Leading Industries of Hartford-continued 







Established 1896. Gerald W. Hart, Pres. 

Manufacturers of 

" Diamond H" Electric Switches 

Branch Offices: New York, Boston, Chicago, Denver, 
San Francisco, Toronto, Can., London, Eng. 


Capital $80,000 

Robert G. Henry, Pres. Joseph H. King, Vice-Pres. 
D. M. Wright, Sec. and Treas. 

Makers op Ball Bearing Drill Presses 


Established 1848. Capital $800,000 

Pliny Jewel, Pres. Lyman B. Jewell, Vice-Pres. Charles E. Newton, 

Treas. Charles L. Tolles, Sec. 
Tanners of Pure Oak Bark Leather, Lace Leather, Polishing 
Leathers.Metallic Tipped Belt Lacings,RoundBelting,BeltHooks 

Dealers in Hides and Skins 


Chartered 1876 

Manufacturers of MACHINE SCREWS and all manner of 
Turned Special Parts from Every Kind of Material 


Capital $22,500,000 

Albert A. Pope, Pres., Albert L. Pope, 1st Vice-Pres., C. E. 

Walker, 2d Vice-Pres., Wilbur Walker, Sec, 

George Pope, Treas. 




Hartford, Conn. 

Manufacturers of 
Precision Machine Tools, Machinists' 
Small Tools, Gauges, Standards, Etc. 


Capital $250,000 

sons of the pioneer rogers bros. 

John MacFadyen, Pres. George H. Rogers, Sec. 

Samuel MacFadyen, Treas. 

Factories: Hartford and Wallingford. 



Designer, Engraver; 
Electrotyper 5 


gOOOSQ,F f3 

Catalogue Maker 

Designing, Compiling and 


Electrotyping. Printing, 


Organized 1886. Capital $150,000 

Edward B. Hatch, Pres. and Treas. Chas. H. Patrick, Vice-Pres. 

Chab. E. Newton, Sec. Jas C. Howell, Asst. Sec. 
Vulcabeston for electrical insulation and steam packing. 

Moulded Mica Insulators for electric railways. 


Established 1838. Incorporated 1894. 

J. M. Merkow, Pres. G. W. Merkow, Sec. and Treas. 

Makers of 

The Merrow High-Speed Overseam, Over edge and 
Scallop or Shell Stitch Sewing Machines 


Stair Builders, Store and Office Fixtures and General Mill 


get our estimates 

in Commerce Street, Hartford, Conn. 

Telephone 2019-4 


32 Union Place. Telephone 

Seven-Inch Shapers 

Special Machinery 
Experimental Work 

Dies and Tools 
Inventions Developed 



Successors to 

the barber INK CO. J. S. BIRDEN & CO. 

Standard Inks and Mucilage, Am- Pickles, Horse Radish, Olives, Vine- 
monia, Blueing, Witch Hazel, gar, Mustard, Celery Salad, Wor- 

White Paste. cestershire Sauce, Catsup. 

Capital City Pickle House : Packers of Sweet, Mixed, Chow 
Chow, Gherkin, Onion and Piccalilli Pickles, Pepper Relish. 


Established 1879 
James B>. Topping - - Thomas H. Topping 


of every description 

Good and Correct Work Guaranteed. 734 Main Street 

Leading Industries of Hartford— continued 


Capital $3,500,000. Organized 1896 

Johk T. Underwood, Pres. DeWitt Bergen, Sec. and 


Factory: Hartford, Conn. Main Office: 241 Broadway, New York 


66 Market St. Hartford, Conn. 


WHOLESALERS and retailers in 

Rogers' Silver-Plated Ware and Sterling Silver 

repairing and replating op all kinds. 

At the Old Wm. Roger's Salesrooms. 

men and 512 wanted women. The Hart- 
ford office did the largest business, receiv- 
ing applications for employment from 137 
males and 132 females and finding situa- 
tions for 83 males and 89 females. Ninety- 
three persons wanted male help and 119 
wanted females. 

Of all applicants for -employment 78.15 
per cent were supplied with situations, 
against 78.01 per cent during the previous 
month. Of the total number applying to 
the five bureaus for help, 85.36 were 
furnished with males or females as they 
desired, against 85.39 P er cent during the 
previous month. 

Connecticut's industrial progress is in 
full proportion with the wonderful record 
that the nation has made. The chief items 
in the material wealth of the United States 
at the beginning of this year deal with 
such big figures that they are beyond the 
grasp of the ordinary comprehension. We 
will give a few: For the calendar year 
1906, pig iron and steel production each 
passed the 25,000,000-ton mark, which 


Factory: Elmwood 

C. E. Beach, Pres. E. G. Clark, Vice-Pres. 

Arthur S. Hyde, Treas. and Mgr. 

High Pressure Power Plant Piping, Pipe Coils, Feed Water 

Heaters, Condensers, Automobile Coolers, Plumbers' 

Supplies. Engineers, Pipe Benders. Brass Founders 

and Finishers, Sheet and Metal Workers 


Established 1890. Capital $5,000 

Chas. E. Billings, Pres. Silas Chapin, Jr., Vice-Pres. 

S. E. W. Bronson, Treas. and Gen. Mgr. 

W. F. Loomis, Sec. P. H. Palmer, Asst. Sec. 

Printing, Embossing, Cutting andCreasing Presses 

Machine Tools and Special Machinery 

111 to 135 SHELDON STREET, Hartford, Conn 

breaks all the records for this country. In 
each of these products the output was 
greater than that of our three nearest 
competitors combined — Great Britain, 
Germany and France. We touched the 
$100,000,000 mark in gold production, 
which was far the highest point ever 
reached by us and stands second among 
the world's gold-producing communities, 
the Rand district in the Transvaal, South 
Africa, being first, with $120,000,000 for 
1906. Our 425,000 tons of copper, worth 
$150,000,000, which breaks all the records, 
is much more than the product of all the 
rest of the world combined. Our coal 
output, worth over $500,000,000, far 
exceeds England's, which stands second 
on the list, and which stood first until we 
passed her in 1900. 

The entire mineral production of the 
country for 1906 — $1,800,000 — is twice as 
great as that of 1898, the year of the 
Spanish War; is three times as great as 
that of 1894, in the middle of Cleveland's 
second term, and is four and a half times 

Leading Industries of New London 


New London, Conn. 

Capital and Surplus - - $1,000,000 

President B. A. Armstrong 

Manufacturers of 

Embroidery Silks; Spool Sewing Silks; Machine and Buttonhole 

Twists; Silk and Satin Tailors' Linings; High Grade 

Dress Silks and Satins 


established 1 856 

190 Howard St. New London, Conn. 

gear cutting and centering machines 

Also Drill and Lathe Chucks 

iron founders 

Chucks for Use on Foot Lathes a Specialty 

Send for illustrated Catalogue. 


New Britain has a combined capital of about $15,000,000, producing manufactured goods valued at over $13,000,000 
employing about 9,000 at annual wages exceeding $4,000,000— New Britain holds distinction for patenting more 
inventions per capita than any other city in the world— Its population is about 35,000 and its annual list about 


Organized 1868. Capital $300,000 

E. H. Davison, President 
G. S. Talcott, Treasurer 

High Grade Underwear and Hosiery 


Established 1849 Capital $500,000 

Philip Corbin, President. Charles H. Parsons, First 

Vice-President. Charles E. Whetmore, Second 

Vice-President and Treasurer. Edward L. Prior, 

Assistant Treasurer. Albert N. Abbe, Secretary. 

Charles B. Parsons, Asst. Treasurer 



Incorporated 1882. Capital $200,000 

Geo. W. Corbin, President. C. H. Baldwin, Treasurer. 
W. H. Booth, Secretary. G. L. Corbin, Asst. Treasurer. 

Cabinet Locks, Padlocks, Trunk Locks, Suit Case Locks, 
Keys and Blanks, Special Hardware, House Letter Box- 
es, Rural Mail Boxes, Apartment House Letter Boxes, 
Post Office Equipments. 


Incorporated 1903 

Howard S. Hart, President. M. S. Hart, Vice- 

Pres. and Treas. Paul P. Wilcox, Asst. 

Treas. and Sec. E. H. Brandt, 

Sales Manager. 



Incorporated 1903 
Charles Glover, Pres. Clarence A. Earl, Vice-Pres. 
Theodore E. Smith, Sec. and Treas. 
William J. Surre, Asst. Sec. 
Wood, Machine, Cap and Set Screws, Stove, Tire, Sink and 
1 Machine Bolts, Special Screws of every description. Steel 
and Brass Jack Chain, Steel and Brass Escutcheon Pins, and 
The Corbin Duplex Coaster Brake. 


Incorporated 1901. Capital $150,000 

'Howard S. Hart, Prest. Norman P. Cooley, 
Treas. R. C. Twitchell, Sec. 

Wrought Steel Hot Air Registers 

Organized 1853. Capital, $1,000,000 

pHARLES F. Smith, Pres. George M. Landers, Sec. and 

Treas. Frederick A. Searle, Asst. Treas. 

James N. Stanley, Asst. Sec. 

[Table Cutlery, Household Hardware, and 
Plumbers' Brass Goods. 


Incorporated 1898. 

J. B. Minor, Pres. F. A. Porter, Sec. and 
Treas. O. Burckhardt, Asst. Sec. 

Rip Van Winkle Spring Beds 


Organized 1861. Capital $200,000 
George M. Landers, Pres. H. C. Noble, 
Vice-Pres. and Treas. E. M. Wight- 
man, Sec. 



Philip Corbin, Pres. Geo. H. Dyson, Treas. and Mgr. 

Manufacturers and Repairers of 


diamond work a specialty 



Incorporated 1851. Capital $1,000,000 
Howard S. Hart, Pres. Benjamin A. Haw- 
ley, Vice-Pres. Isaac D. Russell, Treas. 
J. H. Van Newkirk, Asst. Treas. 
Theodore E. Smith, Sec. 



Incorporated 1887. Capital $75,000 

D. N. Camp, Pres. 

D. O. Rogers, Vice-Pres. and Treas. 

E. J. Skinner, Sec. 



Organized 1853. Capital $1,000,000 

Charles E. Mitchell, Pres., Alix W. Stanley, Vice-Pres. 
and Sec, Charles B. Stanley, Treas. 



Incorporated 1852. Capital $i,oco,ooo 

Wm H. Hart, Pres. George P. Hart, 1st Vice-Pres. 

E. A. Moore, 2nd Vice-Pres. L. H". Pease, Sec. 

and Treas. H. B. Humason, Asst. Sec. 

Wrought Bronze and Steel Ball Bearing Hinges, Wrought 

Steel Butts, Hinges, Door Bolts, Shelf Brackets. Builders' 

and Shelf Hardware,— -Cold Rolled Steel. 

Leading Industries in New Britain— continuec 


Incorporated 1889. Capital $200,000 

J. A. Traut, Pres. A. C. Sternberg, Vice-Pres. G. W. 
Traut, Treas. H. C. Hine, Sec. 

Metal Trimmings for Suspenders and Garters ; 
Snap Fasteners, and Upholsterers' Nails. 

Capital $300,000 

G.W. Corbin, Pres.. A. F. Corbin, Vice-Pres., M. L. Bailey, 
Treas., H. H. Wheeler, Sec, C. S. Neumann, Ass'tSec. 

Lathe, Drill and Planer Chucks, Iron andWood 

Planes, Union Coil Door Springs, Iron, 

Brass and Copper Pumps. Also first 

quality Grey Iron Castings. 

as much as in 1884, when Cleveland was 
first elected. The total value at the 
farm of the whole of the products of the 
soil raised in 1906 was $6,800,000,000, 
which is an increase of $500,000,000 over 
1905, the year which held the record un- 
til that time. This is a long way ahead 
of the farm output of any other two 
countries in the world for the year. At 
the end of 1906 the mills and factories of 

the country have a capital of $13,000,000, 
000, employ a little over 6,000,000 pel 
sons, and these have received $3,500,000, 
000 in wages for the year, and have pre 
duced goods to the amount of $15,000. 
000,000. No other two countries in th 
world combined equalled these figures. 

On Dec. 31, 1906, , the wealth of th 
United States touched the $116,000,000, 
000 mark, and exceeded that of Grea 

Leading Industries in Danfoury 


Established 1879. Capital, about $100,000 

Members, D. E. Loewe. Martin Fuchs 


Rear River Street, D anbury, Conn. 


McAbthur Bros. 

Established 1867. Capital $50,000 

George McArthur, Supt. and Treas. 


Beaver Brook District, D anbury, Conn. 

Britain and Germany combined, which 
stand second and third on the roll 
respectively among the nations. Uncle 
Sam was in an especially joyful mood on 
Jan. 1, 1907, when he wished all the 
world a "Happy New Year." 

Money circulating in the United States 
at the beginning of this year amounted 
to $2,869,074,255 an increase of $206,- 

939,716 over twelve months ago. Tr. 
entire stock of money in the Unite 
States, in circulation and in the Treasur 
amounted to $3,211,366,789. The amoui 
held in the Treasury was $342,292,53 
very nearly all in gold. 

Money circulating in the United Stat 
on December 1, for a series of years, cor 
pares as follows: 

Leading Industries of iMidd letovin 

H. H. Francis, President 


Impervious— Hygienic— Guaranteed 



I. E. Palmer, Proprietor 

Manufacturers of 

New York Office .... 55 Worth St 


Meriden has a combined capital of about $17,000,000, producing manufactured goods valued at over $15,000,000, em- 
ploying about 8,000, with annual wages of about $4,000,000— Meriden has a grand list of about $22,000,000 and its 
population is estimated at about 35,000— Meriden is the home of the great silver-plate industries. 


Carl V. Helmschmied, Pres. and Treas., P. T. Saleski, Sec. 


Hand-Decorated Wedding and Holiday Novelties in Glass and 


In Vases, Jardinieres, Shades, Globes and Metal Bound Novelties. 


Meriden Britannia Company and Others 


Makers of Every Description of SILVERWARE and a Choice Line of 


Salesrooms: State and Adams Sts., Chicago; 9-15 Maiden Lane, 215 Fifth 

Ave., New York City; Hamilton and Toronto, Canada, and at 

Various Factories. 

General Office: 



Meriden, Conn. 


In Building Materials 


Meriden, Conn. 

Catalogues, Book and Magazine Inserts, Bird's-Eye 
Views of Manufacturing Plants. 

Correspondence on any illustrating proposition invited. 



Incorporated 1889 

Makers of FormingLathes 
and Special Machinery for 
Economical Manufactur- 
ng. Dies of every De- 
scription. Machine Tools. 




Manufacturers of 

163-169 Pratt St , Meriden, Conn. 



Established 1852. Capital $100,000 

H. H. Clark, Pres. C. H. Clark, Vice-Pres. 

E. S. Todd, Secy, and Treas. 

Washers, Rivets, Nuts, Carriage Bolts, Machine 

Bolts, Plow Bolts. Everything in the Bolt 

and Nut line 



Established 1869 

C. L. Rockwell, Pres. C. F. Rockwell, Treas. and 

Gen. Mgr. II. A. Stevens, Sec 


New York Office : 309 Broadway. 

Organized 1844 

Edward Miller, Pres. Edward Miller, Jr., Sec. and 

Treas. Benj. C. Kennard, Asst. Treas. 
Gas and Electric Portables, Gas, Kerosene, Electric and Com- 
bination Fixtures of every Description 
Lamp Burners and Trimming b, Bicycle Lanterns, Kerosene Heaters, Bronze 
Die and Mould Castings a Specialty, Brass Foundry. 

I Print My Own 

Cards, circulars, etc., with a $5 
Press. Small newspaper press, 
$18. Money saved. Money mak- 
ing business anywhere. Type- 
settiny; easy by the printed in- 
structions sent. Write to factory 
for illustrated catalog of presses, 
tvpe, paper, etc. The Press Co., 
Meriden, Conn. 




Write for samples of the New Wheeler Process. 

Business Established in 1876 

Makers of the 

Emerson- Angelus Piano, Knabe-A:n gelus Piano, Angelts 
Piano Player, Symphony Orchestral Organ 

Meriden, Connecticut 

1906 $2,869,074,255 

1905 2,662,134,539 

1904 2.573,888,367 

1903 2,449,168,418 

1902 2,3 2,710,158 

1901 2,250,256,230 

1900 2,158,761,361 

1899 1,978,528,733 

1898 $1,886,879,504 

1897 1,221,034,538 

1896 1,646,444,746 

1895 1,594.195,749 

1894 1,637,226,451 

1893 1,726,994,290 

1892 1,614.790,266 

1891 1,577,262,070 

In the closing months of last year sev- 
eral corporations announced increases in 
wages that will aggregate nearly $60,000, - 
000 this year. With the recent advances 
proposed by some of the railroads the in- 


Winsted in the township of Winchester has a combined capital of about $3,000,000, producing manufactured goods 
valued at over $3,000,000, employing about 2,000, with yearly wages of about $800,C00— Winsted has a grand list of 
about $5,000,000 and a population estimated at 11,000— It is one of the most thrifty manufacturing centers of its size 
in the state. 


Machinists and Tool Makers 

Builders op Light Power and Foot Presses, Wood 

Turning and Polishing Lathes, Drill Lathes 

and Presses and Cutlery Machinery 

All Kinds of Light Machinery and Tools Built to Order 

205 Walnut Street, Winsted, Conn. 


Established 1831 

Manufacturers op 


For Law and Blank-Book Binding 



Free: This dainty book- 
let, containing valuable 
articles on bathing and 
massage, also describing 
the wonderful VITA Hol- 
low Toothed Rubber 
Brushes. Everyone who 
values health or beauty should send. A postal will do it. If 
a Horse Lover ask for booklet HORSE SENSE, it's free. Send 
now and get the spring edition. 


Established 1807. Capital $500,000 

J. G. Woodruff, Pres. and Treas. Geo . B. Owen, Vice- 
Pres. and Gen. Mgr. E. S. Brown, Secy. 

Finished in all styles. Candelabras, Vases in Nouveau 
design, Side Urns, Ink Wells, Thermometers, Jewel Boxes, 
Mirrors, Plateaus, Mantel Ornaments, Bronze Figures 

crease in wages will jump to $100,000,000. 

Within ten years the value of property 

in the United States has doubled. Our 

national riches divided evenly would 


Bristol, Conn. 

To Order 


Established 1894 

Manufacturers of Bit Braces, Breast Drills, 

Screw Drivers, Etc. 


Salesroom, 84 Warren Street, New York 


Manufacturers of 

Electroliers, Electric Portables, Gas and Electric 
Newels and Appliances, Clocks, Metal Fancy Goods 
and Sheet Metal Work. Automobile Supplies, Etc. 

Winsted, Conn. 


Organized 1866 

Capital and Surplus $200,000 

David Strong, Pres. H. L. Roberts, Sec. and Treas. 

Fred. C. Strong, Vice-Pres. L. C. Strong, Asst. 

Sec. L. C. Colt, Agent and Asst. Treas. 



Organized 1882. Capital $300,000 

David Strong, Pres. E. B. Gaylord, Treas. 


make every man, woman and child in the 
United States worth $^,250. Divided 
among families every family would have 
more than $6,000. Such a volume of 
wealth the world has never seen before. 
And the increase continues in a swelling 

The great bulk of this wealth is accum- 
mulating in a few hands, but at the same 
time there are hundreds of thousands of 
men today who did not have a dollar ten 
years ago but who are now in comfortable 
circumstance for life. The making of one 
millionaire, means the making of many 
hundreds of " thousandaires." 

One statistician says: 

''My estimate as to wealth concentra- 
tion is that 1 per cent of the population, 
of the United States now own practically! 
90 per cent of the entire wealth of the 

"This estimate is based upon a com- 
pilation referred to by Senator Ingalls 



Established 1863. Capital $1,500,000 

Charles F Brooker, Pres. James A. Doughty, Vice-Pres. 

E. T. Cos, Treas. E. J. Steele, Secy. 

G. H. Turner, Asst. Secy. 

Brass and Copper in Sheets, Wire, Bolts, Tubes, Shells, 

also German Silver in all forms 



Established 1828. Capital $50,000 

Guilford Smith, Pres. and Treas. C. E. Orman, Vice-Pres. 

W. P. Barstow, Sec. and Mgr. 

Paper Mill Machinery, Paper Cutters, Paper Bag 
Making Machinery 



Established 1851 

Designers and Builders of Sheet Metal Working Machinery 

and Automatic Machinery 


Established 1897 


Windsor Locks, Conn. 


Established 1857. Capital $25,000 

H. C. Hakt, Pres. Ernest M. Hart, Treas. 
Willis O. Hart, Sec. 

!utlery and Hardware, Near Rubber, Near Celluoid and Near 

Bone, used In place of Pure Rubber, Pure Bone, Pure 

Celluoid, in Handles for Cutlery, Etc. 



Established 1870. Private Individual Ownership 

Card Clothing and Hand Stripping Cards for 
Cotton and Woolen Mills 




Established 1905. Capital $600,000 

Rollin S . Woodruff, Pres. Charles M, Jarvis, Vice-Pres. 

William R. Tyler, Treas. Edward S. Swift, Sec. 

Fred M. Carroll, Asst. Sec. 

The Mechanical Brain, an Adding: and Listing Machine 

Tireless— Infallible 



Established 1865. Capital, Nominal, $50,000, 

Paid in, $16,000 

Henry B. Brosvn, Pres. and Treas. G. S. Brown, Sec. 





Established 1888. Capital $105,000 

C. F. Ahlstrom, Pres. E. E. Jameson, Vice-Pres. 

Julius G. Day, Sec. and Treas. 



Established 1901. Capital $50,000 

Wallace Dann, Pres. W. A. Curtis, Treas. 

Frank Comstock, Sec. 



Established 1900. Capital $70,000 

G. E. Matthies, Pres. C. W. Michaels, Secy, and Treas. 

F. A. Perrius, Supt. 

.Eyelets, Grommets, Screw Machine Products, 

Brass and German Silver Washers 

North Main and Day Sts., Seymour, Conn. 


Main Street, Moosup, Conn. 


J. B. Tatem and J. B. Tatem, Jr. 

Established 1862. Capital $5,000 to $20,000 

Hardwood Workers, Manufacturers of all kinds of Handles 

Make a specialty of Picker Sticks, Leather Capped 

Chisel Handles and Lawn Mower Handles and Rolls 


upon the floor of the United States Senate 
January 14, 1891, as also upon the com- 
putations of Dr. Charles B. Spahr, George 
K. Holmes of the United States Census 
Bureau and other authorities, substant- 
ially uncontradicted at the time, to the 
effect that i per cent or less than i per 
cent, of our population owned in 1890 
practically half the wealth of the Nation. 

"I, however, insist that in order to 
make these statistics (of seventeen years 
ago) applicable today allowance must first 
be made for the known increase, both in 
size - and number, of the enormous fortunes 
responsible for that condition." 

The cost of living has increased with 
the new wealth, but as a whole the Amer- 
ican people have never lived better, en- 
joyed more pleasures, earned and spent 
more money, than today, and they are 
getting more out of life than other people. 


Herewith is a list of townships in Connecticut with the names of the leading manufacturing 
concerns as officially recorded with the State— According to recent Government report the 
combined capital of Connecticut industries is $373,283,580, employing 181,529 at annual wages 
of $87,942,628, and producing goods valued at $369,082,091— Concerns named in heavy type are 
presented in full detail in preceding pages. 


Case, F. L. Paper Co. 


Ansonia Brass & Copper Co. 
Ansonia Electrical Co. 
Ansonia Flour & Grain Co. 
Ansonia Manufacturing Co. 
Ansonia Novelty Co. 
Ansonia 0. & C. Co. 
Cameron, H. P. 
Coe Brass Manufacturing Co. 
Cook, H. C. & Co. 
Cook, H. C. Machine Co. 
Farrel Foundry & Machine Co. 
Gardner, J. B. Sons 
Gaylord, F. L. Co. 
Omega Steel Tool Co. 
Phelps, H. D. 
Redshaw, S. G. 
S. 0. & C. Co. 
Union Fabric Co. 


Climax Fuse Co. 


Rogers Rake Co. (Pleasant Valley) 

Beacon Falls Rubber Shoe Co. 
Bronson, Homer D. Co. 


American Bridge Co. (East Berlin) 
Am. Paper Goods Co. (Kensington) 
Berlin Construction Co. (Kensington) 
Moore, R. A. & Son, (Kensington) 
Peck, Stow & Wilcox (East Berlin) 
Seward Rubber Co., (Kensington) 


Baird Untiedt Co. 

Bethel Hat Forming Co. 

Bethel Manufacturing Co. 

Bethel Silk Co. 

Clark, Frank W. 

Ellis Wood Working Co. 

Farnum & Fairchild. 

Fountain Cigar Co. 

Higson & Co. 

Judd & Co. 

Judd & Dunning Hat Co. 

Reid, John 

Shepard, Geo. A. & Sons Co. 

Short, Edwin Hat Co. 


Fairbanks & Plainfield (Bozrahville). 
Harrison Schick & Pratt (Bozrahville). 
Palmer Bros. Co. ( Fitchville) . 


Malleable Iron Fittings Co. 


Acme Oil Engine Co. 

Acme Shear Co. 

Acme Wire Works 

Adams, A. L. 

American Corundum Co. 

American & British Manufacturing Co. 

American Graphophone Co. 

American Lacquer Co. 

American Tube & Stamping Co. 

Armstrong Manufacturing Co. 

Ashcroft Manufacturing Co. 

Atlantic Manufacturing Co. 

Atlas Shear Co. 

Automatic Machine Co. 

Automatic Scale Co. 

Baker Machine Co. 

Batcheller, George C. & Co. 

Beach, Fred F. 

Beach, J. W. 

Belknap Manufacturing Co. 

Berkshire Mills 

Benton, F. A. & Son 

Bias Narrow Fabric Co. 

Birdsey & Somers 

Blue Ribbon Horse & Carriage Co. 

Bradley, H. C. 

Braitling, Fred K. 

Bridgeport Art Glass Co. 

Bridgeport Boiler Works 

Bridgeport Brass Co. 

Bridgeport Chain Co. 

Bridgeport Coach Lace Co. 

Bridgeport Crucible Co., The 

Bridgeport Deoxidized Bronze & Metal 

Bridgeport Elastic Fabric Co. 
Bridgeport Electro Plate Co. 
Bridgeport Enamel Dial Co. 
Bridgeport Forge Co. 
Bridgeport Foundry & Machine Co. 
Bridgeport Hardware Mfg. Co. 
Bridgeport Hydraulic Co. 
Bridgeport Hat Manufacturing Co. 
Bridgeport Malleable Iron Co. 
Bridgeport Metallic Packing Co. 
Bridgeport Motor Co. Inc. 
Bridgeport Organ Co. 
Bridgeport Paper Box Co. 
Bridgeport Patent Leather Mfg. Co. 
Bridgeport Safety Emery Wheel Co. 
Bridgeport Silk Co. 
Bridgeport Type Furnishing Co. 
Bryant Electric Co. 
Bullard Machine Tool Co. 
Burns & Co. 
Burns, Silver & Co. 
Burritt, A. W. Co. 
Canfield, H. 0. 
Canfleld Rubber Co. 
Challenge Cutlery Corp. 
Columbia Nut & Bolt Co. 
Compressed Paper Box Co. 
Connecticut Clasp Co. 
Connecticut Tool Co. 
Connecticut Web Co. 
Consolidated Safety Valve Co. 
Cooper, R. H. 

Cornwall & Patterson Mfg. Co. 
Coulter & McKenzie Machinery Co. 
Crockett, David B. Co. 
Crown Corset Co. 
Crown Paper Box Co. 
Curtis & Curtis Co. 
Cylindrograph Embroidery Co. 
Donovan, P. J. Brass Foundry Co. 

Downer, Hawes & Co. 

Drouve, G. Co. The 

Eaton, Cole & Burnham Co. 

Elmwood Button Co. 

Erie, Charles 

Fairchild & Shelton 

Farist Steel Co. 

Fray, John S. & Co. 

Frederickson Bros. & Co. 

Gates Carriage Co. 

Gaynor & Mitchell Manufacturing Co. 

General Chemical Co. 

Grant Manufacturing & Machine Co. 

Hall, C. W. Carriage Co. 

Halsey, R. B. & Co. 

Hamilton, John 

Hammond Co. 

Handy & Harmon 

Hatheway Manufacturing Co. 

Hincks & Johnson 

Hoffman, Henry C. & Co. 

Hotchkiss, Edward S. 

Housatonic Rubber Works 

Hubbell, Harvey 

Hurlburt, W. S. Building Co. 

Hurwood Manufacturing Co. 

Hutchinson, Pierce & Co. 

International Silver Co. 

Ives Manufacturing Co. 

Jackson Stone Co. 

Jennings, Bros. Manufacturing Co. 

Jones, James S. H. 

Knapp, George S. 

Krause, A. L. 

Krause, W. E. 

Leeds Marine Equipment Co. 

Liberty Cycle Co. 

Locke Steel Belt Co. 

Locomobile Company of America 

Marigold-Foster Printing Co. 

Metal Ware Manufacturing Co. 

Miller, Frank, Lumber Co. 

Mills, W. S. 

Model Machine Co. 

Monumental Bronze Co. 

Moore, C. W. 

Naugatuck Valley Ice Co. 

New England Novelty Co. 

Nilson, A. H. Machine Co. 

Osborn, George R. & Co. 

Pacific Iron Works 

Palmer, N. & Co. 

Parrott Varnish Co. 

Parsons, R. E. Co. 

Peck & Lines 

Pequonnock Foundry, Inc. 

Perkins Electric Switch Mfg. Co. 

Piatt, 0. S. 

Read Carpet Co. 

Rowell, W. G. & Co. 

Royal Equipment Co. 

Salt's Textile Manufacturing Co. 

Schwab, Alois 

Schwing, John Corporation 

Sewing Machine Cabinet Co. 

Sieman Hard Rubber Corp. 

Silliman & Godfrey Co. 

Smith, E. H. H. Silver Co. 

Smith, W. A. Building Co. 

Smith & Egge Manufacturing Co 

Somers, James M. 

Special Machinery Co. 

Springfield Manufacturing Co. 

Spring Perch Co. 

Standard Card & Paper Co. 

Standard Coupler Co. 

Sterling, Hugh 

Connecticut Towns and Their Manufacturers 

Swinnerton & Sniff en Mfg. Co. 

Tait & Sons Paper Co. 

Taylor, Thomas P. 

Union Metallic Cartridge Co. 

Union Typewriter Co. 

Wakeman, Albert 

Walter, Edward P. 

Warner Bros. Co. 

Warren, Edmund 

Weildich Bros. Manufacturing Co. 

Weir, James W. 

Weld Manufacturing Co. 

Wellington & Co. 

Wheeler & Wilson Manufacturing Co. 

Wheel & Wood Bending Co. 

White Manufacturing Co. 


American Silver Co. 

Am. Bit & Auger Co. (Forestville) 

Andrews, C. E. (Forestville) 

Barnes, Wallace Co. 

Bartholomew, H. S. (Edgewood) 

Barrett, W. L. 

Birge, N. L. Sons Co. 

Blakeslee Novelty Co. 

Bristol Brass Co. 

Bristol Manufacturing Co. 

Clayton Bros. 

Dunbar Bros. 

Horton, Everett 

Horton Manufacturing Co. 

Ingraham, E. Co. 

Ladd, W. C. 

Liberty Bell Co. 

Manross, F. N. (Forestville) 

Mills, D. E. (Whigville) 

Mills, H. J. 

New Departure Manufacturing Co. 

Penfield Saw Works 

Root, C. J. 

Sessions Clock Co. (Forestville) 

Sessions Foundry Co. 

Sessions, J. H. & Son 
Smith, Ira B. 
Snvder, L. H. & Co. 
Thompson, H. C. Clock Co. 
Turner St Deegan (Edgewood* 

Turner Heater Co. 
Warner, A. H. & Co. 
Webler, B. P. 
Young Bros. (Forestville) 


Lennox Shear Co. 

Hartigan, W. R. 


Borden's Condensed Milk Co. 
Johnson, Lindell & Co. 


Cutler Mills Co. ( Packerville) 


Collins Co. The (Collinsville) 


Bevin Bros. Mfg. Co. (East Hampton) 
Brown, H. B.*Co.(E. 5 Hampt'n) 
Carpenter, L. S. & Son (E. Hampton) 
East Hampton Bell Co. (E. Hampton) 
Gong Bell Mfg. Co. (East Hampton) 
Hill, N. N. Brass Co. (East Hampton) 
Star Bros. Bell Co. (East Hampton) 
Summit Thread Co. (East Hampton) 
Tibbals Oakum Co. (Cobalt) 


Ball & Socket Mfg. Co. (West Ches.) 
Cheshire Brass Co. (W. Cheshire) 
Harry, James W. & Son (W. Cheshire) 
Hubbell, M. B. & F. S. 


Bates, C. J. 

Brooks, M. S. & Sons 

Chester Manufacturing Co. 

Deuse, J. S. 

Ferguson, J. R. & Co. 

Jennings, Russell Manufacturing Co. 

Rogers Brush Works 

Ryan, M. L. 


Brown Bros. (Comstock Bridge) 
Norton, C. H. (No. Westchester) 


Case Leather Works (Hop River) 

Mallison, C. Co. (West Cornwall) 


Armstrong, Henry (South Coventry) 
Dady, John A. (S. Coventry) 
Kingsbury Box & Printing Co. (S. 

Tracy, E. A. (South Coventry) 
Washburn, A. & Son Co. (S. Coventry) 
Wood, T. H. (South Coventry) 


Stevens, J. & E. Co. 


American Hatters' & Furriers' Corp. 
Armstrong, Isaac & Co. 
Barnum, Elmer H. 

Beaver Brook Paper Mill 

Beltaire Bros. & Co. 

Boesch Manufacturing Co. 

Brainard & Wilson Co. 

Clark Box Co. 

Connett Hat Co. 

Danbury Brass Works 

Danbury Co. 

Danbury Medical Printing Co. 

Danbury Shirt Co. 

Davenport, A. S. 

Delohery Hat Co. 

Doran Bros. 

Ferry-Hallock Co. 

Foster Bros. 

Green, John W. & Sons, Inc. 

Green Soft Hat Manufacturing Co. 

Hawes Von Gal Co. 

Heim Machinery Co. 

Hoffman, C. A. 

Holley, S. C. & Co. 

Horch, C. M. 

Hoyt, Walthausen & Co. 

Irving, J. G. 

Kinner, Geo. A. 

Lee Hat Manufacturing Co. 

Lee Soft Hat Co. 

Loewe, D. F. & Co. 

Mallory, E. A. & Sons 

McArthur Bros. 

McLachlan, H. 

Meeker Bros. & Co. 

Millard Hat Co. 

Morelock & Husk 

Murphy, J. B. & Co. 

National Hat Co. 

New Machine Co. 

Neff, T. W. & Co. 

Peck Fur Co. 

Robinson Fur Cutting Co. 

Rogers Silver Plate Co. 

Romans, C. A. 

Roth, Max 

Bundle & White 

Russell, Tomlinson Electric Co. 

S. A. G. Hat Co. 

Sherman, George B. 

Simon & Keane 

Simon, Philip 

Sunderland, W. W. 

Turner Machine Co. 

Tweedy, A. E. 

Tweedy, F. D. & Co. 

Vass Chemical Co. 

Young, P. & Sons 


(See Saybrook.) 


Ailing, A. H. & C. B. 

Birmingham Iron Foundry. 

Brewester Corset Co. 

Derby Comb Co. 

Graham Manufacturing Co. 

Howe Manufacturing Co. 

Kelly, Fergus. 

Morse, E. A. 

Patrick, N. J. 

Peterson Hendee Co. 

Sterling Co. The. 

Sterling Pin Co. 

U. S. Rapid-Fire Gun & Power Co. 

Whitlock Print. Press Mfg. Co. 

Williams Typewriter Co. 


Merriam Manufacturing Co. 


Tatem, M. E. 


Brockway & Meckinsturn (Moodus) 
Brownell, C. E. & Co. (Moodus) 
Hall, Lincoln & Co. (Moodus) 
Neptune Twine & Cord Mills (Moodus) 
New York Net k Twine Co. (Moodus) 
Purple, A. E. (Moodus) 


Case k Marshall, (Woodland Mill) 
East Hartford Mfg. Co., (Burnside) 
Taylor-Atkins Paper Co. (Burnside) 
Walker, J. H. (Burnside) 


Niantic Manufacturing Co. 


Broad Brook Co. (Broad Brook) 
Warehouse Pt. Silk Co. (W'house Pt.) 


Bridge, A. D. (Hazardville) 
Bushnell Press Co. (Thompsonville) 
Gordon Bros., (Hazardville) 
Hartford Carpet Co. (Thompsonville) 
Stowe, J. D. & Son, (Scitico) 
Upson, Martin Co., (Thompsonville) 
Westfield Plate Co., (Thompsonville) 


Comstock, Cheney & Co. (Ivoryton) 
Conn. Valley Mfg. Co. (Center Brook) 
Dickerson, E. E. & Co. 
Essex Wood Turning Co. 


Industrial Strength of Connecticut 

Lenifect Co. 

Looby & Fargo (Center Brook) 

Tiley, Pratt & Co. 


Fairfield Motor Co. 
Fairfield Rubber Co. 
Jeliff, C. O. Mfg. Corp (Southport) 


Am. Writ'g. Paper Co. (Unionville) 
Broadbent, J. & Son, (Unionville) 
Case Mfg. Co. (Unionville) 
H. C. Hart Mfg. Co. (Unionville) 

Jones, R. F. (Unionville) 

Monce, S. G. (Unionville) 

Taft, Geo. E. (Unionville) 

Union Cut. & Hdw. Co. (Unionville) 

Upson Nut Co. (Unionville) 


Conn. River Spar Mill (So. Glast'by) 
Crosby Mfg. Co. (East Glastonbury) 
Glastonbury Knit. Co. (Addison) 
Glazier, Franklin & Son (Hopewell) 
Naubuc Paper Co. 
Riverside Paper Mfg. Co. 
Roser, Herman, (East Glastonbury) 
Wausuc Mills Co. (Hopewell) 
Williams Bros. Mfg. Co. 
Williams, J. B. Co. The 


American Felt Co. (Glenville) 

Brooklyn Ry. Supply Co. (Mianus) 

Brush, Joseph 

Greenwich Yacht Yard. 

Palmer Bros. (Cos Cob & Mianus) 

Reynolds, G. M. (Glenville) 

R., B. & W. Bolt & Nut Co. (GlenviP) 


American Thread Co., (Glasco) 
Ashland Cotton Co. (Jewett City) 
Aspinock Co. (Jewett City) 
Burleson, A. B. & Co. (Jewett City) 
Jewett City Textile Nov. Co. (Jew.C.) 
Slater, Wm. A. Mills, (Jewett City) 


Eastern Ship Building Co. 
Palmer, Rob't & Son Co. (Noank) 
Salter, John & Son. 


Case, O. D. Co. 
Guilford Wheel Mfg. Co. 
Knowles-Lombard Co. 
Sachem's Head Canning Co. 
Spencer, I. S. Sons 


Cutaway Harrow Co. (Higganum) 
Higganum Hardware Co. (Higganum) 
Russell Mfg. Co. (Higganum) 


Cook, Willis Miller (Mt. Carmel) 
Henry, J. T. Mfg. Co. 
New Haven Web Co. (Centerville) 
Mt. Carmel Bolt Co. (Mt. Carmel) 
Woodruff, W. W. & Son (Mt. Carmel) 


Andrews & Peck Co. 
Aetna Stamp Works 
Andrews, S. M. 

Arknot Co. 

Atlantic Screw Works 

Austin Organ Co. 

Baker Electric Co. 

Barber Ink Co. 

Barrett Bros. 

Beach, H. B. & Son 

Becher & Eitel 

Beseman & Bostwick 

Billings & Spencer Co. 

Birkery, C. 

Bishop, E. C. & Co. 

Bladon, G. L. 

Blake, E. J. 

Brewing Appliance Spec. Co. 

Bronson & Robinson Co. 

Burch, George W. 

Burr Index Co. 

Burr, J. B. & Co., Inc. 

Calhoun Show Print Co. 

Callaghan, C. J. 

Capewell Horse Nail Co. 

Capitol Foundry Co. 

Case, Lockwood & Brainard Co. 

Cheney Bros. 

Clark, Edred W. 

Colt's Pat. Fire Arms Mfg Co. 

Conn. Steel & Wire Co. 

Cook, Asa S. Co. 

Cook, Charles C. 

Cooley & Trevor Mfg. Co. 

Craig, J. M. 

Cushman Chuck Co. 

Daniels, L. C, Grain Co. The 

Daniels Mill Co. The 

Davis, I. B. & Son, 

Dodd Lithographic Co 

Dresser, Charles H. & Co. 

Electric Vehicle Co. 

Evarts Machine Co 

Fenn-Sadler Machine Co. 

Fernside, G. W. 

Franklin Electric Mfg. Co. 

French, H. A. 

Garvan, P. 

Ger & Posner 

Gerstein, I. 

Gray & Prior Machine Co. 

Gray Tel. Pay Station Co. 

Green & Bauer 

Harman, H. 

Harriman Motor Works 

Hart & Hegeman Mfg. Co. 

Hart Mfg. Co. The 

Hartford Bedstead Co. 

Hartford Board Co. 

Hartford Box Co. 

Hartford Builders' Finish Co. 

Hartford Dairy Co. 

Hartford Electric Machine Repair Co. 

Hartford Engine Works 

Hartford Engraving Co. 

Hartford Faience Co. 

Hartford Foundry Corp. 

Hartford Hat & Cap Co. 

Hartford Heating Co. 

Hartford Leather Goods Co. 

Hartford Lumber Co. 

Hartford Mach. Screw Co. 

Hartford Manufacturing Co. 

Hartford Mattress Co. 

Hartford & New York Trans. Co. 

Hartford Pattern & Model Co. 

Hartford Printing Co. 

Hartford Pulp Plaster Corp. 

Hartford Rubber Works 

Henry & Wright Mfg. Co. 

Hitchcock & Curtiss Knitting Co. 

Hoadley, E. J. 

Hogan Mfg Co. 

Hotchkiss, E. E. 

Howard, James L. & Co. 

Jacobs Mfg. Co. 

Jewell Belting Co. 

McClary, John Wood Working Co. 

Jewell Pin Co. 

Johns-Pratt Co. 
Johnson-Carlyle Machine Co. 
Johnson, F. G. Co. 
Jones, O. H. 
Kelley Bros. 
Kellogg & Bulkeley Co. 
Knox, Frank J. Co. 
Laragy, P. 
Law, F. A. 

Legate Manufacturing Co. 

Leschke & Pletcher 
Levy & Hurwitz 
Lippman, B. & Son 
Little, H. B. & Co. 
Lockwood, William H. 
Loveland, A. C. & Co. 

Maslen, Stephen Corp. 
McCue, C. T. Co. 
McKone Bros. 
McNie, Malcolm 
Melrose Silver Co. 

Merrow Machine Co. 

Mugford, A. 
Mutual Machine Co. 

National Machine Co. 

Ney, John M. & Co. 

Nichols Paper Box Co. 

Nonotuck Silk Co. 

Olds, William & Co. 

Organ Power Co. 

Park Knitting Works 

Pease, C. A. & Co. 

Peck, R. S. & Co. 

Perkins Corp. 

Phoenix Brass Foundry Co. 

Phoenix Iron Works Corp. 

Phoenix Manufacturing Co. 

Pickering, W. H. & Co. 

Pindar, A. Corp. 

Plimpton Mfg. Co. 

Pope Manufacturing Co. 

Pratt & Cady Co. 

Pratt & Whitney Co. 

James Pullar & Co. 

Purvis, Adam 

Remsen Mfg. Co. The 

Resnik, P. 

Rhodes, L. E. 

Richman, Jacob M. 

Rockwell, J. W. 

Rogers, S. L. & G. H. Co. 

Schwartz, Myers & Gross 

Shea, C. W. 

Sigourney Tool Co. 

Silver Bros. 

Simons & Fox 

Slate, Dwight, Machine Co. 

Smith, Northam & Co. 

Smith-Worthington Co. 

Soby, Charles 

Spencer Automatic Screw Co. 

Springer, E. O. 

Standard Co. 

Standard Foundry Co. 

Sterling Blower & Pipe Mfg. Co. 

Stoddard & Caulkins 

Swift, M. & Sons 

Talcott, William H. 

Taylor, Edwin Lumber Co. 

Taylor Mfg. Co. 

Thompson, John Press Co. 

Topping Bros. 

Tucker, W. W. & C. F. 

Tuttle Plating Co. 

Underwood TypewritV Mfg.Co. 

U. S. Env. Co. (Plimpton Dir.) 

Vanderbeek Tool Works 

Veeder Manufacturing Co. 

Whitlock Coil Pipe Co. 

Whittemore, W. L. & Son 

Whitnej' Manufacturing Co. 

Wiley, William H. & Son Co. 

Williams & Carleton Co. 

Windsor Cut Stone Co. 

Connecticut Towns and Their Manufacturers 


Turner, P. W. (Turnerville) 

Adams Mfg. Co. (Shelton) 
Bassett, D. M. Bolt Works (Shelton) 
Bassett, R. N. Co. (Shelton) 
Birmingham Brass Co. (Shelton) 
Blumenthal, S. & Co. (Shelton) 
Dairy Mach. & Con. Co. (Shelton) 
Derby Rubber Co. (Shelton) 
Griffin Button Co. (Shelton) 
Huntington Piano Co. (Shelton) 
International Silver Co. (Shelton) 
Meyer Iron & Brass Foundry (Shelton) 
National Fold. Box & Paper Co. 

O. K. Tool Holder Co. (Shelton) 
Radcliffe Bros. (Shelton) 
Shelton Co. (Shelton) 
Silver Plate Cutlery Co. (Shelton) 
Specialty Weaving Co. (Shelton) 
Star Pin Co. (Shelton) 
United Box Board & Paper Co. 

Whitcomb Met. Bedstead Co. (Shelton) 
Whitlock Ptg. Pres Co. (Shelton) 


Arnold, 0. S. (Williamsville) 
Assawaga Co. (Dayville) 
Attawaugan Co. (Attawaugan) 
Brigham Woolen Co. (Elmville) 
Danielsonville Cotton Co. (Danielson) 
Danielson Worsted Co. (Danielson) 
Davis & Brown Woolen Co. (Dayville) 
Jacobs, E. H. Mfg. Co. (Danielson) 
Larkin Reed Co. (Danielson) 
Marcus M. H. & Bros. (Elmville) 
Nichols, James A. (Danielson) 
Pequot Worsted Co. (Danielson) 
Quinebaug Co. (Danielson) 
Smith, Fred R. (E. Killingly) 
Thayer Woolen Co. (Elmville) 
Williamsville Mfg Co. (Williamsville) 


Bantam Mfg. Co. (Bantam) 
Echo Farm Corp. (Bantam) 
Flynn & Doyle (Bantam) 
Northfield Knife Co. (Northfield) 


Taylor, H. E. & Co.(Hadlyme) 


American Writing Paper Co. 

Bon Ami Co. 

Brookside Paper Co. (So. Man) 

Case, Willard A. 

Case Bros. (Highland Park) 

Cheney Bros. (So. Man.) 

Foulds, William Co. 

Glastonbury Knit. Co. (Mchr. Green) 

Hilliard, E. E. Co. (Buckland) 

Lydall & Foulds Paper Co. 

Lydall, H. & Foulds 

Norton Elec. Instrument Co. 

Robertson, J. T. Co. 

Rogers Paper Mfg. Co. (So. Man) 

Spring Silk Co. (So. Man. ) 

Treat, Orion 


Hanks, O. G. (Spring Hill) 

Kirby, G. J. Co. (Mansfield Hollow) 

McFarland, James S. (Mansfield C'ter) 

Mansfield Organ Pipe Co. (M'fid Dep.) 

Pollock, M. (Conantville) 

Ross, John L. (Eagleville) 

Smith, E. L. (Gurleyville) 


Aeolian Co. 

Bergen, J. D. Co. 

Bliss, E. A. Co. 

Bradley & Hubbard Mfg. Co. 

Brown & Dowd Mfg. Co. 

Conn. Tel. & Elec. Co. 

Cornell & Andrews 

Curtiss- Way Co. 

Dodd, Chas. T. 

Doolittle, E. J. 

Foster-Merriam & Co. 

Fox, C. F. 

Griswold, Richmond & Glock Co. 

Hall, A. J. & Co. 

Hall, W. B. 

Handel Co. 

Helmschmied Mfg. Co. 

International Silver Co. 

Jones, A. H. Co. 

Kelsey Press Co. 

Lines, H. Wales Co. 

Manning, Bowman & Co. 

Meriden Curtain Fixture Co. 

Meriden Cut Glass Co. 

Meriden Cutlery Co. 

Meriden Fire Arms Co. 

Meriden Gravure Co. 

Meriden Machine Tool Co. 

Meriden Woolen Co. 

Merriam, A. H. 

Miller Bros. Cutlery Co. 

Miller, Edward & Co. 

Monroe, C. F. Co. 

Morehouse Bros. Co. 

Niland, J. J. & Co. 

Parker Bros. 

Parker, Charles Co. 

Parker Clock Co. 

Schenck, M. B. & Co. 

Schenck Governor Co. 

Schunuck, C. E. 

Silver City Plate Co. 

Sprenenberg & Co. 

Todd Electric Mfg Co. 

Wallace, F. J. 

Wheeler, F. & Son 

Wheeler, W. W. Co. 

Wilcox & White Co. 

Wusterbarth Bros. 


Lvman Gun Sight Works 
Rogers Mfg. Co. (Rockfall) 
Russell Mfg. Co. (Rockfall) 
Smith, Otis A. (Rockfall) 


Arawana Mills 

Allison Bros. 

Annual Wind Clock Co. 

Broderick Carriage Co. 

Chapman, W. H. Co. 

Coles & Co. 

Douglass, W. fe B. 

Eisenhuth Horsel. ?s Vehicle Co. 

Ely, E. A. 

Evans, J. B. 

Goodall Hammocif ' x). 

Goodyear Rubber Co. 

Hubbard, H. W. 

Keating Motor Co. 

Kirby Manufacturing Co. 

Leeds & Catlin Co. 

Loewenthal, Gustav 

Meech & Stoddard 

Merchant Silk Co. 

Middletown Silver Co. 

New England Enameling Co. 

Omo Manufacturing Co. 

Polton & King 
Portland Silk Co. 
Read, A. O. Co. 
Rockfall Woolen Co. 

Rogers & Hubbard Co. 

Russell Manufacturing Co. 

Smith, J. O. Mfg. Co. (Little River) 

Tryon, Jasper 

Warner, M. R. & Sons (Little River) 

Watrous, C. H. 

Wilcox, Crittenden & Co. 


Reeves Manufacturing Co. 
Rostand Manufacturing Co. 
Vanderheof & Co. 


Kaplan Bros. (Chesterfield) 

Massasoit Mfg. Co. (Oakdale) 

Monarch Woolen Mill 

Palmer Bros Co. 

l'equot Mills 

Robertson, C. M. Co. 

Un. Dyn Wood & Ext, Co. (Uncasville) 

Uncasville Mfg. Co. (Uncasville) 


Diamond Labratory Co. (Union City) 
Dunham Hosiery Co. 
Goodyear's India Rub. Glove Mfg. Co. 
Goodyear's Metallic Rubber Shoe Co. 
Metal Finishing Co. ('Union City) 
Naugatuck Chemical Co. 
Naugatuck Mfg. Co. (Union City) 
Naugat'ck Mall. Iron Co. (Union City) 
United States Rubber Co. 
Russell, J. W. Manufacturing Co. 
Smith, E. F. & Sons (Union City) 
White & Wells Co. 


Adkins Printing Co. 

American Artificial Stone Co. 

American Hosiery Co. 

American Needle Works 

Beaton & Bradley Co. 

Brady, T. H. 

Corbin Cabinet Lock Co. 

Corbin, H. H. & Son 

Corbin Motor Vehicle Corp. 

Corbin, P. & F. 

Corbin Screw Corp. 

Curtis, O. F. 

Donahue, J. D. 

Flannery, P. J. 

Hart & Cooley Co. 

FTumason & Beckley Mfg. Co. 

Judd, O. S. 

Landers, Frary & Clark 

Lines, C. W. 

Malleable Iron Works 

Minor & Corbin Box Co. 

Muller, L. J. 

National Spring Bed Co. 

New Britain Co-op. Building Co. 

New Britain Machine Co. 

New Britain Planing & Mldg. Wks. 

North & Judd Mfg. Co. 

North & Pfeiffer Manufacturing Co. 

Olmstead, H. B. Co. 

Parker Shirt Co. 

Pinches, John Co. 

Porter & Dyson Co. 

Riley & Beckley Manufacturing Co. 

Roach, William 

Russell & Erwin Mfg. Co. 

Skinner Chuck Co. 

Stanley Rule & Level Co. 

Stanley Works 

Taplin Manufacturing Co. 

Traut & Hine Mfg. Co. 

Union Manufacturing Co. 

Vnlcan Iron Works 

White, C. J. & Co. 

Industrial Strength of Connecticut 


Benedict & Co. 
Jeliff, C. 0. & Co. 
Lane, Frank I. 
Rockwell Bros. 


Bancroft, George W. 
Chapin-Stevens Co. (Pine Meadow) 
Smith, D. P. & Son Co. (Pine Meadow) 
Standard Brush Co. 


Acme Wire Co. 

Adlerhurst Iron Co. 

Ailing, Geo. Sons Co. 

American Rivet Co. 

Anthony & Scovil Co. 

Armstrong, M. & Co. 

Atlas Manufacturing Co. 

Baldwin & Rowland Sw'ch & Signal Co. 

Barnes Tool Co. 

Barnum, S. H. 

Barnum, W. T. & Co. 

Bates, L. C. & Co. 

Baumann Rubber Co. 

Bel den Machine Co. (Westville) 

Benham, J. T. 

Benton-Armstrong Folding Box Co. 

Best Manufacturing Co. 

Bigelow Co. 

Bird, C. H. Co. 

Bishop Box & Paste Co. 

Boyer, G. W. 

Bradley, Smith & Co. 

Brett, E. P. 

Brooks, C. J. 

Brooks Corset Co. 

Brown, R. H. & Co. 

Brown & Stoddard Co. 

Buckingham Routh Co. 

Burgess, E. A. 

Burn, W. S. Manufacturing Co. 

Candee, L. & Co. 

Capasso, A. 

Carroll, F. M. 

Cashin Card & Glazed Paper Co. 

Celluloid Starch Co. 

Clark, David H. Co. The 

Coe & Brown 

Columbia Hosiery Co. 

Conn. Adamant Plaster Co. 

Conn. Computing Co. 

Conn. Fat Rend. & Fert. Corp. 

Conn. Pants Mfg. Co. 

Cott-A-Lap Co. 

Cowles, C. & Co. 

Crampton, J. M. 

Cronan, P. J. Paper Box Co. 

Curtiss & Pierpont Co. 

Dann Bros. & Co. 

Davis, R. G. 

Defiance Button Machine Co. 

Demarest, A. T. & Co. 

Dillon & Douglas 

Dorm an Lithograph Co. 

Doroff, M. S. 

Douglass, B. H. & Co. 

Doyle, John T. Co. 

Druen, B. 

Eastern Machinery Co. 

Economy Manufacturing Co. 

Elm City Engineering Co. 

Elm Citv Lumber Co. 

Ely, C. Upham 

Everhart Pop Corn & Candy Co. 

Faeth, Anton 

Fair Haven Art Glass Co. 

Falcon Rubber Co. 

Farren Bros. Co. 

Fitch, W. & E. T. Co. 

Fitzmorris, Robert 

Flanagan, Matthew 

Foskett & Bishop Co. The 

Frank enberger, H. & Co. 

Geometric Tool Co. (Westville) 

Gibbs, H. J. 

Gilbert Manufacturing Co. 

Globe Silk Works 

Goodrich, J. F. & Co. 

Graham, James & Co. 

Graves, F. D. 

Green, J. F. 

Griest, Mfg. Co. (Westville) 

Griffith, J. H. & Sons 

Grilley Co. The 

Griswold, George M. 

Hauff, F. A. 

Hall, H. & Co. 

Harris- Hart Co. 

Hemming Bros. 

Hendryx, Andrew B. Co. 

Henn, A. S. & Co. 

Herrick & Cowell 

Hickok Co. 

Hoggson & Pettis Mfg. Co. 

Holaday, A. E. Manufacturing Co. 

Holcomb, H. C. 

Hooker, Henry & Co. 

Howard Co. 

Howe & Co. 

Habbeli, M. B., F. S. 

Iiubbell, Merwin & Co. 

Hygienic Ice Co. 

Ideal Manufacturing Co. 

Imperial Granum Co. 

Ives, H. B. & Co. 

Jacobs Bros. & Co. 

Johnstone & Gerrish 

Kafka, A. & Co. 

Kilborn & Bishop Co. 

Kil feather, John P. 

Killam, Henry Co. 

Kutchuck, J. 

Lambert, George D. 

Levine Bros. 

Magnus Metal Co. 

Mallory, Wheeler Co. 

Manning, C. M. 

Marlin Fire Arms Co. The 

McKenzie, George M. 

McLagon Foundry Co. 

Metal Manufacturing Co. 

Miner & Peck Mfg. Co. 

Moffat, W. J. 

Molloy, James F. & Co. 

Morgan & Humiston Co. 

Munson & Co. 

Narrow Fabric Corp. 

National Casket Co. 

National Folding Box & Paper Co. 

National Pipe Bending Co. 

National Steel Foundry Co. 

National Wire Corp. 

New England Broom Co. 

New England Dairy Corp. 

New England Mfg. Co. 

New England Stool Co. 

New England Stone Co. 

New England Warp Co. 

New Era Lustre Co. 

New Haven Awning & Dec'g. Co. 

New Haven Boiler Works 

New Haven Button Co. 

New Haven Carriage Co. 

New Haven Clock Co. 

New Haven Iron & Steel Co. 

New Haven Manufacturing Co. 

New Haven Pulp & Board Co. 

New Haven Rendering Co. 

New Haven Rug Co. 

New Haven Saw Mill Co. 

New Haven Spring Co. 

New Haven Toy & Game Co. 

New Haven Upholstering Co. 

Newman, I. & Sons 

North, O. B. &. Co. 

Norton Bros. & White Co. 

Ochsner, A. & Sons Co. 

Oriental Emery Co. 

Osterweiss, L. k Sons 

Page, Samuel K. 

Parker, Jos. & Son Co. (Westville) 

Peck Bros. & Co. 

Peckham, John A. 

Perpente Manufacturing Co. 

ar, F. P. & Son 
Phillips, Thos. & Son 
Prentice, George G. & Co. 
Price, Lee & Adkins Co. 
Rattan Manufacturing Co. 
Reade, Chas. W. Button Co. 
Recording Fare Register Co. 
Kemfler & Thompson 
Revnolds Brass Foundry 
Reynolds & Co. 
Reynolds, James Mfg. Co. 
Rottman, B. 
Rowland, F. C. & A. E. 
Sargent & Co. 
Savage, B. B. & Co. 
Schollhorn, William Co. 
Scoville & Peck Co. 
Seabrook & Smith Cariage Co. 
Seamless Rubber Co. 
Setlow, M. & Son 
Seward, M. & Son Co. 
Sheahan & Groark 
Sheldon, E. B. Co. 
Shepard, H. G. & Sons 
Shoninger, B. Co. 
Shuster, F. B. Co. 
JSinnith, A. H. & Co. 
Ifeiith, Edward F. & Co. 
Smith, E. S. 
Smith's, H. Sons. 
Smith, Hobart E. 
Smith, William A. T. 
Smith, W. J. & Co. 
Smith & Twiss 
Snow, L. T. 
iSperry & Amos Co. 
Uteinertone Co. 
Stevens & Sackett Co. 
Stiles, A. C. Anti-Friction Metal Co. 
Birouse, Adler & Co. 
otrouse, I. & Co. 
Ten Brock, George A. & Co. 
Thompson, H. G. & Son 
Todd, Henry H. 
Todd, James E. 

Tuttle, Morehouse & Taylor Co. 
Valley Farm Creamery Co. 
Warner, G. F. Mfg. Co. 
Weil Novelty Co. 
Wilbur Corp. The 
Wilson, Robert 
Williams, F. E. Co. 
Winchester Repeating Arms Co. 
Yale Gas Stove Co. 
Yale Univ. Carpenter's Shop 
Yudkin, Samuel 


Newington Paper Co. 


Bingham Paper Box Co. 
Boss, C. D. & Son 

Brainard Sc Armstrong Co, 

Brown Cotton Gin Co. 

Buckley, M. D. 

Chappell, F. H. & A. H. Co. 

Douglass, H. R. 

Fowler, F. C. 

Heath & Hawthorn 

Hopson, Chapin Mfg. Co. 

Ladd, F. M. 

New England Carpet Lining Co. 

New London Electro Plating Co. 

New London Marine Iron Works 

New London Motor Co. 

New London Vise Works 

New London Wash Silk Co. 

Palmer Bros. Co. 

Rogers, William G. 

Sheffield Dentrifice Co. 

Spiers Bros. 

Steam Bottling Co. 

Thames Tow Boat Co. 

Trumbull Marine Co. 

Tyler, George G. 

Whiton, D. E. Machine Co* 

Connecticut Towns and Their Manufacturers 


Bridgeport Wood Finishing Co. 
Eastern Lounge Co. 
Mew Milford Hat Co. 
Worthrop, J. A. & Son 


Borden's Condensed Milk Co. 
Crowe, Patrick (Botsford P. 0.) 
Curtiss, S. & Son 

Fabric Fire Hose Co. (Sandy Hook) 
S. H. Reclaiming Wks. (Sandy Hook) 


Aetna Silk Co. 

Norfolk & New Brunswick Hosiery Co. 


Barnum, Richardson Co. (E. Canaan) 


American Paper Pail & Box Co. 

Arnold Co. Inc. 

Artistic Bronze Co. (S. Norwalk) 

Automatic tool Co. (E. Norwalk) 

Austin & Craw (S. Norwalk) 

Barthol, Otto Co. (S. Norwalk) 

Bates, Martin, Jr. & Co. (S. Norwalk) 

Binns, Joseph 

Boese, Peppard & Co. (S. Norwalk) 

Carman & Seymour (E. Norwalk) 

Colonial Foundry & Mach. Co. (East 

Craw, J. W. (S. Norwalk) 
Crofut & Knapp Co. (S. Norwalk) 
Dennis & Blanchard (S. Norwalk) 
Eastern Underwear Co. (S. Norwalk) 
Excelsior Rug. Co. (E. Norwalk) 
Fernandez & Earnst Cigar Co. (South 

Hatch, Bailey & Co. (S. Norwalk) 
Hat Forming Co. (S. Norwalk) 
Hodson, A. A. & Co. (S. Norwalk) 
Hotchkiss, E. H. & Co. 
Hubbell, W. B. (S. Norwalk) 
Hutchinson, Pierce & Co. 
Jerome Paper Co. 
Knapp Box Co. (S. Norwalk) 
Le Count, Wm. G. (E. Norwalk) 
Lockwood Mfg. Co. (S. Norwalk) 
Loth, Joseph & Co. 
Lounsbury, Bissel & Co. (Winnipauk) 
Lounsbury, Matthewson Co. (S.N'wk) 
Malkin, A. R. 

Mather, H. W. (S. Norwalk) 
Meeker Union Foundry Corp. 
McKibben, Geo. N. Mfg. Co. (S.N'wk) 
Miller, J. W. (S. Norwalk) 
Muller Gloria Mills (Winnipauk) 
New England Food Co. (E. Norwalk) 
Nichols Underwear Corp. (S. N'wk) 
Norwalk Box Co., (S. Norwalk.) 

Norwalk Brass Co, 

Norwalk Launch Company 
Norwalk Mills Co. (Winnipauk) 
Noiwalk Tron Works (S. Norwalk) 
Norwalk Lock Co. (S. Norwalk) 
Old Well Cigar Co. (S. Norwalk) 
Phoenix Fur Co. (S, Norwalk) 
Postal Typewriter Company 
Rough Hat Co. (S. Norwalk) 
R. & G. Corset Co. (S. Norwalk) 
Simons, Ernest Manufacturing Co. 
8t. George Pulp & Paper Co. 
St. Johns, Chas. S. (S. Norwalk) 
Trowbridge, C. S. (S. Norwalk) 
fluttle, H. A. Mfg. Co. (E. Norwalk) 
V. S. Alcohol Refining Co. (S. N'wk) 
IJ. S. Foundry & Sales Co. (S. N'wk) 
Universal Hat Co. (S. Norwalk) 
Volk Hat Co. (S. Norwalk) 
Waldron & Riordan (S. Norwalk) 

Walhizer & Dreyer (S. Norwalk) 
Wheeler, A. C. 
Wheeler Bros. (S. Norwalk) 
Wilson, J. C. & Co. (S. Norwalk) 


American Wood Work. Machine Co. 

Barber, M. A. 

Bard, Union Company 

Blissville Mills, Inc. 

Brown, Robert 

Chelsea File Works 

Clinton Mills Company 

Crescent Fire Arms Company 

Davenport, W. H. Fire Arms Co. 

Dawley, H. F. & A. J. 

Falls Company 

Gilbert, N. S. & Sons 

Givernaud Bros. 

Glen Woolen Mills 

Goodwin Cork Company 

Gould, A. 

Green, M. J. 

Gulliver, A. H. 

Hall Bros. 

Hiscox, James A. 

Hiscox Company 

Hopkins & Allen Arms Company 

Hubbard, A. H. Company 

International Silver Company 

Johnson & Company 

Kellogg-McCrum-Howell Company 

Kuebler, C. A. 

Lester & Wasley 

Manning, A. R. (Yantic) 

Martin, J. B. Company 

Mohawk Paint & Chemical Co. 

Norwich Belt Manufacturing Co. 

Norwich Nickel & Brass Company 

Norwich Paper Box Company 

Norwich Silk Company 

Ossawan Mill Company 

Page, Wm. H. Boiler Company 

Pequot Brass Foundry 

Ponemah Mills (Taftville) 

Porter, H. B. & Son Company 

Prentice, C. W. (Taftville) 

Puritan Manufacturing Company 

Quinlan, John C. 

Reliance Worsted Company 

Ring, M. B. 

Scott & Clark Corp. 

Shetucket Company 

Stetson, V. S. 

Strom, Peter 

Thames Arms Manufacturing Co. 

Tobin Manufacturing Company 

Turner, Emerson P. Manufacturing Co. 

Ulmer Leather Company 

Uncas Paper Company 

Uncas Specialty Company 

United States Finishing Company 

Vaughn Foundry Company, Inc. 

Yantic Woolen Co. (Yantic) 


American Buckle Co. (W. Haven) 
Mathushek Piano Mfg. Co. (W. H.) 
Sanderson Fertilizer & Chemical Co. 
West Haven Buckle Co. (W. Haven) 
West Haven Mfg. Co. (West Haven) 
Wire Novelty Co. The (W. Haven) 
Yale Safe & Iron Co. (W. Haven) 


Aldrich, Mfg. Co. (Moosup) 

American Woolen Co. (Moosup) 

Babcock, W. P. 

Cranska, Floyd (Moosup) 

Lees, W. S. Co. (Central Village) 

Plainfield Woolen Co. (Cent. Village) 

Torrey, Bros & Co. (Central Village) 

Wauregan Company (Wauregan) 


Bristol Manufacturing Company 

Calor, C. H. 

Carter, E. T. 

Carter, L. H. 

Clark, A. N. & Son 

Clark Castor Company 

Elm City Brass & Rivet Company 

Hills, Edwin 

Lamb, B. & Company 

Norton & Jones 

Osborne & Stephenson Mfg. Company 

Trumbull Electric Co. 


Cooper, D. G. (Terryville) 
Eagle Lock Co. (Terryville) 
Greystone Mfg. Co. (Greystone) 
Terry, Andrew Co. (Terryville) 


Brainerd, Shaler & Hall Quartz Co. 
Gildersleeve, S. & Sons (Gildersleeve) 
Ideal Mfg. Co. (Gildersleeve) 
Main Products Company 
New England Enameling Company 
Pickering Governor Company 


Lucas, B. Co. (Poquetannoc) 

Bosworth Bros. 

Case, W. D. & Co. 

Dady, John A. Corp. 

Hammond & Knowlton Co. 

Hampton Silk Co. 

Johnson, E. E. 

Johnson, W. S. 

Kent, C. M. & E. B. 

Monohansett Manufacturing Co. 

Morse Mills Co. 

Nightingale Mills 

Powhatan Mills 

Putnam Box Corp. 

Putnam Foundry & Mach. Co. 

Putnam Manufacturing Co. 

Putnam Silk Co. 

Putnam Woolen Co. 

Bobbins, E. E. 

Royal Knitting Mills 

J. B. Tatem & Son 

Union Novelty Co. 

Wheaton Bldg. & Lumber Co. 


Bennett, R. O. (Branchville) 

Bdpt. Wood Finishing Co. (B'ville) 

Gruman, Geo. B. (Branchville) 


Billings, C. E. Mfg. Co. The 
Champion Manufacturing Co. 
Frisbie, L. T. Co. 


(See Vernon) 


New England Quartz Co. 


Barnum, Richardson Co. (Lime Rock) 
Borden's Condensed Milk Co. (L. R.) 
Holley, Mfg. Co. (Lakeville) 
Salisbury Cutlery & Handle Co. 

Industrial Strength of Connecticut 


Denison Bros. (Deep River) 
Potter & Snell (Deep River) 
Pratt, Read & Co. (Deep River) 
Williams & Marvin Mfg. Co. (D. R.) 


Arethusa Spring Water Co. 

Beach, S. Y. Paper Co. 

Brixey, W. R. 

Day, H. P. & E. 

Fowler Nail Co. 

Garrett & Beach 

Humphreyville Manufacturing Co. 

Little River Manufacturing Co. 

Matthews, H. A. Manufacturing Co. 

New Haven Copper Co. 

Rimmon Manufacturing Co. 

Seymour Iron Foundry Co. 

Seymour Manufacturing Co. 

Smith, J. M. 

Swan, James Co. 

Tingue Manufacturing Co. 


(See Huntington) 


Ensign, Bickford & Co. 

Ensign, R. H. 

Tariffville Lace Mfg. Co. (Tariffville) 


Somersville Mfg. Co. (Somersville) 


Hawkins Co. (South Britain) 
Diamond Match Co. (Southford) 


Aetna Nut Co. 

Atwater Mfg. Co. (Plantsville) 
Beaton & Corbin Mfg. Co. 
Blakeslee Forging Co. (Plantsville) 
Clark Bros Bolt Co. (Millda'e) 

Ellis, F. L. & Son (Milldale) 
Frost, L. D. & Son (Marion) 
Peck, Stowe & Wilcox Co. 
Southington Cutlery Co. 
Smith, H. D. Co. (Plantsville) 
Thompson, Drop & Forge Co. P'ville) 
Wolcott Hardware Co. (Plantsville) 
Wood, G. E. Tool Co. (Plantsville) 


Airlie Mills (Hanover) 
Baltic Mills Co. (Baltic) 
Eastern Strawboard Co. (Versailles) 
Shetucket Worsted Mills (Baltic) 
Totokett Mills Co. (Versailles') 
Uncasville Mfg. Co. (Versailles) 


Amidon, S. B. (Staffordville) 

Beckwith Card Co. (Staff'd Sp.) 

Bradway, C. P. (W. Stafford) 
Ellis, J. J. & A. D. (Stafford Springs) 
Fabyan Woolen Co. (Stafford Springs) 
Fabyan Woolen Co. (Staffordville) 
Faulkner Woolen Mill (Stafford S.) 
Faulkner Woolen Mill (Staffordville) 
Garland Woolen Co. (Staffordville) 
Mullen, T. F. & Co. (Stafford Springs) 
Paton, A. B. Mfg. Co. (Stafford S.) 
Phcenix Woolen Co. (Stafford) 
Riverside Woolen Co. (Stafford) 
Smith & Cooley (Stafford Springs) 
Stafford Worsted Co. (Stafford S.) 
Warren Woolen Co. (Stafford Springs) 


Atlantic Insulated Wire & Cable Co. 

Baer Bros. 

Ball Manufacturing Co. 

Beck, Frederick & Co. 

Blickensderfer Manufacturing Co. 

Boas Thread Co. 

Boston Artificial Leather Co. 

Brown, Christian 

Celluloid Zapon Co. 

Chemical Works of America, Inc. 

Co-operative Cigar Co. 

Davenport & Tracy 

Diamond Ice Co. 

Excelsior Hardware Co. 

Hale, Henry S. 

Hefumos Manufacturing Co. 

Hoyt, Lyman Son & Co. 

Imperial Manufacturing Co. 

International Power Vehicle Co. 

Jerals & Townsend Mfg. Co. 

Lounsbury & Soule 

Moll, Joseph H. 

Muench, George 

Murphy Manufacturing Co. 

Oven Equipment & Mfg. Co. 

Phillips, Chas. H. Chemical Co. 

Roth, Max 

Schleicher Sons' Piano Co. 
St. John's Wood Working Co. 
Stamford Foundry Co. 
Stamford Gas Stove Co. 
Stamford Iron Works 
Stamford Manufacturing Co. 
Stamford Motor Co. 
Stamford Rubber Supply Co. 
Star Manufacturing Co. 
Wagner, Michael 
Waterside Mills 
Yale & Towne Manufacturing Co. 


U. S. Finishing Co. 


Allen Spool & Printing Co. (Mystic) 

American Thread Co. (Westerly P. O.) 

American Velvet Co. (Westerly P. O.) 

Atwood-Morrison Co. 

Cottrell, C. B. & Sons (Westerly P.O.) 

Hasbrook Motor Works (W. Mystic) 

Homes Ship Bldg. Co. (W. Mystic) 

Lantern Mills Silex Works (Mystic) 

Lathrop, J. W. (Mystic) 

Lorraine Mfg. Co. (Westerly P. O.) 

Maxson & Co. (Westerly P. O.) 

McDonald, M. C. (Mystic) 

Miller, A. R. Sons 

Mystic Motor Works (Mystic) 

Mystic Mfg. Co. (Mystic) 

Mystic Twine Co. (Mystic) 

Mystic Woolen Co. (Old Mystic) 

Packer Mfg. Co. (Mystic) 

Rossie Velvet Co. (Old Mystic) 

Standard Machinery Co. (Mystic) 

Westerly Woolen Co. (Westerly P.O.) 

Whitford, Urban (Old Mystic) 


Oronoque Paper Mill (Oronoque) 


Bissell, L. P. 
Ranney, S. O. 


Northfield Knife Co. (Reynolds Bridge) 
Plume & Atwood Mfg. Co. 
Thomas, Seth Clock Co. 
Thomaston Knife Co. 


French Riv. Text. Co. (Mechanicsville) 
Grosvenordale Co. ( Grosvenordale) 
Keegan, Lawrence (Wilsonville) 
Murdock, T. G. & Son (New Boston) 


Sumner, Wm. Belting Co. 


Coe Brass Manufacturing Co. 
Eagle Bicycle Manufacturing Co. 
Excelsior Needle Co. 
Hendey Machine Co. 
Hotchkiss Bros. Co. 
Perkins, E. A. Electric Co. 
Progressive Manufacturing Co. 
Standard Manufacturing Co. 
Torrington Manufacturing Co. 
Turner & Seymour Manufacturing Co. 
Union Hardware Co. 
Warrenton Woolen Co. 


Radcliffe, C. E. (Long Hill) 
Toucey, R. G. (Long Hill) 


(See Farmington) 


American Mills Co. (Rockville) 

Avery, Bates Co. (Ellington) 

Belding Bros. & Co. (Rockville) 

Hockanum Co. (Rockville) 

Martin's, E. J. Sons (Rockville) 

Murlless, H. B. (Rockville) 

New England Co. (Rockville) 

Ravine Mills Co. 

Regan, J. J. Mfg. Co. (Rockville) 

Rock Mfg. Co. (Rockville) 

Springville Mfg. Co. (Rockville) 

Swett, R. K. Co. 

Talcott Bros. (Talcottville) 

U. S. Envelope Co. (Rockville) 

Vernon Woolen Co. 


Briggs Manufacturing Co. 


Backes, G. W. & Sons 

Backes, M. Sons 

Biggins, Rogers Co. 

Haller-Brown Co. (Yalesville) 

Hamden Manufacturing Co. 

Hodgetts, W. J. 

International Silver Co. 

Jennings & Griffin Mfg. Co. (Tracy) 

Judd, H. L. & Co. 

N. Y. Insulated Wire Co. 

Parker, Chas. Co. (Yalesville) 

Rogers, S. L. & G. H. Co. 

Wallace, R. & Sons Mfg. Co. 

Wallingford Co., Inc. 

Yale, C. I. Mfg. Co. (Yalesville) 


American Manufacturing Co. 

American Mills Co. 

American Pin Co. (Waterville) 

American Ring Co. 

Barlow Bros. Co. 

Benedict & Burnham Mfg. Co. 

Blake & Johnson 

Bristol Co. 

Berbeckcr & Rowland (Waterville) 

Connecticut Towns and Their Manufacturers 

Chase Rolling Mill Co. 

Coe Brass Co. 

Cross & Speirs Machine Co. 

Daly, M. J. & Sons 

Draher, John 

Fry, B. H. & Co. 

Hartley, George 

Hemingway, M. & Sons 

Henderson Bros. 

Hygeia Ice & Cold Storage Co. 

International Silver Co. 

Judd, W. B. 

Kalbfleisch, F. H. & Co. 

Lane Manufacturing Co. 

Macauley, J. J. 

Manufacturers' Foundry Co. 

Manville Bros. Co. 

Manville, E. J. Machine Co. 

Mattatuck Manufacturing Co. 

Matthews & Willard Mfg. Co. 

McCarthy & Moore 

Morden, L. M. 

National Wire Mattress Co. 

New England Watch Co. 

Noera Manufacturing Co. 

Novelty Manufacturing Co. 

Phoenix, Fred 

Piatt Bros. & Co. 

Plume & Atwood Manufacturing Co. 

Randolph-Clowes Co. 

Risdon, S. A. 

Rowbottom Mach. Co. (Waterville) 

Scoville Manufacturing Co. 

Shoe Hardware Co. 

Smith & Griggs Mfg. Co. 

Smith, J. E. & Co. 

Standard Electric Time Co. 

Steele & Johnson Mfg. Co. 

Tracy Bros. Co. 

Upham, George 

Waterbury Battery Co. 

Waterbury Blank Book Mfg. Co. 

Waterbury Brass Co. 

Waterbury Brass Goods Corp. 

Waterbury Buckle Co. 

Waterbury Button Co. 

Waterbury Clock Co. 

Waterbury Crucible Co. 

W'b'y. Farrel Foundry & Machine Co. 

Waterbury Machine Co. 

Waterbury Manufacturing Co. 

Waterbury Paper Box Co. 

Waterbury Wire Die Co. 

Waterville Cutlery Co. (Waterville) 

Welch, H. L. Hosiery Co. (W'ville) 

Weyand, Henry Co. 

White, L. C. Co. 

White & Wells Co. 


Booth Bros. 

Gardner, Henry (Millstone Pt.) 
Robinson, F. P. Paper Co. (Q. Hill) 
Woodworth, N. A. (Quaker Hill) 


Baird Machine Co. (Oakville) 
Hemingway & Bartlett Silk Co. 

(Water town) 
Hemingway, M. & Sons Silk Co. 

Oakville Co. (Oakville) 
Smith, Seymour & Son (Oakville) 
Woolson, J. B. (Watertown) 


Goodwin Bros. Pottery Co. (Elmwood) 
Park Brick Co. (Elmwood) 
Whitlock Coil Pipe Co. (Elmwood) 


Atlantic Starch Co. 

Bradley, G. W. Sons 

Computing Scale Co. (Saugatuck) 

Doscher Plane & Tool Co. (Saugatuck) 

Embalmers' Supply Co. 

Kemper, Charles H., Jr. 

Lees Manufacturing Co. 

Saugatuck Mfg. Co. (Saugatuck) 

Wakeman, Rufus (Saugatuck) 

Westport Paper Co. 


Hartford Blower Co. 


(See Windham) 


Conn. Woolen Mill (E. Willington) 
Hall, Gardner & Son Co. (S. W'ton) 


Gilbert & Bennett Mfg. Co. 



Brown Mach. Co. (Winsted) 

Carter & Hakes Mach. Co. (Winsted) 
Dudley, Geo. & Son Co. (W'td) 
Empire Knife Co. (Winsted) 
Flexible Rubber Goods Co. 
Gilbert, Wm.L.CIock Co. (W'd) 
Goodwin & Kintz Co. (Wt'd) . 
Harrison, B. J. & Son Co. (Winsted) 
Moore, Franklin Co. (Winsted) 
Morgan Silver Plate Co. (Winsted) 
New England Knitting Co. (Winsted) 
New England Pin Co. (Winsted) 
Richards, Benjamin & Co. (Winsted) 

Richards, T. C. Hardware Co. (W'std) 
Roe, John W. (Winsted) 
Strong Mfg. Co. (Winsted) 
Wilcox, George C. (Winsted) 
Winsted Cabinet Co. (Winsted) 
Winsted Edge Tool Works (Winsted) 
Winsted Hosiery Co. (W'td) 
Winsted Mfg. Co. (Winsted) 
Winsted Silk Co. (Winsted) 
Winsted Yarn Co. (Winsted) 


American Thread Co. (Willimantic) 
Bosson Fibre Board Co. (N. Windham) 
Chaffee Mfg. Co. (Willimantic) 
Harris, C. R. (N. Windham) 
Hartson, L. M. Co. (N. Windham) 
Hillhouse & Taylor (Willimantic) 
Holland Mfg. Co. (Willimantic) 
Latham & Crane (Willimantic) 
Mall, E. H. & Son (N. Windham) 
Sibley, Wm. (N. Windham) 
Smith Sc Winche<terCo. (S. W.) 
Thread City Collar Co. (Willimantic) 
Turner, A. G. (Willimantic) 
Vanderman Plumb. & Heat. Co. 

Willimantic Cotton Mills Corp. 

Willimantic Machine Co. (Williman') 
Windham Mfg. Co. (Willimantic) 


Eddy Manufacturing Corp. 
Hartford Paper Co. (Poquonock) 
Health Underwear Co. (Poquonock) 
Hartford Paper Co. (Rainbow) 
Merwin, G. J. (Rainbow) 
Rainbow Mill (Rainbow) 
Windsor Collar & Cuff Co. 


American Writing Paper Co. 
Anchor Mills Paper Co. 
Clark, Geo. P. Co. 
Dexter, C. H. & Sons 
Horton, E. & Son Co. 
Medlicott Co. The 
Montgomery, J. R. Co. 
Whittlesey Paper Co. 
Windsor Locks Machine Co. 

WindsorSilk Co. 


(See Winchester) 


Amer. Shear & Knife Co. 

Curtis, Daniel & Sons 


Concerns named in heavy type are given in full detail in preceding pages. 

Curtiss-Way Co. (Meriden) 


Cutaway Harrow Co. (Higganum) 

Standard Co. (Hartford) 


Am. & British Mfg Co. (Bridgeport) 
Union Metallic Cartridge Co. " 

U S Rapid Fire Gun & Powder Co. 


Winchester Repeating Arms Co. 

(New Haven) 


Blakesley Novelty Co. (Bristol) 


Electric Vehicle Co. (Htfd.) 

Pope Mfg Co. 

Corbin Motor VehicleCo.(N.B.) 
Locomobile Co. of America (Bridgep't) 
Eisenhuth Horseless Vehicle Co. 



Whitlock Coil Pipe Co.(Htfd.) 


Uncas Specialty Co. (Norwich) 

BEDSTEADS (Metallic) 

Hartford Bedstead Co.(Htfd.) 
Nat'l Spg. Bed Co. (N. Brit.) 

Whitcomb Met. Bedstead Co. (Shelt'n) 

Industrial Strength of Connecticut 


Liberty Bell Co. (Bristol) 

New Departure Mfg Co. 

Bevin Bros Mfg Co. (East Hampton) 

East Hampton Bell Co. 

Gong Bell Mfg Co. " 

N N Hill Brass Co. " 

Star Bros Bell Co. 

BELTING (Leather) 

Jewell Belting Co. (Hartford) 
Coe & Brown (New Haven) 

Norwich Mfg Co. (Norwich) 

Ulmer Leather Co. 
N Palmer & Co. (Bridgeport) 

William Sumner Belting Co. (Tolland) 


Pope Mfg. Co. (Hartford) 
Eagle Bicycle Mfg Co. (Torrington) 


Liberty Bell Co. (Bristol) 

New Departure Mfg Co. " 

Veeder Mfg Co. (Hartford) 

Post & Lester 
Liberty Cycle Co. 



Curtiss-Way Co. (Meriden) 

Waterbury Blank Book Mfg Co. 


Standard Co. (Hartford) 


Hartford & N Y Transportation Co. 

Thames Tow Boat Co. (New London) 
Trumbull Marine Co. 
Leeds Marine Equip. Co. (Bridgeport) 
Palmer Bros (Cos Cob) 

Greenwich Yacht Yard (Greenwich) 
Norwalk Launch Co. (Norwalk) 

Internat. Power Vehicle Co. 
Stamford Motor Co. 
S. Gildersleeve & Son (Gildersleeve) 
E. A. Ely (Middletown) 


H B Beach & Son (Hartford 

Bigelow Co. (New Haven) 

New Haven Boiler Works 
Randolph-Clowes Co. (Waterbury) 

Hopson Chapin Mfg Co. (New London^ 
Spiers Bros 

Kellogg-McCrumm-HowellCo (N'wch 
Wm H Page Boiler Co. " 

Bridgeport Boiler Works (Bridgeport) 


Rogers k Hubbard Co. (Middletown) 
Rogers Mfg Co. (Rockfall) 


Case, Lockwood k Brainard Co.(Htfd.) 
Price, Lee k Adkins (New Haven) 

Tuttle, Moiehouse k Taylor Co. " 

Middlesex County Printery (Portland) 

Minor Corbin Box Co. " 

S G Redshaw (Ansonia) 

E J Doolittle (Meriden) 

C E Schumick 

White & Wells Co. (Naugatuck) 

Benton-Armstrong Fold. Box Co. 

(New Haven) 
Bishop Box & Paste Co. " 

P J Cronan Paper Box Co. " 

Munson & Co. " 

National Fold. Box & Paper Co. " 
New England Mfg Co. 
W J Hodgetts (Wallingford) 

Waterbury Paper Box Co. (Waterbury) 
White & Wells Co. 

Bingham Paper Box Co. (N. London) 
Norwich Paper Box Co. (Norwich) 
Frank W Clark (Bethel) 

John Reid " 

Bridgeport Paper Box Co. (Bridgeport) 
Compressed Paper Box Co. " 

Crown Paper Box Co. " 

Isaac Armstrong & Co. (Danbury) 
Clark Box Co. 

C A Romans " 

S Curtiss & Son (Newtown) 

Am. Paper Pail & Box Co. (Norwalk) 
Knapp Box Co. (South Norwalk) 

Norwalk Box Co. " 

S C Trowbridge 

Nat'l. Fold. Box & Paper Co.(Shelton) 
L S Carpenter & Son (E. Hampton) 
C H Watrous (Middletown) 

Kingsbury Box & Ptg. Co. (S.Coventry) 

BOXES (Wood) 


Flexible Rubber Goods Co. 

Looby & Fargo (Center Brook) 

Rogers Brush Works (Chester) 


(New Britain) 
Russell & Erwin Mfg Co. 
P & F Corbin 
Stanley Works 

H Wales Lines Co. (Meriden) 


New Haven Button Co. (New Haven) 

Chas W Reade Button Co. 

Weil Novelty Co. 

E F Smith & Sons 

Lane Mfg Co. 

Piatt Bros & Co. 

Waterbury Button Co. 

L C White Co. 

Elmwood Button Co. 

Hatheway Mfg Co. 

Patrick Crowe 

Saugatuck Mfg Co. 

Griffin Button Co. 

(Union City) 





Bronson & Robinson Co 
J W Rockwell 
Chas T Dodd 
Chas S St Johns 
Putnam Box Corp 


(South Norwalk) 



Bristol Brass Co. (Forestville) 

Brewery Appliance Specialty Co. " 
Ansonia Mfg Co. (Ansonia) 

Homer D Bronson Co. (Beacon Falls) 
Andrew B Hendryx Co. (New Haven) 
Rostand Mfg Co. (Milford) 

H A Matthews Mfg Co. (Seymour) 
Rimmon Mfg. Co. (Seymour) 

H L Judd k Co. (Wallingford) 

Am. Ring Co. (Waterbury) 

Novelty Mfg Co. " 

Plume k Atwood Mfg Co. " 

Steele k Johnson Mfg Co. " 

Waterbury Goods Corp. " 

Waterbury Mfg Co. " 

Ball k Socket Mfg Co. (W, Cheshire) 
Norwich Nickel k Brass C«x. (Norwich) 
Eaton, Cole <fe Burnham Co. (B'port) 
Gaynor k Mitchell Mfg Co. " 

James M Somers " 

Norwalk Brass Co. (Norwalk) 
Artistic Bronze Co. (S. Norwalk) 

Jerals & Townsend Mfg Co. (Stamford) 
Benjamin, Richard k Co. (Winsted) 

BRASS (Sheet) 

Bristol Brass Co. 


BOXES (Paper) 

H J Mills 
C J Callaarhan 
Hartford Box Co. 
Nichols Taper Box Co. 
II H Corbin & Son 


(New Britain) 


Park Brick Co. (Elmwood) 

Eastern Machinery Co. (New Haven) 
Howard Co. 


New England Broom Co. (N. Haven) 
Geo W Bancroft (New Hartford) 


W L Wliittemore k Son (Hartford) 
Standard Krush Co. (New Hartford) 


Curtiss-Way Co. (Meriden) 
Beckwith Print. Co. (Norwich) 


Knowles-Lombard Co. (Guilford) 

Sachems Head Canning Co. (Guilford) 


Naubuc Paper Co. (Glastonbury) 

Riverside Paper Mfg Co. " 

Hartford Board Co. (Hartford) 

Case Bros (Highland Park) 

Wausuc Mills Co. (Hopewell) 

Willard A Case (Manchester) 

Brookside Paper Co. (So. Manchester) 
Rogers Paper Mfg <~<o. " 

New Haven Pulp & Board Co. (N.H.) 
Diamond Match Co. (Southport) 

Eastern Straw Board Co. (Versailles) 
C H Norton (N. Westcheshire) 

Standard Card k Paper Co. (B'port) 
Tait & Sons Paper Co. " 

United Box Board & Paper Co. 

W T estport Paper Co. 
Bosson Fibre Board Co 
F L Case Paper Co. 
R K Swett Co. 






Hartford Carpet Co. (Thompsonville) 

Upson, Martin & Co. 

Reid Carpet Co. (Bridgeport) 


Stanley Rule & Level Co. 

(New Britain) 


Clinton Mills Co. 
Fairfield Rubber Co. 



Guilford Wheel Mfg Co. (Guilford} 
M Armstrong k Co. (New Haven) 

Connecticut Products and Their Manufacturers 

A T Demarest & Co. (New Haven) 
J F Goodrich & Co. " 

H C Holcomb 

Henry Hooker & Co. " 

Henry Killian Co. " 

New Haven Carriage Co (New Haven 
Samuel K. Page " 

Seabrook & Smith Carriage Co. " 

M Seward & Son Co. " 

James W Harry & Son Co. 

(W. Cheshire) 
M B Ring (Norwich) 

Scott & Clark Corp. " 

Blue Ribbon Horse & Carriage Co. 

Gates Carriage Co. " 

C W Hall Carriage Co. 
Hincks & Johnson " 

"Wheel & Wood Bending Co. " 

W P Babcock (Plainfield) 

Flynn & Doyle (Bantam) 

Standard Mfg Co. (Torrington) 

Broderick Carriage Co. (Middletown) 
J. B. Evans " 


E J Blake (Hartford) 

J M Craig 

Phoenix Brass Foundry Co. " 

Wm. Roach (New Britain) 

F L Gaylord Co. (Ansonia) 

H D Phelps 

Edward Miller Co. (Meriden) 
O Upham Ely (New Haven) 

James Graham & Co. " 

J P Green 

Reynolds Brass Foundry " 

Pequot Brass Foundry (Norwich) 

Bridgeport Deoxidized Bronze & Metal 
Co. (Bridgeport) 

P J Donovan Brass Foundry Co. " 
W G Rowell & Co. 
Danbury Brass Works (Danbury) 

Birmingham Brass Co. (Shelton) 

Christian Brown (Stamford) 


Sessions Foundry Co. (Bristol) 
Capitol Foundry Co. (Hartford) 

Hartford Foundry Corp. " 

P Laragy " 

Phoenix Iron Works Corp. " 

Standard Foundry Co. " 

Malleable Iron Works (New Britain) 

D. E. Whiton Machine Co. 

(New London) 
Vulcan Iron Works . " 

E T Carter (Plainville) 

Champion Mfg Co. (Rocky Hill) 

Malleable Iron Fittings Co. (Branford) 
Birmingham Iron Foundry (Derby) 
I S Spencer's Sons (Guilford) 

S H Barnum (New Haven) 

McLagon Foundry Co. " 

G F Warner Mrg Co. " 

Robert Wilson " 

Seymour Pron Foundry Co. (Seymour) 
Naugatuck Malleable Iron Co. 

(Union City) 
Manufacturer's Foundry (Waterbury) 
Waterbury Farrel Fdy. & Mach. Co. " 
Vaughn Foundry Co. (Norwich) 

A B Miller Sons (Stonington) 

Bridgeport Malleable Iron Co. 

R E Parsons Co. " 

Pequonnock Foundry Inc. " 

Arnold Co., Inc. (Norwalk) 

Meeker Union Foundry Corp. " 

U S Fdy & Sales Co. (So. Norwalk) 
Meyer Iron & Brass Fdy. (Shelton) 
Putnam Fdy. & Mach. Co. (Putnam) 
Andrew Terry Co. (Terrvville) 

H B Murlless (Rockville) 

S B A mi don (StafFordville) 


National Steel Fdy Co. (New Haven) 
A C Stiles Anti-Friction Metal Co. " 


Naugatuck Chemical Co. (Naugatuck) 
F B Kalbfleisch Co. (Waterbury) 

Mohawk Paint & Chemical (Norwich) 
General Chemical Co. (Bridgeport) 
Vass Chemical Co. (Danbury) 

Chas. H. Phillips Chem. Co. 

Chemical Wooks of America Inc. 


Helmschmied Mfg Co. 


CHUCKS (Lathe) 
Cushman Chuck Co. 

Jacobs Mfg Co. " 

Skinner Chuck Co. (N. Brit.) 
Union Mfg Co. " 

E Horton & Son Co. (Windsor Locks) 
Hoggson & Pettis Mfg Co. 

(New Haven) 

D. E. Whiton Machine Co. 

(New London) 


E Ingraham Co. (Bristol) 

H C Thompson Clock Co. " 

Sessions Clock Co. (Forestville) 

Parker Clock Co. Meriden) 

New Haven Clock Co. (New Haven) 
Standard Elec. Time Co. (Waterbury) 
Waterbury Clock Co. " 

Wm L Gilbert Clock Co. 
Goodwin & Kintz Co. " 

Annual Wind Clock Co. (Middletown) 


Yoimp- Bros (Forestville) 

Reeves Mfg Co. (Milford) 

Bridgeport Enamel Dial Co. 



Burdick-Corbin Co. 


Henry Killian Co. 



Derby Comb Co. 


Pratt, Read & Co. 

(Deep River) 


Goodwin Cork Co. 



Brewster Corset Co. 


Brooks Corset Co. 

(New Haven) 

Gilbert Mfg Co. 


Hickok Co. 


I Newman & Sons 


I Strouse & Co. 


Strouse-Adler & Co. 


Henry H. Todd 


Geo. C. Batcheller & Co. (Bridgeport) 

Birdsey & Somers 


Crown Corset Co. 


Downer, Hawes & Co. 

Warner Bros Corset 


R & G Corset Co. 

(S. Norwalk) 

R N Bassett Co. 




Arawana Mills 


J Broadbent & Son 


J R Montgomery Co. (Windsor Locks) 
Ansonia O & C Co. (Ansonia) 

New England Warp Co. (New Haven) 

Baltic Mills Co 
Ashland Cotton Co. 
Wm. A Slater Mills 
Am. Thread Co. 
Palmer Bros Co. 
Pequot Mills 
Mystic Twine Co. 

(Jewett City) 


(New London) 
New England Carpet Lin. Co. 
Blissville Mills Inc. (Norwich) 

Falls Co. " 

Shetucket Co. " 

Peter Strom u 

Emerson P Turner Mfg Co. " 

U S Finishing Co. 
Massosoit Mfg Co. 
Am Thread Co. 
Lorraine Mfg Co. 
Totokett Mills Co. 
Briggs Mfg Co. 
C W Prentice 
Uncasville Mfg Co. 
Uncasville Mfg Co. 
Ernest Simpons Mfg Co. 
Adam Mfg Co. 
Lee's Mfg Co. 
Attawaugan Co. 











W S Lees Co. (Central Village) 

Danielsonville Cotton Co. (Danielson) 
Quinebaug Co. 
Fred R Smith 
Aldrich Mfg Co. 
Floyd Cranska 
Cutler Mills Co. 
Monohansett Mfg Co. 
Moss Mills Co. 
Nightingale Mills 
Powhatan Mills 
Putnam Mfg Co. 
Wauregan Co. 
Willi amsville Mfg Co. 
Am Thread Co. 
Windham Co. 
Willimantic Cotton Mills Corp. " 
E H Mall & Son (N Windham) 

M H Marcus & Bros (Elmville) 

Grosvenordale Co. (Grosvenordale) 
Summit Thread Co. (East Hampton) 
Russell Mfg Co. (Higgaum) 

C E Brownell (Moodus) 

Hall, Lincoln & Co. " 

Neptune Twine & Cord Mills " 

N Y Net & Twine Co. " 

A E Purple 
M Pollock 
John L Ross 

Gardner Hall & Son (So. Willington) 
Ravine Mills Co. (Vernon) 

(E Killingly) 







Waterbury Crucible Co. (Waterbury) 
Bridgeport Crucible Co. (Bridgep't) 

CUTLERY (Pocket) 

Humason & Beckley Mfg Co. 

(New Britain) 
Sonthington Cut. Co. (Southington) 
Miller Bros Cut. Co. (Meriden) 
Waterville Cut. Co. (Waterville) 

Challenge Cut. Corp. (Bridgeport) 
Hollev Mfg Co. (Lakeville) 

Northfield Knife Co. (Northfield) 

Northfield Knife Co (Reynolds Bridge) 
Thomaston Knife Co. (Thomaston) 

Empire Knife Co. (Winsted) 

CUTLERY (Table) 
Landers, Frary & Clark, 

(New Britain) 
Hart Mfg. Co. (Unionville) 

Union Cut. & Hdw. Co. " 

Meriden Cut. Co. (Meriden) 

Internat. Silver Co. (Norwich) 

Industrial Strength of Connecticut 


Hartford Dairy Co. (Hartford) 

New England Dairy Corp (N. Haven) 
Valley Farm Creamery Co. " 

Borden's Cond. Milk Co. (Newtown) 


Everett Horton (Bristol) 

Ira B Smith (Bristol) 

L E Rhodes (Hartford 
Meriden Mach Tool Co. 

Waterbury Wire Die Co. (W'tbury) 
Conn Tool Co. (Bridgeport) 


Omo IVIfg Co. (Middle-town) 


Union Fabric Co. (Ansonia) 


Henry & Wright Mfg Co. 



Bilings & Spencer Co. (Htfd.) 


Arknot Co. (Hartford) 

Baker Electric Co. (Hartford) 

Franklin Electric Mfg Co. " 

Green & Bauer " 

Hart & Hegeman Mfg Co. " 
Hart Mfg Co. 
Johns- Pratt Co. 
Norton Elec. Instrument Co. 

T H Brady (New Britain) 

Trumbull Elec. Co. (Plainville) 

Eddy Mfg Corp (Windsor) 

Ansonia Electric Co. (Ansonia) 

H P Cameron Elec Mfg Co. 
Todd Electric Mfg Co. (Meriden) 
Acme Wire Co. (New Haven) 

A E Holaday Mfg Co. 
N Y Insulated Wire Co. (Wall'gford) 
Waterbury Battery Co. (Waterbury) 
Bryant Electric Co. (Bridgeport) 

Perkins Elec. Switch Mfg Co. 
E A Perkins Elec. Co. (Torr'gton) 


Johns- Pratt Co. (Hartford) 


Johns- Pratt Co. (Hartford) 


Hart & Hegeman Mfg Co. " 

Hart Mfg Co. 


A Mugford (Hartford) 

Robert Weller 

A Pindar Corp. 

Hartford Engraving Co. " 

R S Peck & Co. " 

W T Barnum & Co. (New Haven) 

Best Mfg Co. 

E B Sheldon Co. " 

Curtiss-Wav Co. (Meriden) 

W W Wheeler Co. (Meriden) 


F A Benton & Son 

EMERY (Ground) 

Oriental Emery Co. (New Haven) 

Bridgeport Safety Emery Wheel Co. 

Springfield Mfg Co. " 


New England Enameling Co. 

New England Enameling Co. (P'land) 


Hasbrook Motor Works (Mystic) 

N. London Marine Iron Works 

(New London) 
Acme Oil Engine Co. (Bridgeport) 
Pacific Iron Works 
Royal Equipment Co. 
Norwalk Iron Works (S. Norwalk) 
International Power Vehicle Co. 


ENGINES (Gasoline) 


(N. Britain) 

(N. London) 








Harriman Motor Works 
Hartford Engine Works 
Evarts Mfg Co. 
F A Law Mach Co. 
New Britain Mach Co. 
J W Lathrop 
Mystic Motor Works 
New London Motor Co. 
Fairfield Motor Co. 
Brooklyn Ry Supply Co. 
Palmer Bros 
Norwalk Launch Co. 
Stamford Motor Co. 
E E Johnson 
Eagle Bicycle Mfg Co. 
H W Hubbard 
Keating Motor Co. 


Pickering Governor Co. (Portland) 


A Mugford (Hartford) 

Hartford Engraving Co. 

Robert Weller 

A Pindar Corp. 

Brown & Stoddard Co. (N. Haven) 

Curtiss-Way Co. (Meriden) 

W W Wheeler Co. (Meriden) 


A Mugford (Hartford) 

Robert Weller 
Calhoun Show Print Co. 
A Pindar Corp. 
R S Peck Co. 


Tavlor-Atkins Paper Co. (Burnside) 

Hartford Mfg Co. (Hartford) 

Plimpton Mfg Co. (Hartford) 
U S Envelope Co. 

Am Paper Goods Co. (Kensington) 

W J Moffat (New Haven) 

U S Envelope Co. (Rockville) 


Williams & Carleton (Hartford) 

Uncasville Dye Wood & Ext. Co. 

Stamford Mfg Co. ( Stamford) 


A raw an a Mills (Middletown 
New Haven Web Co. (Hamden) 

Cott-A-Lap Co. (New Haven) 

Narrow Fabric Corp 
Am Mills Co. (Waterbury) 

Jewett City Textile Novelty Co. 

(Jewett City) 
Ponemah Mills (Taftville) 

Bias Narrow Fabric Co. (B'dgep't) 
Bridgeport Coach Lace Co. 
Bridgeport Elastic Fabric Co. 
Conn Web Co. (Bridgeport 

J G Irving (Danbury) 

C E Radcliffe (Long Hill) 

Muller Gloria Mills (Winnipauk) 

Boese, Peppard & Co. (S. Norwalk) 
Hefumos Mfg Co. (Stamford) 

Star Mfg Co. 
Russell Mfg Co. (Rockfall) 

FAIENCE (Architectural) 

Hartford Faience Co. (HTd) 


Colt's Pat. Fire Arms Mfg Co. 

Meriden Fire Arms Co. (Meriden) 
Parker Bros. 

Ideal Mfg Co. (New Haven) 

Marlin Fire Arms Co. 
Winchester R'ptg. Arms Co. " 

Crescent Fire Arms Co. (Norwich) 
W H Davenport Fire Arms Co. 
Hopkins & Allen Arms Co. 
Thames Arms Mfg Co. 
Tobin Mfg Co. , " 

Otis A Smith (Rockfall) 


G W Backes & Sons (Wallingford) 
M Backes Sons 


E J Martin's Sons (Rockville) 


Melrose Silver Co. 
Biggins-Rogers Co. 



Imperial Granum Co. (N. Haven) 

C D Boss & Son (New London) 

New England Food Co. (E. Norwalk) 
Echo Farm Corp (Bantam) 

Borden's Cond. Milk Co. (Canaan) 
Borden's Cond. Milk Co. (Lime Rock) 


Benedict & Co. (New Canaan) 

Frank I Lane 

Lounsburv, Matthewson & Co. 

(S. Norwalk) 
Lounsbury & Soule (Stamford) 

W D Case & Co. (Putnam) 

W S Johnson 
Goodyear Rubber Co. (Middletown) 


Billings & Spencer Co. (Hfd.) 

Blakeslee Forging Co. (Plantsville) 
Kilbourn & Bishop Co. (New Haven) 
Bridgeport Forge Co. (Bridgeport) 


Turner Heater Co. (Bristol) 

Connecticut Products and Their Manufacturers 


D Case Co. (Guilford) 

Eastern Lounge Co. (New Milford) 
B J Harrison Son Co. (Winsted) 


Climax Fuse Co. (Avon) 

Ensign, Bickford & Co. (Simsbury) 


Blakesley Novelty Co. (Bristol) 

C J White & Co. (New Britain) 


Bristol Brass Co. (Bristol) 

GLASS (Cut) 

J D Bergen Co. (Meriden) 

International Silver Co. " 

Meriden Cut Glass Co. " 
J J Niland 


W L Barrett (Bristol) 


A J Hall & Co. (Meriden) 

P J Handel " 

Helmschmied Mfg Co. 

C P Monroe " 

Fair Haven Art Glass Co. (N. Haven) 
Bridgeport Art Glass Co. (Brdgep't) 


G L Bladon 

John M Ney & Co. 

M Swift & Sons 



W C Ladd (Bristol) 


Am. Graphophone Co. (Bridgep't) 


Ashcroft Mfg Co. (Bridgeport) 

D G Cooper (Terryville) 

GUNS (Machine & Gatling) 

Colt's Pat. Fire Arms Mfg Co. 



Am. & British Mfg Co. (Bridgep't) 
U S Rapid Fire Gun & Power Co. 



Arawana Mills (Middletown 
Goodall Hammock Co. (Middletown 



Ira B Smith 

Clayton Bros 

C J Root " 

W C Ladd 

J H Sessions & Son " 

L H Snyder " 

New Departure Mfg Co. " 

Collins Co. (Collinsville) 

Perk. Stow & Wilcox (E. Berlin) 

H S Bartholomew (Edgewood) 

Turner Sc Deegan (Bristol) 

Am. Bit & Augur Co. (Forestville) 

C E Andrews " 

Capewell Horse Nail Co. (Hartford) 

Billings & Spencer Co. (Hfd.) 

C T McCue Co. 

Pratt & Cady Co. 

W W & C F Tucker 

Whitney Mfg Co. 

R A Moore & Son (Kensington) 

H Lydall & Foulds (Manchester) 

Orion Treat 

L D Frost & Son (Marion) 

Clark Bros. $c Co. (Milldale) 

F L Ellis & Son 

Am. Needle Works (New Britain) 

Beaton & Bradley Co. 

Corbin Cabinet Lock Co. 

(New Britain) 
P & F Corbin 
Corbin Screw Corp. 
Hart & Cooley Co. 
O S Judd 

Landers, Frary & Clark 
North & Judd Mfg Co. 
Russell & Erwin Mfg Co. 
Stanley Rule & Level Co. 
Stanley Works 
Taplin Mfg Co. 
Traut & Hine Mfg Co. 
Union Mfg Co. 
C H Calor * (Plainville) 

L H Carter 
A N Clark & Son 
Clarke Castor Co. 
Elm City Brass & Rivet Co. 
Edwin Hills 
Osborn & Stephenson 
Atwater Mfg Co. (Plantsville) 

Peck, Stow & Wilcox Co. 
H D Smith Co. 
Wolcott Hdw. Co. 
G E Wood Tool Co. 
Aetna Nut Co. (Southington) 

Beaton & Corbin Mfg Co. 
Peck, Stow & Wilcox 
Westfield Plate Co. (Thompsonville) 
H W Humphrey Unionville) 

S G Monce 
Upson Nut Co. 
Bailey Mfg Co. (Wethersfield) 

Ansonia Novelty Co. (Ansonia) 

H C Cook & Co. 
J B Gardner Sons. 
S O & C Co. 
Graham Mfg Co. (Derby) 

Howe Mfg Co. 
Fergus Kelly 
J T Henry Mfg Co. (Hamden) 

Brown & Dowd Mfg Co. (Meriden) 
Foster-Merriam & Co. 
A H Jones Co. 
Manning Bowman & Co. 
Chas Parker Co. 
M B Schenck Co. 
F J Wallace 
Wusterbarth Bros 
Willis M Cook (Mt. Carmel) 

Mt. Carmel Bolt Co. 
W W Woodruff & Son Co. 
Am. Rivet Co. (New Haven) 

Atlas Mfg Co. 
R H Brown & Co. 
W S Burn Mfg Co. 
C Cowles & Co. 
B Druen 

W & E T Fitch Co. 
Robert Fitzmorris 
Grillev Co. 
A S Henn & Co. 
H B Ives & Co. 
Mallory Wheeler Co. 
Metal Mfg Co. 
James F Molloy & Co. 
National Wire Corp 
New Haven Spring Co. 

O B North & Co. " 

Perpente Mfg Co. " 

Sargent & Co. " 

Wm Schollhorn Co. 

M Seward & Son Co. " 

A H Smith & Co. - 

L T Snow " 

Hobart E Smith " 

Fowler Nail Co. (Seymour) 

Garrett & Beach u 

Humphreyville Mfg Co. 

Little River Mfg Co. 

James Swan Co. 

Hawkins Co. (So. Britain) 

Naugatuck Mfg Co. (Union City) 

Hamden Mfg Co. (Wallingford) 

Am. Mfg (Waterbury) 

Blake & Johnson 

B H Fry & Co. 

Mattatuck Mfg Co. 

L M Morden 

Noera Mfg Co. 

Shoe Hardware Co. 

Smith & Griggs Mfg Co. 

Waterbury Buckle Co. 

Berbecker & Rowland Mfg Co. 

Am Buckle Co. (New Haven) 

West Haven Buckle Co. 
West Haven Mfg Co. 
Griest Mfg Co. (Westville) 

New London Vise Works (N. London) 
Bard, Union Co. (Norwich) 

Chelsea File Works 
Puritan Mfg Co. " 

R O Bennett (Branchville) 

Geo B Gruman " 

Acme Shear Co. (Bridgeport) 

Atlantic Mfg Co. 
Atlas Shear Co. 
Automatic Scale Co. 
Bridgeport Hdw Mfg Co. 
Burns, Silver & Co. " 

Columbia Bolt & Nut Co. " 

Con. Safety Valve Co. 
Cornwall & Patterson Mfg Co. 
John S Fray & Co. 
Edward S Hotchkiss 
Harwood Mfg Co. 
Jennings Bros Mfg Co. 
Geo S Knapp " 

A L Krause 
W E Krause 

Locke Steel Belt Co. " 

Metal Ware Mfg Co. 
Smith & Egge Mfg Co. 
Spring Perch Co. 

Swinnerton & Sniffen Mfg Co. " 

Weildich Bros Mfg Co. 
White Mfg Co. 

Lennox Shear Co. (Brookfield) 

Russell, Birdsall & Ward " 

Bolt & Nut Co. (Glenville) 

Lockwood Mfg Co. (S. Norwalk) 

Norwalk Lock Co. 
D M Bassett Bolt Works " 

Shelton Co. (Shelton) 

Davenport & Tracy (Stamford) 

Excelsior Hardware Co. 
Yale & Towne Mfg Co. " 

Greystone Mfg Co. (Greystone) 

Seymour Smith & Son (Oakville) 
Chapin Stevens Co. (Pine Meadow) 
Eagle Lock Co. (Terryville) 

Progressive Mfg Co. (Torrington) 
Torrington Mfg Co. 
Turner & Seymour Mfg Co. " 

Union Hardware Co. 
Franklin Moore Co. (Winsted) 

Morgan Silver Plate Co. 
T C Richards Hdw. Co. 
Strong Mfg Co. 
Conn. Valley Mfg Co. (Center Brook) 
Chester Mfg Co. (Chester) 

J S Deuse 

J R Ferguson & Co. 
Jennings, Russell Mfg Co. 
H E Taylor & Co. (Hadlyme) 

Higganum Hdw. Co. (Higgnaum* 

Industrial Strength of Connecticut 

M R Warner & Sons (Little River) 
W H Chapman Co. (Middletown) 

Wilcox, Crittenden & Co. " 


North & Judd Mfg Co. 

(New Britain) 


Peck & Lines 



S M Andrews (Hartford) 

Vanderhoef & Co. (Milford) 

H Frankenberger & Co. (New Haven) 

Baird Untiedt Co. (Bethel) 

Bethel Mfg Co. 

Farnum & Fairchild 

Higson & Co. 

Judd & Co. 

Judd & Dunning Hat Co. 

Edwin Short Hat Co. 

Beltaire Bros & Co. (Danbury) 

Connett Hat Co. 

Danbury Co. 

Delohery Hat Co. 

John W Green & Sons Inc. 

Green Soft Hat Mfg Co. 

Hawes, Von Gal Co. 

S C Holley & Co. 

Hoyt, Walthausen & Co. 

Lee Hat Mfg Co. 

Lee Soft Hat Co. 

D E Loewe 

E A Mallory & Sons 

H McLachlan 

Meeker Bros & Co. 

Millard Hat Co. 

J B Murphy & Co. 

National Hat Co. 

Rundle & White 

SAG Hat Co. 

Simon & Keane 

A C Wheeler (Norwalk) 

Otto Barthol Co. (S. Norwalk) 

Crofut & Knapp Co. 

Dennis & Blanchard 

A A Hodson & Co. 

W B Hubbell 

Rough Hat Co. 

Volk Hat Co. 

J C Wilson & Co. 

Walhizer & Dreyer 

New Milford Hat Co. (N. Milford) 


Bethel Hat Forming Co. (Bethel) 

Bridgeport Hat Mfg Co. (B'dg'p't) 

A S Davenport (Danbury) 

F D Tweedy & Co. 

C M Horch 

Hat Forming Co. (S. Norwalk) 

Universal Hat Co. 

HEATERS (Feed Water) 

Whitlock Coil Pipe Co. (Htfd.) 
I B Davis & Son " 

Foskett & Bishop Co. (N. Haven) 

National Pipe Bending Co. " 


Am. Hosiery Co. (N. Britain) 

Dunham Hosiery Co. (Naugatuck) 

Columbia Hosiery Co. (N. Haven) 
Radcliffe Bros. (Shelton) 

Winsted Hosiery Co. (W'sted) 

ICE (Artificial) 

Hygienic Ice Co. (New Haven) 

Hygenia Ice & Cold Stor. (W'terbury) 

Naugatuck Valley Ice Co. (B'dg'port) 
Diamond Ice Co. (Stamford) 

Burr Index Co. (Hartford) 


Standard Co. (Hartford) 


New Haven Iron & Steel Co. (N. H.) 
Barnum, Richardson Co. (E. Canaan) 


Porter & Dyson Co. (N. Brit.) 
C R Harris (N. Windham) 


Corbin Cabinet Lock Co. 

(New Britain) 


Salisbury Cut. & Handle Co. (Sal'b'y) 


Royal Knit. Mills (Putnam) 


Tariffville Lace Mfg Co. (Tariffv'lle) 


New Era Lustre Co. (New Haven) 

Am. Lacquer Co. (Bridgeport) 

David B Crockett Co. 

Parrott Varnish Co. 

Celluloid Zapon Co. (Stamford) 


E C Bishop & Co. (Hartford) 


Edward Miller & Co. (M'den) 
Scoville & Peck Co. (N. Haven) 

Stevens & Sackett Co. 
Matthews & Willard Mfg Co (W'bury) 
Plume & Atwood Mfg Co. 
Goodwin & Kintz (Winsted) 


Meriden Mach. Tool Co. 

New Haven Mfg Co. (N. Haven) 

E E Johnson (Putnam) 

Brown Machine Co. (Winsted) 


Herman Roser (E. Glastonbury) 

Jewell Belting Co. (Hartford) 
Bridgeport Patent Leather Mfg Co. 

Geo Dudley & Son Co. (W'ted) 
Case Leather Works (Hop River) 

LEATHER (Artificial) 

Boston Artificial Leather Co. 



Hartford Leather Goods Co. 

George A Shepard & Sons Co. (Bethel) 
Fred K Braitling (Bridgeport) 

Chas H Kempner, Jr. (Westport) 
E E Robbins (Putnam) 

Corbin Cabinet Lock Co. 

(New Britain) 


Calhoun Show Print Co. (Hartford) 
Dodd Lithographic Co. " 

Kellogg & Bulkeley Co. " 

Dorman Lithographing Co. (N. Haven) 

Corbin Cabinet Lock Co. 

(New Britain) 
A Ochsner & Sons Co. (N. Haven) 


Pratt & Whitney Co. (Htfd.) 
Edred W Clark " 

Cooley & Trevor Mfg Co. 
Fenn-Sadler Machine Co. " 

Gray & Prior Machine Co. " 

Carlyle Johnson Mach Co. " 

Mutual Machine Co. 
National Machine Co. 
Phoenix Mfg Co. " 

W H Pickering & Co. " 

L E Rhodes 

Sigourney Tool Co. " 

Dwight Slate Machine Co. " 

John Thompson Press Co. " 

Whitney Mfg Co. " 

New Britain Machine Co. (N. B'tain) 
North & Pfeiffer Mfg Co. " 

B Lamb & Co. (Plainville) 

Norton & Jones 

Thompson Drop Forge Co (PlantVlle) 
C E Billings Mfg Co. (Rocky Hill) 
George P Clark Co. (Windsor L'ks) 
Windsor Locks Mach Co. " 

H C Cook Machine Co. (Ansonia) 
Farrel Foundry & Mach Co. " 

Meriden Mach. Tool Co. 

A H Merriam " 

F Wheeler & Son " 

C J Brooks (New Haven) 

E A Burgess Est. " 

F M Carroll ** 

Defiance Button Machine " 

Eastern Machinery Co. 
Elm City Engineering Co. " 

George M Griswold 
Hemming Bros 
Herrick & Cowell 
George M McKenzie 
F P Pfleghar & Son 
George E Prentice & Co. 
Reynolds & Co. " 

James Reynolds Mfg Co. 
F C & A E Rowland 
F B Shuster Co. 
W J Smith & Co. 
Smith & Twiss 
H G Thompson & Son Co. 
J M Smith (Sejmiour) 

Cross & Spiers Mach Co. (Waterbury) 
John Draher 
Manville Bros 
E J Manville Mach Co. 
Waterbury Farrel Fdy. & Mach Co. " 
Waterbury Mach Co. " 

Rowbottom Mach Co. (Waterville) 
Belden Mach Co. (Westville) 

Standard Machinery Co. (Mystic) 

D E Whiton Mach. Co. _ x 

(New London) 

Am Woodworking Mach Co. (Norwich) 

M A Barber 

A Gould " 

Hiscox Co. 

Lester & Wasley 

Connecticut Products and Their Manufacturers 

Atwood-Morrison Co. (Stonington) 

A L Adams (Bridgeport) 

Automatic Mach Co. 

Baker Mach Co. " 

H C Bradley 

Bridgeport Fdy. & Mach Co. 

Bridgeport Safety Emery Wheel Co. " 

Bullard Mach Tool Co. " 

Coulter & McKenzie Mach Co. " 

Curtis & Curtis Co. 

Grant Mfg & Mach Co.. 

A H Nilson Mach Co. 

Special Mach Co. 

Edward P Walter " 

James W Weir 

Boesch Mfg Co. (Danbury) 

Doran Bros " 

Heim Mach Co. 

Morelock & Husk " 

New Mach Co. 

Turner Mach Co. 

Colonial Fdy. & Mach Co. E. Nor'w'k) 

H A Tuttle Mfg Co. 

J W Craw (S. Norwalk) 

George N McKibben Mfg Co. " 

J W Miller 

Computing Scale Co. (Saugatuck) 

Dairy Mach'y & Construe. Co. (Shel'n) 

Ball Mfg Co. (Stamford) 

George Muench Co. 

Stamford Iron Works 

Larkin Reed Co. (Danielson) 

Willimantic Mach Co. (Willimantic) 

Smith St Winchester Co „ 

(S. windham) 
J A Northrop & Son (N. Milford) 
Baird Machine Co. (Oakville) 

Hendey Machine Co. (Torrington) 

Brown Machine Co. (Winsted) 
H. B. Brown & Co. (E. Hampton) 
A O Read Co. (Middletown) 

Brock way & Meckinsturn (Moodus) 


Everett Horton 
J H Sessions & Son 


MACHINERY (Registering) 

Conn. Computing Machine Co. 

(New Haven) 
C J Root (Bristol) 


Hartford Machine Screw Co. 

MACHINERY (Wood Screw) 

Asa A Cook Co. (Hartford) 

MACHINES (Sewing) 

Merrow Machine Co. (Htfd.) 
Model Mach Co. (Bridgeport) 

Wheeler & Wilson " 


Billings & Spencer Co. (Htfd.) 


Hartford Faience Co. (Htfd.) 

MASSAGE (Rubber Brushes) 

Flexible Rubber Goods Co. 



B Rottman (New Haven) 

B B Savage & Co. " 

" Yudkin 

Hugh Sterling 
Kui'us Wakeman 


MATTRESSES (Woven Wire) 

Hartford Bedstead Co.(Htfd.) 
National Wire Mattress Co. 



Reeves Mfg Co. 
Weld Mfg Co. 



Bridgeport Metallic Pack Co. 



Goodwin & Kintz Co. (W'sted) 
Beseman & Bostwick (Hartford) 

Sterling Blower & Pipe Mfg Co. " 
Ansonia Brass & Copper Co. (Ansonia) 
Coe Brass Mfg Co. " 

Griswold, Richmond & Glock Co. 

Adlerhurst Iron Co. (N. Haven) 

Buckingham, Roth Co. " 

Curtiss & Pierpont Co. " 

Levine Bros " 

Magnus Metal Co. " 

Wm A T Smith 

New Haven Copper Co. (Seymour) 
Metal Finishing Co. (Union City) 
Benedict & Burnham Co. (Waterbury) 
Chase Rolling Mill Co. 
Coe Brass Co. " 

Randolph-Clowes Co. " 

Scovill Mfg Co. 
Waterbury Brass Co. 
Henry Weyand Co. " 

Cheshire Brass Co. (W. Cheshire) 

Am. Tube & Stamping Co. (Bridgeport) 
J W Beach " 

Bridgeport Brass Co. " 

Farist Steel Co. 
Handy & Harmon 

G Drouve Co. " 

C W Moore " 

John Schwing Corp. 
Oven Equipment & Mfg Co. (St'ford) 
Plume & Atwood Mfg Co. (Thom'ton) 
Coe Brass Mfg Co. (Torrington) 


E H Jacobs Mfg Co. (Danielson) 

L M Hartson Co. (N. Windham) 


Stephen Maslen Corp. (Htfd.) 
H D Burnham, " 

Thos Phillips & Son (N. Haven) 

John Salter & Son (Groton) 

Henry Gardner (Millstone Pt.) 

F M Ladd New London) 

C A Kuebler (Norwich) 

Monumental Bronze Co. (Br'dg'port) 


Bridgeport Motor Co. (Bridgeport) 

Electric Vehicle Co. (Htfd.) 


Standard Co. (Hartford) 


Aeolian Co. (Meriden) 

Wilcox & White Co. 


Leeds & Catlin Co. (Middletown) 


Tibbals Oakum Co. (Cobalt) 


Edward Miller & Co. (M'den) 


Wilcox & White Co. (M'den) 
Bridgeport Organ Co. (Bridgeport) 

ORGANS (Church) 

Austin Organ Co. (Hartford) 
H Hall & Co. (New Haven) 


Organ Power Co. (Hartford) 


Mansfield Organ Pipe Co. 

(Mansfield Depot) 

ORGAN (Stops & Knobs) 

Denison Bros (Deep River) 


Wm. L. Gilbert Clock Co. 
Goodwin & Kintz Co. " 


Wm H Wiley & Son Co. (Hartford) 


Bridgeport Wood Finishing Co. 



East Hartford Mfg Co. (Burnside) 
Taylor-Atkins Paper Co. " 

J H Walker " 

P Garvan (Hartford) 

Am Writing Paper Co. (Manch'ter) 
Lydall & Foulds Paper Co. " 

Newington Paper Co. (Newington) 
Hartford Paper Co. (Rainbow) 

G J Merwin " 

Rainbow Mill " 

J D Stowe & Son (Scitico) 

Am Writing Paper Co. (Unionville) 
Case Mfg Co. 

Am Writing Paper Co. (Windsor Lks) 
Anchor Mills Paper Co. " 

Whittlesey Paper Co. 
C H Dexter & Son (W. Locks) 
Case & Marshall Inc. (Woodland) 

Cashin Card & Glazed Paper Co. 

(New Haven) 
S Y Beach Paper Co. (Seymour) 

Jos Parker & Son Co. (Westville) 

Brown Bros (Comstock Bridge) 

Harrison Shick & Pratt Co. 

C M Robertson Co. (Montville) 

A H Hubbard Co. (Norwich) 

Uncas Paper Co. " 

F P Robinson Poper Co. (W'terford) 
N A Woodworth " 

Beaver Brook Paper Mill 

Jerome Paper Co. (Norwalk) 

St. George Pulp & Paper Co. '«* 

Oronoque Paper Co. (Oronoque) 

Frederick Beck & Co. (Stamford) 

Avery Bates Co. (Ellington) 

Industrial Strength of Connecticut 


J B Burr & Co. Inc. (Htfd.) 


Topping Bros (Hartford) 

Hartford Pat. & Model Co. " 

H P Little & Co. 

Geo D Lambert (N. Haven) 

W B Judd (Waterbury) 

Fred F Beach (Bridgeport) 

O S Piatt 

Henry S Hale (Stamford) 


Miller Bros Cutlery Co. 



E J Hoadley 
Harris-Hart Co. 

New Haven) 


Anthony & Scovill Co. (New Haven) 

Meriden Gravure Co. (M'den) 


Sterling Co. (Derby) 

Wilcox & White Co. (Meriden) 
B Shoninger Co. (New Haven) 

Steinerstone Co. 

Mathushek Piano Mfg Co. (W. Haven) 
Huntington Piano Co. (Shelton) 

Schleicher Sons' Piano Co. (St'ford) 


Wilcox & White Co. (Meriden) 


Pratt, Read & Co. (Deep River) 

Comstock Cheney & Co. (Ivoryton) 

PICKLES, (Mixed, Etc.) 

Standard Co. (Hartford) 


Assawan Mill Co. (Norwich) 


Jewell Pin Co. (Hartford) 

Sterling Pin Co. (Derby) 

Am Pin Co. (Waterville) 

Star Pin Co. (Shelton) 

Oakville Co. (Oakville) 

New England Pin Co. (Winsted) 


Whitlock Coil Pipe Co. 



Hartford Pulp Plaster Corp (Hfd) 
Conn Adamant Plaster Co. (N Haven) 


Legate Mfg Co. (Hartford) 

Manning, Bowman & Co. (Meriden) 
R Wallace & Sons Mfg Co. 

Wallingford Co. Inc. " 

E H H Smith Silver Co. (Bridgeport) 


New Departure Mfg Co. (Bristol) 

Whitlock Coil Pipe Co. (Htfd.) 
C Birkery " 

Hogan Mfg Co. " 

Frank J Knox Co. " 

P J Flannery (New Britain) 

Landers, Frary & Clark " 

Peck Bros & Co. (New Haven) 

Sheahan & Groark " 

Eaton, Cole & Burnham Co. 

John Hamilton " 

Yanderman Plumb. & Heat. Co. 



Goodwin Bros Pottery (Elmwood) 


B P Webler (Bristol) 

PRESSES (Cider & Cotton) 

G H Bushnell Press Co. (Thomp'ville) 
PRESSES (Drill) 

Henry & Wright Mfg Co. 


PRESSES (Drop). 

Miner & Peck Mfg Co. (New Haven) 

PRESSES (Printing) 

Kelsey Press Co. (Meriden) 
Brown Cotton Gin Co. (N. London) 
C B Cottrell & Sons Co. (Stonington) 

Whitlock Print. Press Mfg. Co. 



Bridgeport Type Furnishing Co. 



I B Davis & Son (Hartford) 

Union Mfg Co. (New Britain) 
W & B Douglass (Middletowti) 


James L Howard & Co. (Hartford) 
Baldwin & Rowland Sw'ch & Signal Co. 
(New Haven) 
Recording Fare Registering Co. " 
Standard Coupler Co. (Bridgeport) 
Barnum, Richardson Co. (Lime Rock) 


Rattan Mfg Co. (N. Haven) 

REELS (Fishing) 

Liberty Bell Co. (Bristol) 

Hart & Cooley Co. (New Brit.) 

RODS (Steel Fishing) 

Horton Mfg Co. (Bristol) 


Beacon Falls Rubber Shoe Co. 

(Beacon Falls) 
Goodyear Met. Rubber Shoe Co. 



Seward Rubber Co. (Kensington) 

Windsor Collar & Cuff Co. (Windsor) 
Goodyear's India Rubber Glove Mfg Co. 

Baumann Rubber Co. (New Haven) 
L Candee & Co. " 

Falcon Rubber Co. " 

Seamless Rubber Co. . " 

H P & E Day (Seymour) 

H O Canfield (Bridgeport) 

Canfield Rubber Co. " 

Sieman Hard Rub. Corp. '« 

Fabric Fire Hose Co. (Sandy Hook) 
Union Novelty Co. (Putnam) 

Thread City Collar Co. (Willimantic) 
Flexible Rubber Goods Co. 



Aetna Stamp Works (Htfd.) 
George W Burch «« 


Hartford Rubber Works Co. (Hfd) 

New Haven Rug Co. (New Haven) 
E S Smith " 

Excelsior Rug Co. (Norwalk) 


Smith-Worthington Co. (Hartford) 

H Smith's Sons (New Haven) 


Penfield Saw Works (Bristol) 


Fernside Screen Works (Hartford) 

SCREWS (Machine) 

Htfd. Machine Screw Co. 

Spencer Automatic Mach Screw Co. | 
Corbin Screw Corp. (N. Brit.) 

Harvey Hubbell (Bridgeport) 

SCREWS (Metal & Wood) 

Atlantic Screw Works (Htfd.) 
Corbin Screw Corp. (N. Brit.) 


Winsted Mfg Co. (Winsted) 

Merrow Mach Co. (Hartford) 


Clavton Bros (Bristol) 

Am Shear & Knife Co. (Hotchkissville) 
J Mallison Co. (W. Cornwall) 


Parker Shirt Co. (N. Britain) 

R B Halsey & Co. (Bridgeport) 

Hutchinson, Pierce & Co. 

Danbury Shirt Co. (Danbury) 

Rockwell Bros (New Canaan) 

Connecticut Products and Their Manufacturers 


Eastern Ship Bldg Co. (Groton) 

Home Ship Bldg Co. (W. Mystic) 

Robert Palmer & Son Co. (Noank) 


Cheney Bros (Hartford & S Man'ch'er) 
Spring Silk Co. (S. Manchester) 

Rossie Velvet Co. (Old Mystic) 

Brainerd & Armstrong Co. 

(New London 
New London "Wash Silk Co. " 

Givernaud Bros (Norwich) 

M J Green " 

J B Martin & Co. " 

Am Velvet Co. (Stonington) 

Bethel Silk Co. (Bethel) 

Bridgeport Silk Co. (Bridgeport) 

Salt's Textile Mfg Co. 
A E Tweedy (Danbury) 

Joseph Loth & Co. (Norwalk) 

S Blumenthal & Co. (Shelton) 

Specialty Weaving Co. " 

Chaffee Mfg Co. (Willimantic) 

Windham Silk Co. " 

Merchant Silk Co. (Middletown) 

Portland Silk Co. 
Russell Mfg Co. " 

SILK (Sewing) 

Brainerd & Armstrong Co. 

(New London) 
Warehouse Point Silk Co. 

(Warehouse Point) 
Windsor Silk Co. (Windsor Locks) 
Globe Silk Works (New Haven) 

M Heminway & Sons (Waterbury) 

Boas Thread Co. (Stamford) 

John A Dady Corp. (Putnam) 

Hammond & Knowlton Co. " 

HoUand Mfg Co. (Willimantic) 

Heminway & Bartlett Silk Co. 

M Heminway & Sons Silk Co. " 

P W Turner (Turnerville) 


Brainerd & Armstrong Co. 

(New London) 
Nonotuck Silk Co. (Hartford) 

Norwich Silk Co. (Norwich) 

Hampton Silk Co. (Putnam) 

Putnam Silk Co. " 

A G Turner (Willimantic) 

Aetna Silk Co. (Norfolk) 

E L Smith (Gurleyville) 

J S McFarland, (Mansfield Center) 
Belding Bros & Co. (RockVille) 

John A Dady, (S Coventry) 

A Washburn & Son " 

T H Wood 
G Hanks (Spring Hill) 


Am. Silver Co. (Bristol) 

Silver City* Plate Co. (Meriden) 

International Silver Co. 
E A Bliss Co. " 

W B Hall 

Sprenenberg & Co. " 

Williams Brs. Mfg Co. (Glastonbury) 
Legate Mfg Co. (Hartford) 

S L & G H Rogers Co. 
Internat. Silver Co. (WTford) 
S L & G H Rogers Co. 
Internat. Silver Co. (W'bury) 
Internat. Silver Co. (B'd'port) 
Brainard & Wilson Co. (Danbury) 
Rogers Silver Plate Co. " 

Internat. Silver Co. (Shelton) 
Silver Plate Cutlery Co. " 


J B Williams Co. 
Bon Ami Co. 
J T Robertson 


L T Frisbie Co. (Rocky Hill) 

Packer Mfg Co. (Mystic) 

Fairchild & Shelton (Bridgeport) 

Allison Bros. (Middletown) 


Allen Spool & Print Co. (Mystic) 


National Spring Bed Co. 

(New Britain) 
Farren Bros Co. (New Haven) 

B B Savage & Co. 

SPRINGS (Clock) 

Wallace Barnes Co. (Bristol) 

Dunbar Co. " 

F N Manross (Forestville) 


Bristol Co. (Waterbury) 

Bridgeport Chain Co. (Bridgeport) 

Conn Clasp Co. " 

Geo R Osborn & Co. " 

Thomas R Taylor " 

Ferry-Hallock Co. (Danbury) 

E H Hotchkiss & Co. (Norwalk) 

Bantam Mfg Co. (Bantam) 

Excelsoir Needle Co. (Torrington) 

Tiley, Pratt & Co. (Essex) 

Lyman Gun Sight Works (Middlefield) 

STONE (Artificial) 

Am. Artificial Stone Co. (N. Britain) 
Economy Mfg Co. (New Haven) 

New England Stone Co. " 


Yale Gas Stove Co. (New Haven) 

Stamford Fdy. Co. (Stamford) 

Stamford Gas Stove Co. " 


Am. Bridge Co. (E. Berlin) 

Berlin Construction Co. (Kensington) 
Yale Safe & Iron Co. (W Haven) 


Remsen Mfg Co. (Hartford) 


Traut & Hine Mfg Co. 

(New Britain) 


Conn Tel. & Elec. Co. (Meriden) 
Russell, Tomlinson Elec. Co. (Danb'y) 


Gray Tel. Pay Station Co. (Hartf'd) 


Hartford Faience Co. (Htfd.) 


Merriam Mfg Co. 
J Smith Mfg Co. 

(Little River) 


Ira B Smith (Bristol) 

F G Johnson Co. (Hartford) 

Pratt & Whitney Co. " 

L E Rhodes (Hartford 

Sigourney Tool Co. " 

Dwight Slate Mach. Co. " 

Vanderbeek Tool Works, ** 

Taylor Mfg Co. " 

Stanley Rule & Level Co. 

(New Britain) 
Omega Steel Tool Co. (Ansonia) 

Meriden Mach. Tool Co. 

Barnes Tool Co. (New Haven) 

Jennings & Griffin Mfg Co. (Tracy) 
S A Kisdon (Waterbury) 

Geometric Tool Co. (Westville) 

C I Yale Mfg Co. (Yalesville) 

Armstrong Mfg Co. (Bridgeport) 

Automatic Tool Co. (E Norwalk) 

Wm G Le Count 

Wheeler Bros (S Norwalk) 

K Tool Holder Co. (Shelton) 

G W Bradley (Westport) 

Brown Mach. Co. (Winsted) 
Carter & Hawes Mach. Co. " 

Winsted Edge Tool Works " 

Ideal Mfg Co. (Gildersleeve) 


Sheffield Dentrifice Co. (N. London) 


New Haven Toy & Game Co. 

(New Haven) 
Ives Mfg. Co. (Bridgeport) 

Austin & Craw (S. Norwalk) 

Murphy Mfg. Co. (Stamford) 

J & E Stevens Co. (Cromwell) 

Kirby Mfg Co. (Middletown) 


Henderson Bros (Waterbury) 


Underwood Typewriter Co. " 

Williams Typewriter Co. (Derby) 

Union Typewriter Co. (Bridgeport) 
Postal Typewriter Co. (Norwalk) 

Blickensderfer Mfg Co. (Stamford) 


J B Woolson (Watertown) 

Strong Mfg Co. (Winsted) 


Glastonbury Knit. Co. (Addison) 

N L Birge & Sons Co. (Bristol) 

Bristol Mfg Co. " 

Glastonbury Knit. Co. (Manchester G.) 
Am. Hosiery Co. (New Brit.) 
Bristol Mfg Co. (Plainville) 

Health Underwear Co. (Poquonock) 
Medlicott Co. (Windsor Locks) 

A H & C B Ailing (Derby) 

H L Welch Hosiery Co. (Waterville) 
W S Mills (Bridgeport) 

R G Toucey (Long Hill) 

Eastern Underwear Co. (S. Norwalk) 
Nichols Underwear Corp 
Radcliffe Bros (Shelton) 

Norfolk & New Brunswick Hosiery Co. 
New England Knit. Co. (Winsted) 

Winsted Hosiery Co. 

Industrial Strength of Connecticut 

Vehicles (Elec. & Gasoline) 

Electric Vehicle Co. (Hartford) 


Sterling Blower & Pipe Mfg Co. 

Hartford Blower Co. (Wethersfield) 


James Pullar & Co. (Hartford) 

Geo. A. Ten Brock & Co. (N. Haven) 


New England Watch Co. (Waterbury) 
Waterbury Clock Co. " 


C P Bradway (W. Stafford) 


Meriden Curtain Fixture Co. (M'den) 
J M Crampton (New Haven) 


W R Brixey (Seymour) 

Seymour Mfg Co. " 

Geo Hartley (Waterbury) 

Atlantic Ins'l. Wire & Cable Co. 


Hartford Bedstead Co. (Htfd.) 
Conn. Steel & Wire Co. " 

Edward F Smith & Co. (New Haven) 
Wire Novelty Co. (West Haven) 

Acme Wire Works (Bridgeport) 

Gilbert & Bennett Mfg Co. 

C Jeliff & Co. (New Canaan) 

C O Jeliff Corp. (Southport) 

M S Brooks & Sons (Chester) 

Potter & Snell (Deep River) 


Hartford Bedstead Co. (Htfd.) 


Geo A Kinner (Danbury) 

Geo B Sherman " 


Johnson & Co. (Norwich) 

E E Dickerson & Son (Essex) 

Lenifect Co. " 


A H Warner & Co. (Bristol) 

R H Cooper (Bridgeport) 

C J Bates (Chester) 


E A Morse (Derby) 

N J Patrick " 

Morehouse Bros (Meriden) 

J W Russell Mfg Co. (Naugatuck) 

Geo Ailing Sons Co. (New Haven) 

Bradley Mfg Co. 

E P Brett 

David H Clark Co. 

Dann Bros & Co. " 

Elm City Lumber Co. " 

C Upham Ely " 

Anton Faith " 

J H Griffith & Sons 

Hubbell Merwin & Co. " 

Johnstone & Gerrish " 

C M Manning " 

Morgan & Humiston Co. " 

New England Stool Co. ". 

New Haven Saw Mill Co. " 

Norton Bros & White Co. " 

Remfler & Thompson " 

H G Shepard & Sons 

Sperry & Amos Co. " 

W R Hartigan (Burlington) 

Andrews & Peck Co. (Hartford) 

C H Dresser & Son " 

H A French " 

H Harman " 

Hartford Builders Finish Co. 

Hartford Lumber Co. " 

John McClary W W Co. 

Wm. Olds & Co. 

C W Shea 

Stoddard & Caulkins 

Edwin Taylor Lumber Co. 

A D Birge (Hazardville) 

F Curtis (New Britain) 

New Brit. Co-operative Bldg. Co. " 

New Brit. Plan. & Mold. Works " 

John Pinches Co. " 

George E Taft (Unionville) 

James E Todd (New Haven) 

Wilbur Corp 

Yale University Carpenter Shop " 

J J Macauley (Waterbury) 

J E Smith & Co. 

Tracy Bros Co. 

George Upham 

Haller Brown Co. (Yalesville) 

Charles Parker Co. 

F H & A H Chappell Co. (N. London) 

H R Douglass 

Heath & Hawthorn 

Wm G Rogers 

George G Tyler " 

N S Gilbert & Sons (Norwich) 

James A Hiscox 

H B Porter & Son Co. 

V S Stetson 

Maxson & Co. (Stonington) 

Ellis Wood-Working Co. (Bethel) 

A W Burritt Co. (Bridgeport) 

Frederickson Bros & Co. 

H C Hoffman & Co. 

W S Hurlbut Bldg Co. 

James S Jones 

Frank Miller Lumber Co. 

Sewing Machine Cabinet Co. 

W A Smith Bldg Co. 

Albert Wakeman 

Elmer H Barnum (Danbury) 

Foster Bros 

W W Sunderland 

Joseph Brush (Greenwich) 

A R Malkin (Norwalk) 

Carman & Seymour (E. Norwalk) 

Hatch, Bailey & Co. (S. Norwalk) 

H W Mather 

Waldron & Riordan " 

Doscher Plane & Tool Co. (Saugatuck) 

Lyman Hoyt Son & Co. (Stamford) 

Imperial Mfg Co. 

Frank Miller Lumber Co. 

St. Johns' Wood-Working Co. " 

Torrey Bros & Co. (Central Village) 

James A Nichols (Danielson) 

C M & E B Kent (Putnam) 

Wheaton Bldg & Lumber Co. 

J. B. Tatem & Son (Putnam) 

S Arnold (Williamsville) 

Hillhouse & Taylor (Willimantic) 

Latham & Crane " 

Johnson Lindell & Co. 
Hotchkiss Bros Co. 
John W Roe 
George C Wilcox 
Winsted Cabinet Co. 
M L Ryan 

Williams & Marvin Co, 
Essex Wood Turning 
Custav Loewenthal 
Jasper Tryon 
Henry Armstrong 





(Deep River) 

Co. (Essex) 


(S. Coventry) 


Broad Brook Woolen Co. (B. Brook) 
E E Hilliard Co. (Buckland) 

Crosbv Mfg Co. (E. Glastonbury) 

Hitchcock & Curtiss Knit. Co. (Htfd.) 
Park Knit. Works " 

Gordon Bros (Hazardville) 

Franklin Glazier & Son (Hopewell) 
Meriden Woolen Co. (Meriden) 

Tingue Mfg Co. (Seymour) 

Shetucket Worsted Mills (Baltic) 

Fairbanks & Plainfield (Bozrahville) 
Niantic Mfg Co. (E. Lyme) 

Airlie Mills (Hanover) 

Monarch Woolen Mill (Montville) 

Mystic Mfg Co. (Mystic) 

Mystic Woolen Co. 

A B Burleson & Co. (Jewett City) 
Palmer Bros (New London) 

Glen Woolen Goods (Norwich) 

Hall Bros " 

Reliance Worsted Co. 
B Lucas Co. (Poquetannoc) 

Westerly Woolen Co. (Stonington) 
Yantic Woolen Co. (Yantic) 

Cylindrograph Embroidery Co. 

Am. Felt Co. (Glenville) 

Lounsbury, Bissell & Co. (Winnipauk) 
Norwalk Mills Co. " 

Plainfield Woolen Co. (Cent. Village) 
Danielson Worsted Co. (Danielson) 
Pequot Worsted Co. " 

Assawaga Co. (Dayville) 

Davis & Brown Woolen Co. 
Brigham Woolen Co. (Elmville) 

Thayer Woolen Co. 
French River Textile Co. 

Am. Woolen Co. (Moosup) 

T G Murdock & Son (New Boston) 
Putnam Woolen Co. (Putnam) 

Lawrence Keegan (Wilsonville) 

Wm Sibley (N. Windham) 

Warreton Woolen Co. (Torrington) 
Winsted Yarn Co. (Winsted) 

Daniel Curtis & Sons (Woodbury) 
Rockfall Woolen Co. (Middletown) 
Conn. Woolen Mill (E. Willington) 
Am. Mills Co. (Rockville) 

Hockanum Co. 

New England Co. " 

J J Regan Mfg Co. " 

Rock Mfg Co. " 

Springville Mfg Co. " 

Somersville Mfg Co. (Somersville) 
E A Tracy (S« Coventry) 

Phoenix Woolen Co. (Stafford) 

Riverside Woolen Co. 

Beckwith Card Co. 

(Stafford Springs) 
J J & A D Ellis 
Fabvan Woolen Co. 
Faulkner Woolen Mill " 

F T Mullen & Co. 
A B Paton Mfg Co. 
Smith & Cooley 
Stafford Worsted Co. 
Warren Woolen Co. 
Fabvan Woolen Co. (Staffordville) 
Faulkner Woolen Mill 
Garland Woolen Co. 
Talcott Bros (Talcottville) 

Vernon Woolen Co. (Vernon) 



y W*t ■■:S: 


Any Child 

who has enjoyed the benefit of Mennen's 
Borated Talcum Toilet Powder daily since 

birth is free from the painful chapping and 
chafing which comes with winter weather. 

Mennen's Borated Talcum 
Toilet Powder 

soothes and heals, and if used daily, enables the 
most tender skin to resist the ill effects of chang- 
ing conditions of weather. 

Put up in non-refillable boxes, for your 
protection. If Mennen's face is on the cover, 
it's genuine, that's a guarantee of purity. 
Delightful after shaving. Sold everywhere, or 
by mail 25c. Sample Free. 


Try Mennen's Violet (Borated) Talcum Powder. 
It has the scent of fresh cut Violets. 


Please Mention The Connecticut Magazine when patronizing our Advertisers. 



I Ith St. and University Place, 

One Block West of Broadway. 


First-Glass Service and Accommodations 
at Moderate Rates. 

Rooms at $1.00 per Day and Upwards. 
Restaurant on Premises. 






Broadway and Thirty-First Street, NEW YORK 





Conducted on 


At Moderate Rates. 
Cuisine Unexcelled 


Single room and suites, 
with and without bath 



per day and upwards. 

Ten minutes from all Stations 
and Ferries, accessible to all 
Theatres and Shops. It is an 
up-to-date, fire-proof Structure; 
Electric Light and Telephone in 
Rooms. All refurnished and 
newly decorated. 

Send for Booklet. 

Please Mention The Connecticut Magazine when patronizing our Advertisers. 


Cor. Bowdoin St., opposite STATE HOUSE, 

This Hotel is new and absolutely fire proof; even the floors are of stone; nothing wood but the doors. We offer you 
the following rates: Rooms with hot and cold water and free public bath, $1 and $1.50 a day for one person; $2 and $2.50 
a day for two persons. Rooms with private bath, $1.50 and §2 a day for one person; $2.50 and $3 a day for two persons 
Will make a weekly rate for rooms with hot and cold water of $6 to $8; with private bath, $9 to $10. Suites of two rooms, 
with bath, $14 to $22. The cafe and dining room are first class. 




Just off Broadway on 47th Street, West 

and Long Acre Square, NEW YORK 

Opened January 1906 





324 Rooms 
private baths 

European Plan 

Within Five Minutes Walk of 


Send for Souvenir Postal Cards. 


The Leading Fire Insurance Company of America' 

Wm. B. Clark, President W. H. King, Secretary 

A. C. Adams, Henry E. Rees, A. N. Williams, Assistant 


Please Mention The Connecticut Magazine when patronizing our Advertisers. 




Best reached by one of the perfectly equipped "Admirals," the Twin Screw U. S. Mail Steamships of the 

United Fruit Company 

They afford the most delightful ocean trip of the winter months. Within 24 hours after leaving you are in the 
warm airs of the Gulf Stream. Hotel accommodations in Jamaica satisfy every desire- 
Weekly Sailings from BOSTON and Steamers "Brookline" and "Barnstable" 


Round Trip 
One Way - 


Weekly from BALTIMORE: 

Round Trip - 

One Way 


35. OO 


"A Happy Month in Jamaica" ^e a se"d™™S^ Wet 

ADDRESS: F. S. JOPP, den. Pass. Agt., UNITED FRUIT CO., Long Wharf, Boston, 


104 E. Pratt St., Baltimore, 5 Norlh Wharves, Philadelphia, 321 St. Charles St., New Orleans. 

Please Mention The Connecticut MAGAzine when patronizing our Advertisers. 




Paper manufacturers* 1 


makers of « 


"Princess" Cover Papers. 
"Unique" Cover Papers. 
"Abbotsford" Deckle Edge Papers. 
"Star" Bristol Boards. 
"Star" White and Colored Tissues. 
"Star" Manifold Linen and Onion Skin Papers 
Specialties in Colors and Thin Papers. 

Please Mention The Connecticut Magazine when patronizing our Advertisers. 

Established (838. Incorporated 1864. 



Hartford and South Manchester, Conn. 



447 Broome Street. 79 Chauncey Street. 


239 Fifth Avenue. . 929 Chestnut Street, Room 303. 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL., 1239 Franklin Street. 

Pongees and Florentines. 

Plain, Figured and Printed. For Dress Goods and 
Decorative Purposes. 

Printed Silk Flags. 

Satins, Twills and Armures. 

Printed and Solid Colors. Black and Colored Gros 
Grains and Taffetas. 

Velvets and Plushes. 

Upholstering Materials, Drapery Fabrics and 



Cros Grain, Satin and Fancy. 

Trams, Organzines and Spun Silks, 

For Manufacturers' Use. 


Please Mention The Connecticut Magazine when patronizing our Advertisers. 



Sell and 

Make to 


Alter and 


[ Repair 


Furs, Clothing, Rugs, Etc. 

Insured against Moth, Fire and Burglars 


Formerly of Pratt Street 






™ Hartford 

Printing Co. 


Book and Job Printers 


Printers and Publishers of GEER'S 
alogy ol the Gallup Family for Sale. 


representing the height 
of perfection in silver- 
plate, combining exquisite 
beauty of design with the 
quality that endures, bears 
the trade mark of the famous 


"Silver Plate that Wears'* 

For almost three score years this 
trade mark has stood for the best in 
silver-plate that money could procure. 

1847 ROGERS BROS. Knives are made with 
hollow handles with round bolster and blades 
of finest crucible steel. Forks, spoons, etc., 
can be had to match and sets completed at 
any time. Sold bv leading dealers. Send 
for Catalogue ** B-ll" to help in making 


(International Silver Co., Successor.) 





Please Mention The Connecticut Magazine when patronizing our Advertisers. 






In every composition there runs a vein of melody commonly called 
the " air," frequently lying wholly in the treble, sometimes inter- 
woven with the accompaniment or wholly covered by ornamentation. 

The function of the MELODANT is to automatically pick out 
and accent the melody notes, even when such note or notes 
appear in the midst of a full chord, giving to each its proper 
value as previously determined in an authentic interpretation. 

This most desirable and long-sought-for effect is obtained in the 
MELODANT ANGELUS by the performer simply using the pedals 
in the ordinary manner. Thus with an ANGELUS equipped with 
the MELODANT the performer has at his command two methods of 

He can accent either, automatically by means of the MELO= 
DANT or, by his own manipulation of the Melody Buttons, 
which have been and which still are one of the most valuable 
features of the ANQELUS. 


The addition of the MELODANT does not impair the efficiency 
nor detract from the value of the simple yet complete expression 
devices also found upon the ANGELUS. These will still be the 
means for individual interpretation, which to many persons constitutes 
the chief and unrivaled charm of our instrument. The ANGELUS is 
absolutely the only piano-player with whose aid the best artistic 
results can be obtained. 

The ANQELUS in cabinet form, the EMERSON= ANQELUS PIANO, the 
KNABE=ANQELUS PIANO -all are equipped with the MELODANT. 

The introduction of the MELODANT is another step forward in the steady 
progress of the ANGELUS, which has been continuously developed from the 
pioneer piano-player — brought out in 1895 — to the truly wonderful instrument 
of to-day. 

* ▼ * 


^U For sale in all the principal cities. Descriptive literature upon request 

/Is The Wilcox & White Co. 

•▼• Established 1876 Meriden, Conn. 

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The Kind of Rugs to Buy and Where to Buy Them 

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fo those wfto * 
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The Connecticut Magazine 


An Illustrated Quarterly Magazine devoted to Connecticut in its various 
phases of History, Literature, Genealogy, Science, Art, Genius and Industry. 
Published in four beautiful books to the annual volume. Following is con- 
tents of this edition, generously illustrated and ably written. Editorial de- 
partment in Cheney Tower, 926 Main Street, Hartford — Business department 
at 671-679 Chapel Street, New Haven. 

ART COVER — Blossom-time in the Norfolk Hills Mrs. J. C. Kendall 

AMERICAN CIVILIZATION — Excerpt from Address at Jamestown by 

Honorable Rollin S. Woodruff, Governor of Connecticut 187 

AMERICAN ACHIEVEMENT — Recent Public Utterance by 

Honorable Theodore Roosevelt, President of the United States 188 

THE MESSAGE — A Poem, by Judge Daniel J. Donahoe, Middletown, Connecticut 

Author of "The Rescue of the Princess" 189 

Stephen Jarvis, Born in 1756 in Danbury, Connecticut, Revealing - the Life of the 
Loyalists who Refused to Renounce Allegiance to the King and Fought to Save 
the Western Continent to British Empire — Original Manuscript now in Possession 
of Honorable Charles M. Jarvis, New Britain, Connecticut 191 

SONNET— By Horace Holley 215 

WILL OF MARY WASHINGTON IN 1788— Mother of the First President of the United 
States — Transcribed from Clerk's Office at Fredericksburg, Virginia, by 

Mrs. Helen Cook Porter, of Baltimore, Maryland 216 

from Egbert, First King of all England, 800-838, to William Tracy of Hayles Abbey 
who Came to America in 1620 — Royal Lineage Sustained Through Thomas Tracy 
of Connecticut, 1636 — Illustrated with eighteen Rare Reproductions from Ancient 
Documents Dwight Tracy, M.D., D.D.S. 217 

TRADE OF A MULATTO BOY FOR "PORK" IN 1765 — Accurate Transcript of Original 

Document in Possession of Mary R. Woodruff, Orange, Connecticut 245 

American Full-rigged Steamship, Ran from New York to New Orleans via Havana 
as Early as 1819 — Brief Resume of First Steamships Running to Old Virginia — 
Notes Preliminary to Story of Robert Fulton — Illustrated with four Reproductions 
from Old Engravings and Paintings C. Seymour Bullock 246 

THE NOBLER RACE — A Poem, by Frank P. Foster, Jr. 250 

A STORY OF EARLY AMERICAN WOMANHOOD — Lady Fenwick of Old Saybrook, 
Connecticut, and Her Noble Sacrifices of Comfort and Luxury in Old England to 
Accompany Her Husband to New World by Mabel Cassine Holman 251 

FIRST SILHOUETTISTS IN AMERICA — Earliest Extant Type of Pictoriology — 
Brown's Notable Collection of Portraits of Distinguished Americans With four 
Quaint Reproductions from Brown's Original Silhouettes, by Howard Marshall 255 

EX LIBRIS — Four Old Book Plates of Distinguished Americans Made by the First 

Engravers in America 260 

AMERICA'S TRIBUTE TO FRANCE — Ode to Comte de Rochambeau by 

John Gaylord Davenport, D.D., of the Connecticut Historical Society 261 

OATH OF ALLEGIANCE TO KING GEORGE III— Sworn to by Colonel Henry Luding- 
ton on March 12, 1763, in Dutchess County in the Province of New York, Before 
He Was Allowed to Take Office as a Sub-Sheriff — Accurate Transcript 263 

AN AMERICAN'S OATH OF ABJURATION IN 1763— Sworn to by Colonel Henry Lud- 
ington when Appointed to the Office of Sub-Sheriff — Accurate Transcript from 
Originals in the Collection of the Poughkeepsie, New York Literary Club 263 

PLEDGE OF THE PATRIOTS TO FREE AMERICA— Signed by Americans in 1776— 
Accurate Transcript from Original in Possession of the Misses Patterson of Pat- 
terson, New York — Colonel Henry Ludington Renounced His Former Oaths and 
Signed this Document at the Beginning of the American Revolution 264 

PLEA FOR PROTECTION FROM THE ENEMY— Accurate Transcript from Original 
Letter Written by Colonel Henry Ludington After He Had Espoused the Cause of 
American Independence and His Oaths to the King 264 

ington of Connecticut — Born 1739 — Incidents in Which Imminent Defeat Was 
Turned to Glorious Victory — Suppressing the Ravagers of Property on the Out- 
skirts of the Army — Heroism of the Daughter of Colonel Ludington — Narrative by 

Louis S. Patrick 265 

Entered at the Post-Offloc at New Haven, Connecticut, as Mail Matter of the Second Class.— This Edition for SECOND 

QUARTER of 1907— April, May, June. 


Connecticut is the only Commonwealth in the Union that for ten years 
has contributed to American history and literature through a state publica- 
tion of the highest quality. In collaboration with the recently inaugurated 
"Journal of American History " extensive researches will be made and the 
results published simultaneously in both publications. It is essential that all 
sons and daughters of Connecticut should secure these invaluable researches 
through The Connecticut Magazine. 

Journal of Samuel Hoyt of Connecticut — Born in 1744 — Struggle for Existence 
During the War for Independence — Founding the Nation and the Beginning of 
Trade with Foreign Lands — Setting Sail from Guilford with Cargoes of Merchan- 
dise — Transcript from Almost Indecipherable Document Contributed, by 

Julius Walter Pease 275 

inal Order Issued in New England in 1765 and Contributed by Benjamin C. Lum 284 

ANECDOTES OF GOOD OLD FATHER TAYLOR — Born in 1793 — He Gave His Life to 
the Cause of His Fellowmen and His Simple Homely Words Were Heard Around 
the World — He Was One of the Most Vigorous Orators in America, by 

Alfred T. Richards 285 

PUBLIC CARE OF THE POOR IN EARLY AMERICA — Accurate Transcript from Rec- 
ords by M. Augusta Holman 292 

FIRST NEWS OF AMERICAN VICTORY IN 1782 — This is an Account of the Joy that 
Reigned Throughout America on the News of Victory, Told by an Eye Witness, 
Stanton Sholes, Who Was Born March 14, 1772 — Contributed by 

Sarah Elizabeth Sholes Nighman 293 

THE FIRST PATENT IN AMERICA — Granted in 1646 to the Inventor of "An Engine 
of Mills to Go By Water" and Recorded as "Jenkes Mopolye" by 

Emeline Jenks Crampton 295 

VOTE TO PROSECUTE NON-CHURCH GOERS IN 1644— Record of an Election at a 
General Town Meeting in 1644, at which John Porter and Jacob Barney Are 
Appointed to Preserve the Sabbath Day — Transcript from Original Record Con- 
tributed by Mrs. S. L. Griffith 296 

THE DAWN OF THE NEW WORLD — First Permanent English Settlement in America 
Foundation of a People Who in Three Hundred Years Have Stretched Their 
Dominion and Millions Across the Continent — Its Influence Permeates the Earth — 
Nations of the World Extend Tribute — Illustrated with Sixteen Reproductions 
from Old Paintings, Engravings and Sculpture. . . .Honorable H. St. George Tucker 

President of the Jamestown Exposition 297 

AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF JOHN SMITH— Recorded by Him in His Owne Adventures and 

Observations in 1629 — Relating His Birth, in 1579, Apprenticeship and Youth 313 

AMERICA'S KNIGHT ERRANT — Thirteen Rare Engravings from the Originals in the 
True Travels, Adventures and Observations of Captaine John Smith in Europe, 
Asia, Africke, and America Beginning About the Yeere 1593, and Published in 1629 314 

EXPERIENCES ON JOURNEY TO AMERICA— Accurate Transcript from the Booke 
of Proceedings and Accidents of the First Permanent English Settlement in 
America by William Simons, "Doctour of Divinitie" 315 

ARMS CONFERRED FOR CHIVALRY— Translations from the Original Latin Memo- 
rials Issued to John Smith and Recorded in His Narrative of the Wars of the East 
in 1603 322 

CENTENNIALS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE— Nine Hundredth Anniversary of Thor- 
finn's Discovery of the Western Continent — Four Hundredth Anniversary of the 
Christening of the New World as "America" — Three Hundredth Anniversary of 
the Call of the Wilds to the Anglo-Saxons and the Daring Men Who Heard 325 

Original Sources of American Genealogical Data — Department Edited by Charles 
L. N. Camp — Arranged by Louise Tracy 329 

TRY — Genealogical Department — Conducted by Charles L. N. Camp 338 


Address manuscript to The Connecticut Magazine Company, Hartford, Connecticut— Address all business communications 
to publication office at New Haven, Connecticut— Copyright 1907— By The Connecticut Magazine Company 

jere Begitmetb the Second Part of the eleventh Book 

Showing tbe manner of Eife and the 

Attainment thereof in the 

Commonwealth of a 

Diligent People 


t£*Ut*C*% /J^E^4*^%2^^ 


Connecticut Magazine 



Excerpt from Address at Jamestown by 


Governor of Connecticut 

WE are hard-working people and have shared in the profits of our 
toil. The labor of our ancestors was not in vain, and the 
legacy of their thrift is the United States of America. Our 
national triumph lies not only in work, but in the spirit of 
liberty which gave the laborer an inspiration to build something that 
would last forever. At the very root of our national existence is the 
spirit of liberty, and our history is the story of man's struggle to be free. 
In this struggle faint heart had no place, for it took the iron will of all the 
ages to master the stubborn resistance that stood in the pathway of the 
men who held their own at the settlement of Jamestown and anchored 
their lion-hearted valor on Plymouth Rock — that hard-headed and daunt- 
less yeomanry, with muscle and with nerve — the noblest adventurers and 
bravest band of freemen the world has ever known. There they stood in 
old Virginia and in New England some three hundred years ago, alone in 
the savage wilderness, and planted the spirit of liberty, never to be con- 
quered or subdued while creation lasts, and the rainbow draws its promise 
in the sky. They stood for self-preservation, self-government, a democ- 
racy of thought and action, faith and perseverance, a profound and 
immovable confidence in God. Connecticut is proud of her history as a 
state, but not vain because of it. The work she has done in the structure 
of American civilization is solid and enduring. She is so fixed in the 
edifice that we cannot consider the achievement without recognizing Con- 
necticut at the very foundation of it all. Her place in this great com- 
memoration is established and secure ; and we are glad to share the glory 
of the day with those distinguished sister states in whose company Con- 
necticut has been faithful and steadfast from the beginning. The "land 
of steady habits" is still hard at work in enterprises of education, of the 
brain and the hand and the heart; the courage of invention and manu- 
facture and commerce; statesmanship and civic pride; solidity of social 
order, which comes from the discipline and justice based upon the funda- 
mental principle of success, laid down by the General Assembly of Con- 
necticut in 1639, when the freemen of the towns adopted the first consti- 
tution in the history of mankind, a pure democracy and the very germ of 
the American nation. Our Commonwealth is still hard at work upon 
those things that make life reasonable and comfortable and profitable, and 
will bear our part in the evolution of the nation, as long as this union pre- 


Recent Public TJttebance by 


President of the United States 

IF there is one thing which we should wish as a nation to avoid it is the 
teaching of those who would reinforce the lower promptings of our 
hearts, and so teach us to seek only a life of effortless ease, of mere 

material comfort. The material development of this country, of 
which we have a right to be proud, provided that we keep our pride 
rational and within measure, brings with it certain great dangers; and 
one of those dangers is the confounding of means and ends. Material 
development means nothing to a nation as an end in itself. If America 
is to stand simply for the accumulation of what tells for comfort and 
luxury, then it will stand for little, indeed, when looked at through the 
vistas of the ages. America will stand for much provided only that it 
treats material comfort, material luxury, and the means for acquiring 
such, as the foundation on which to build the real life, the life of spiritual 
and moral effort and achievement. The rich man who has done nothing 
but accumulate riches is entitled to but the scantiest consideration ; to men 
of real power of discernment he is an object rather of contempt than of 
envy. The test of a fortune should be twofold — how it was earned and 
how it is spent. It is with the nation as it is with the individual. Look- 
ing back through history, the nation that we respect is invariably the 
nation that struggled, the nation that strove toward a high ideal, the nation 
that recognized in an obstacle something to be overcome, and not some- 
thing to be shirked. The nation is but the aggregate of the individuals, 
and what is true of national life is and must be true of each of us in his 
individual life. 

The man renders but a poor service to nation or to individual who 
preaches rest, ease, absence of endeavor, as what that nation or that indi- 
vidual should strive after. What you glory in, what you hope to hand 
down as undying memories to your children, are the things that were done 
in the days that brought little pleasure with them save the grim conscious- 
ness of having done each man his duty as his duty needed to be done. 
Because in those years you had it in you dauntlessly to do your share in 
the work allotted to you, your children and your children's children rise 
up to call you blessed. We have listened recently to a great deal of talk 
about peace. It is the duty of all of us to strive for peace, provided that 
it comes on the right terms. I believe that the man who really does best 
work for the state in peace is the very man who at need will do well in 
war. If peace is merely another name for self-indulgence, for sloth, for 
timidity, for the avoidance of duty, have none of it. Seek the peace that 
comes to the just man armed, who will dare to defend his rights if the 
need should arise. Seek the peace granted to him who will wrong no 
man and will not submit to wrong in return. Seek the peace that comes 
to us as the peace of righteousness, the peace of justice. Ask peace 
because your deeds and your powers warrant you in asking it, and do not 
put yourself in the position to crave it as something to be granted or with- 
held at the whim of another. 





Middletown, Connecticut 
Author of "The Rescue of the Princess" 

PAUSE, O my Brothers, in your maddening strife; 
Pause, and behold the folly of your haste ! 
The voice that ye have honored as of God, 
And in your anxious fear, strive to obey, — 
The master who hath stamped upon your souls 
As holy doctrine that outworn decree, 
"Each for himself," is false to God and you. 
Cease from your strife, and lift your souls aloft 
Among the sunny clouds, where the sweet air 
Shall fill your lives with joy and deathless truth. 

Behold, O Toilers, all this beauteous world, 

That, with the air and ocean, comes to you, 

Children of love, free as the spacious heavens, 

The gift of everlasting Charity ! 

See how it lies before you, all unmarred 

By evil or by foul deformity, 

A wondrous gift from God, your generous Sire, 

To you, O Brothers, children of His love. 

The concave heaven, where all night long the stars 
Move with calm faces, and all day the clouds 
Are blown in ever-changing loveliness ; 
The pulsing ocean, kissing the white beach 
With ever-rolling billows ; and the earth 
With her wide inland seas, her flooding ways, 
And roaring mountain torrents, — these are yours; 
Yours — and the voice that dares deny your claim 
Shall fall dishonored by the works of God. 

Pause, listen and behold ! The skies proclaim 
Man's majesty ; the air bows to his rule ; 
Earth with her mountain floods, forest and mines, 
Stoops to his conquering might ; and ocean's waves 


Bend in fierce storms obedient to his will. 
Yea! unto you, Majestic Brotherhood, 
The everlasting Love hath given the rein 
O'er nature's wondrous forces. 

Not to one, 
Nor to a few, nor the surviving fit, — 
Detested word, meet but for murder's tongue, — 
Are God's great mercies measured ; but to all, 
To each and all, one general Brotherhood, 
He giveth of His everlasting love 
In everlasting measure ; to man's race 
He giveth soul and sense and a sweet home, 
Wherein to live and love and bless His name. 

Yours is the air, with all its wondrous powers; 
Yours is the earth, with all its teeming wealth ; 
Yours is the water ; flowing round the globe ; 
And yours the power to curb and conquer all. 

But yours must be the might that bindeth fast 
Each unto each ; for for every man shall know 
His brother's welfare and his own is one; 
Shall feel f orevermore, o'er all the earth, 
The gentle love that sees a Fatherhood 
In God's all-powerful being, and in Man 
The sweetness of one general Brotherhood. 

Such love will fill your souls with wisdom's might ; 

Will show the vanity of selfish strife, 

And the sweet joy of one united will. 

The cruelty and greed of natural man 

Shall thaw and melt away in its mild warmth, 

And grace shall rule the heart with serene power. 

Hark to the message, while the morn is young! 
Lift up your souls unto the sunny clouds, 
And learn the living wisdom of God's love. 




Original Manuscript Now in Possession of 


New Britain, Connecticut 

THIS remarkable manuscript, 
recently rescued from obliv- 
ion, is undoubtedly the most 
important documentary evi- 
dence of its kind in existence. In it 
is revealed the tragedy of an Ameri- 
can who for the sake of family and 
principle took up arms against his 
fellow Americans and met them in 
deadly conflict on the firing line. It 
is the story of a man who withstood 
the rebuffs, taunts, and insults of his 
closest friends, who suffered terrible 
privations, jeopardized his life, and 
was finally driven from his home to 
seek refuge on British soil. Withal 
it is one of the most intense stories of 
patriotism, of fidelity to family and 
loyalty to the Mother Country. 

When the Americans, through their 
misunderstandings and differences 
with Great Britain, proposed the 
stroke for Independence there were 
many conservative and influential 
men who considered the action 
too radical. They looked upon Eng- 
land as their homeland ; their blood 
was British and there was a filial love 
for the British Empire. While they 
were willing to join in urgent ap- 
peal to the crown and to respectfully 
demand redress for existing griev- 

ances, they were unwilling to become 
a party to the proposed Declaration of 
Independence and stoutly refused to 
join any revolutionary movement. 
These loyalists came from every rank 
in society, and "being actuated by 
conscientious motives, command our 
thorough respect." 

When the Revolutionists began to 
arm themselves for the Great Strug- 
gle many of these conservatives 
offered their services to the King, re- 
mained loyal through the conflict, and 
"suffered severely in exile when the 
contest was ended." 

This ancient manuscript, now 
almost illegible, is written by one of 
them. It uncovers many secrets. It 
reveals the contentions, despairs and 
almost insufferable hardships of the 
defenders of the crown. It passes 
the scouting line, penetrates the ranks 
of the red-coats and takes one into the 
heart of the British Army. It is a 
revelation of the life of the men who 
fought and died for the King in try- 
ing to save the Western Continent to 
the British Empire. 

The writer of this remarkable man- 
uscript is one Stephen Jarvis. He 
was born November 6, 1756, in 
Danbury, Connecticut, the son of one 

* T 9* 


of the influential loyalists in the coun- 
try. The manuscript is now in pos- 
session of Honorable Charles Maples 
Jarvis of New Britain, Connecticut, 
and in permitting its publication he 

"I have the original of this in a 
safe deposit vault here at New 
Britain. The manuscript came into 
my possession through Dr. Henry 
Oliver Ely, an eminent physician now 
living at Binghamton, New York. 
Dr. Ely writes me as follows: 'The 
Jarvis manuscript was given to me 
many years ago by Mrs. Jones — nee 
Partridge. It was then the manu- 
script was handed to Mrs. Ely, who 
was a frequent caller upon Mrs. 
Jones. At that time I had only a 
speaking acquaintance with the lady 
— afterwards I knew her more inti- 
mately. In her one hundred and sec- 
ond year (she died at the age of one 
hundred and three) she gave me the 
history of her ownership of the manu- 
script. It seems that her father was 
well known to Stephen Jarvis — there 
being a sort of community of senti- 
ment and feeling between them. Mr. 
Partridge, an Englishman, an early 
resident of New York, often met Mr. 
Jarvis in that city. A natural sym- 
pathy sprang up between them ; visits 
were exchanged. Here he met Miss 
Partridge. I learned from the old 
lady that that branch of the family 
was always gallant and devoted to the 
fair sex. The young miss in her 
teens — intelligent and piquant in her 
manner — so charmed the old Colonel 
that he compiled and elaborated in 
his own handwriting, when past sev- 
enty, the history of his checkered 
career in the form of a personal me- 
moir for her perusal and ownership. 
During this interview with her in her 
one hundred and second year as she 
recalled the subject of the memoir she 
said: T knew Colonel Jarvis well and 
often met him at my father's home in 
New York. He was a man of great 

executive ability; a man of personal 
bravery and daring — a representative 
man in every sense of the word. 
He was a gentleman of the old 
school, both in person and bearing: 
one of the mQst courteous and dis- 
tinctive of gentlemen even in his old 
age. To see him hand a lady to her 
carriage was itself a liberal education. 
I sent you the manuscript when you 
were at New Haven but you returned 
it. Some few years since I gave it 
outright to you to be kept forever 
among your ancestral heredita- 

Honorable Charles M. Jarvis adds: 

"For several years the manuscript 
disappeared; neither Dr. Ely nor my- 
self could trace it. One day Dr. Ely 
came in from his yard and on the rear 
porch of his house were two or three 
barrels of old papers, evidently out of 
the attic or cellar which were to go to 
a junk dealer. By mere chance he 
looked at one of the barrels and a 
corner of this manuscript projected 
from the other papers. He seized 
it and afterwards returned it to me 
and I have kept it in a safe deposit 
vault since." 

In Normandy there appeared in 
1180 one Richard Gervasius. In 
1400, Jean Gervaise resided at Bre- 
tagne. As early as 131 1 the name 
Gervaise appears in England and is 
frequently mentioned in connection 
with Parliament. In America in 
1623 a John Jarvice is living in Vir- 
ginia. In Boston in 1639 there is a 
John Jarvis, a merchant, sitting on a 
coroner's jury. To-day in nearly 
every state in the United States and 
throughout the British Provinces in 
North America the name Jarvis is one 
of integrity and influence, and the 
family coat-of-arms typifies its blood 
and character: "Strong in prosperity, 
Stronger in Adversity." 

Colonel Stephen Jarvis, the writer 
of the manuscript here recorded, died 
in Toronto, Canada, in 1840, at the 
age of eighty-four years. 


Relating the remarkable experiences of Colonel Stephen Jarvis of 
Connecticut as a recruit in the lines of the British army — Accurate 
transcript from original manuscript lost and recently recovered 


Y father was one of those 
persons called Torries. * He 
lived in the Colony of Con- 
necticut, his disposition was 
more for making a comfortable 
living for his family than giving 
his children a liberal education. My 
advantages thereby confined to what 
was necessary for a farmer, which I 
followed until I was at the Age of 
Eighteen years, when hostilities com- 
menced between Great Britain and 
her Colonies. 

It cannot be expected that I should 
give a minute detail of every circum- 
stance of my eventful life, as I kept 
no regular journal, and have to re- 
fresh my memory from public docu- 
ments for the last fifty years. 

Son of a Loyalist in ranks 

of the American Revolutionists 

Some time in the month of April, 
1775, when the first blood was shed at 
Lexington, I became acquainted with 
a Lady to whom I paid my address, 
and who I afterwards married; this 
attachment was disapproved of by my 
father, who carried his displeasure to 
great lengths, and I was under the 
necessity of visiting the Lady only by 
stealth. Soon after the Battle of 
Bunker Hill, and about the time that 
the British Army Evacuated Boston, 
there was a draft of the Militia of 
Connecticut to garrison New York, 
and I was drafted as one; my father 
would readily have got a substitute 
for me, but as he had so strenuously 
opposed my suit, I was obstinate and 
declared my intentions of going as a 
soldier, — for this declaration he took 
me by the arm and thrust me out of 
the door; during the evening, how- 
ever, I went to my room and went to 
bed. The next day was Sunday and 
I kept out of sight, the next morning 
we were to march, a Brother of my 

Mother was the officer commanding. 
On leaving the house I passed my 
father and wished him "good-bye," 
he made me no reply, and I passed on 
to the house of my uncle, the place of 
rendezvous, but before the Troops 
marched my father so far relented as 
to come to me and after giving me a 
severe reproof, ordered me a horse to 
ride, gave me some money, and I set 
off. We arrived in New York the 
next day, and my uncle took up his 
quarters at Peck Slip, and took me 
into his house. He had a son with 
him, a little younger than myself, with 
whom I spent my time very agreea- 

Repents when he sees father's 
displeasure and joins British 

During my short stay in New 
York, which was only about a fort- 
night, — during that time, however, 
the Americans broke ground on Gov- 
ernor's Island. My uncle was one of 
the officers for that duty. The Brit- 
ish Man of War (the Asia) was lying 
off Staten Island at the time, and I 
had an inclination to get on board of 
her; I, therefore, went to the Island 
with my uncle and remained there all 
night, and part of the next day, when 
we were relieved by another party, 
and returned to the City. Having 
had no rest during the night, I lay 
down and zvent to sleep. I was awoke 
by my Cousin; the streets were filled 
with soldiers, part of the American 
Army from Boston. The next morn- 
ing the Militia was dismissed, and I 
returned to my family; I represented 
to my father that I was very sinable, 
that I had done wrong in espousing a 
Cause so repugnant to his feelings, 
and contrary to my own opinion also. 
Asked his forgiveness, and went even 
so far as to promise that I would give 
up my suit with Miss Glover, for that 


was the Lady's name. On this prom- 
ise, I was again taken into favor — but 
I only kept this promise but for a few 
days, — as soon as I had replenished 
my wardrobe, I immediately set off to 
visit Miss Glover, and before we part- 
ed, we renewed our vows of love and 
constancy. My reception the next 
morning was everything but pleasant. 
I continued, however, to visit her as 
often as I could. After the British 
Army had taken New York, the Mili- 
tia was again called out, and I was 
again drafted, but I refused to serve; 
about this time three Torries who had 
been confined in Symsbury Mines, 
had made their escape, and was, by 
the assistance of the Loyalists, inabled 
to join the British Army; — many of 
the Loyalists also joined them and 
went with them, and among the rest 
myself, and this with the consent of 
my father, as I had been instrumental 
in making provision for the three men 
who had escaped from Prison. 

Recruiting American soldiers 
for service in England's army 

I left Danbury in the middle of the 
day, armed Capa-pie under pretense 
of joining the Americans then lying 
at Horse Neck, — and went forward to 
make provision for those who were 
to follow me at night. I passed on as 
far as Norwalk, where I was directed 
to call on certain persons, Loyalists, 
for advice and assistance in executing 
our plan. The first one I called upon 
informed me "that our plans were dis- 
covered, that the whole coast was 
guarded, and that if we proceeded we 
would all be taken prisoners, and ad- 
vised me by all means to return home 
again with the best excuse I could 
make for doing so." I took his ad- 
vice, and after refreshing myself and 
horse, I retraced my steps to Wilton, 

and called on a Mr. B s, his house 

was the place of rendezvous for the 
whole party ; — I had a wish to see 
what reception I would meet with as 
an American soldier. I, therefore, 
feigned myself much hurt from the 

fall of my horse, told him a long cock: 
and bull story of my going to join the 
American Army, and said everything 
to excite his compassion, and to be 
allowed to sleep by his fire during the 
night; this he refused, but offered to 
assist me to the Public House, where 
I could be comfortably provided for; 
— finding nothing would prevail, I 
then asked him if his name was not 
B s. He with some surprise, an- 
swered "Yes and what then," his wife 
and two fine daughters who were sit- 
ting in the room viewed each other 
with much uneasiness. I desired to 
speak to Mr. B. in private. We 
walked into another room; I asked 
him if he knew Mr. J of Dan- 
bury, and he replied, "that he did."^ 
I told him I was his son, com- 
municated to him the commission I 
was entrusted with, gave him the in- 
formation I had received at Norwalk 
— and the necessity there was for find- 
ing a place of safety for the three 
men. One of them was a Mr. Me- 
Neal. The other persons names I 
have forgot. Mr. B. then took me by 
the hand, introduced me to his wife 
and daughters, ordered refreshments 
to be got ready as soon as possible, 
for that I was very tired and hungry. 
My lameness was set aside for the 
night and he set about preparing a 
hiding place for the three men and 
getting sustenance for their support. 
I then suggested the necessity of as 
many of us as possibly could, should 
reach home before daylight, gave him 
the countersign, whereby he could 
make himself known if he met any of 
our party, and turn them back ; sent a 
message to my father in what manner 
I should return the next day. He set 
off and after proceeding a few miles, 
stopt in a wood by the side of the 
road. He soon saw two men ap- 
proaching, gave the countersign, 
which was answered. They were 
two young men from Danbury, he de- 
livered my message to them ; they re- 
turned home, and he returned to his 
house. Before his return, however, 


the party had arrived to the amount 
of seventy persons. A man by the 
name of Barnum, who had been with 
the British, and returned for recruits 
conducted the party, he was no way 
discouraged from my information and 
urged me to proceed with them, this, 
however, I declined, he however pre- 
vailed on Mr. B. to try and overtake 
the two men he had turned home- 
wards, but after he had pursued them 
near to Danbury, he was obliged to 
return without them, and he hardly 
reached his home before daylight. I 
met him afterwards a Major in the 
British Army. Mr. Barnum and his 
party pursued their route and got safe 
to the British. 

Americans fleeing from being 
drafted by Revolutionists 

The next morning, after breakfast, 
I took leave of this kind family, bound 
up my knee in a piece of old blanket, 
assumed my lameness, was helped on 
my horse, and set off for home. Many 
questions were asked me on my route, 
and many foolish answers were given 
as to my late disaster. Suffice it to say 
that when I reached home I found my 
father had received my message, and 
had a surgeon, whom he could trust 
to attend me. I was helped off my 
horse, carried into the house, my knee 
which he declared to be dislocated, 
again placed into the socket, the ban- 
dages filled with the spirits of turpen- 
tine, and in this manner I walked 
with crutches for ten days ; this lulled 
all suspicion; even my mother was 
deceived, for she had no idea that my 
intentions were that of going to the 

For the rest part of the sum- 
mer I remained quietly, until the Au- 
tumn, when I again joined another 
party of Loyalists, and proceed to the 
waterside, but the vessel which we 
expected to take us on board not 
arriving, and my father hearing of the 
situation in which I was placed, sent 
a person for me and I returned home 
the second time. On my arrival I 

found my father's house filled with 
American soldiers, my father intro- 
duced me to the officers as returning 
from a visit to see my friends, and all 
went on very well, until the first day 
of January, 1777 — it being New 
Year's day — I rose very early in the 
morning, and in opening the door I 
discovered a, large body of horsemen 
armed, with a number of prisoners, 
and some of them, those I had a short 
time before left at the Seaside. I 
must leave the reader to judge of my 
feelings for I cannot describe them. 
I remained quiet during the day, 
but I was lead to believe that I 
should not continue so during the 
night, and therefore kept a sharp 
lookout ; I came very nigh falling into 
their hands. The day had been 
stormy, both snow and rain, and the 
roads very sloppy. I had prepared a 
horse with intentions to ride out of 
town. I had set down to supper, 
when one of the Committee of Safety 
(as they were called) came in; my 
father urged him to take supper, this 
he declined, and after making some 
excuse for calling, he left the house. 
I immediately got up from the table, 
went to the door; the night was very 
dark. My brother had gone out to do 
an errand for one of the prisoners and 
as I stepped on the threshold of the 
door I heard him call to one of the 
prisoners. "Stop" said a person close 
by me. 

Tory Boy escapes on horseback 
as Patriots search father's home 

I gave a spring and in a moment 
I was on horseback in full speed 
down the street. I made a halt at a 
friend's house for a few moments, 
when my sister with another young 
lady came in, saying "Brother, the 
soldiers are searching the house for 
you." I immediately set off again 
and took shelter in a house where 
there was two British prisoners of 
War. One part of the house was 
occupied by soldiers from the East- 
ward going to join the Army of the 


Americans, then lying near White 
Plains. I remained in the quarters 
of the British prisoners until the sol- 
diers were asleep. I was then con- 
veyed to a small room in the garret 
with some provisions for the twenty- 
four hours. Here I remained until 
the next evening, when I met my 
father in the field back of the town. 
He had a shift of clothes for me and 
some money — here we parted, and I 
set off for the house of a Brother-in- 
law of Miss Glover who was a Loyal- 
ist, and where I knew I should find 
safe quarters. The late rain had 
flooded the banks of the Rivers, and 
had overflowed the road in two places, 
so that I was obliged to wade to my 
hips in water. The weather very 
cold, my clothes became very stiff 
with ice. I could with difficulty 
travel; I however made out to reach 
a friend's house, about five miles from 
my father's; Here again I was en- 
countered with another band of sol- 
diers (strangers). I pretended as 
coming from the next house, and 
crossing a small stream on a log had 
tumbled into the water, and begged 
my friend to give me a shift of 

I was taken into a small room, 
where there was a good fire, dried 
my clothes, got some refreshment, 
and after the soldiers had got 
asleep, a young man of the house con- 
veyed me to the stable, took a horse 
and carried me five miles farther, to 
the house of Mr. Hawleys whose wife 
was Miss Glover's sister; — the young 
man remained with me until after 
breakfast the next morning, and then 
returned to his father. He was the 
same day taken up and carried to 
Gaol, for what crime I never learn't, 
— the day after my arrival, Mr. H. 
sent and fetched Miss Glover to his 
house and the pleasure I spent in her 
society surely can be better imagined 
than described. At the end of a fort- 
night a Mr. T s., who had mar- 
ried another sister of Miss Glover's, 
came to take her to his house (he was 

a Republican and I dare not see him). 
He arrived in the evening, it was a 
moonshine night, and Miss G. pre- 
tended that it would be some time in 
the evening before she would be ready 
to set out, left him and visited me in 
my apartment. In this manner we 
kept him until a late hour, when we 
at last took leave of each other, and 
she set off with her brother Mr. T. 

Driven into hiding for 
refusing to denounce the King 

The next night I set off from Mr. 

H 's (I dare not travel in the day) 

and went to Norwalk where my father 
had two brothers, and where his 
father was also living — with them I 
remained for sometime, but hearing 
that there was an opportunity that 
probably I might have in getting over 
to Long Island from Stamford, I re- 
paired thither, where my father had 
another brother whose four sons were 
already with the British, two of which 
had entered the Army. Here again 
I was disappointed — no opportunity 
offered of getting away. It was 
agreed at last, as the best mode of 
safety, and as the smallpox was in the 
place, I had better get Enoculated and 
that his young son should also. He 
sent for the surgeon of the Hospital, 
a Doctor W. and we were Enoculated. 
We remained at my Uncle's until a 
few days before we broke out, and 
then was removed to the Hospital 

We both had the disease favorable, 
and about the first of March I ven- 
tured to pay a visit to my father's, 
taking the night for performing the 
journey. I arrived at his house about 
midnight, called at the windows of 
his bedroom, he awoke, knew my 
voice, and let me in. I remained with 
the family only two days and then for 
the last time I bid them good-bye for 
seven years, and returned again to 
Norwalk, from thence to Stamford, 
to Greenwich, and so back and fourth 
until the British Army made an ex- 
cursion to Danbury. The day the 
fleet sailed up the sound I was at the 


village of Greenwich, and remained 
there until the British Army had 
marched to Danbury, and had again 
re-imbarked for New York. In this 
expedition Munson Jarvis and Wil- 
liam Jarvis were with the British and 
slept at my father's house the night 
they were in Danbury. On the 28 
of April, 1777, at night I prevailed on 
a person to set me across to Long 
Island, there was a skiff and a canoe 
loaded with potatoes and two or three 

Crossing Long Island Sound in 
canoe to join the Redcoats 

We set off about 10 o'clock at 
night, and got out of the river un- 
discovered and steered our course for 
Long Island. In the morning we 
found ourselves under the Long 
Island shore, the wind was strong 
from the Eastward — our log canoe 
was swamped in running ashore, but 
no lives lost ; after hard rowing, we at 
last reached the Harbour of Hunting- 
ton, went on board the Guard Ship in 
the Harbour, where I was obliged to 
remain until report was made to the 
Commanding Officer at that place; I 
then was permitted to land, here I 
met with several persons I know, and 
I was strongly urged to join the 
Army. This I declined and the next 
day set off for New York in company 
with a Mr. Booth, a native of New- 
town in Connecticut. On my arrival 
in New York I found many persons 
from Danbury, who were made pris- 
oners. They informed me that after 
the British Army had left Danbury, 
the Americans had killed my father. 
(This was not true, they only plun- 
dered him). 

This melancholy news determined 
me for a Military life. I therefore 
took the first opportunity of intro- 
ducing myself to an officer, that 
first fell in my way. It was with a 
Captain Lockwood, who piloted the 
British Army to Danbury. I told 
him what I had just heard relative to 
the fate of my father, and my deter- 

mination of entering the Service; — 
He replied "That he was raising a 
Company for a Corpse that was to be 
commanded by a Major Starks, and 
that if I would join his Company, he 
would procure me a commission, and 
as his company was about to march to 
Kingsbridge, where the Regiment 
to be organized, and if I would con- 
sent to act as Sergeant in his com- 
pany until he could join the Regiment 
— with my commission he would be 
very glad, and in the meantime he 
would be glad that I would assist him 
in making out a statement of his Com- 
pany." This I assented to, and be- 
ing ignorant of the consequences that 
would result, suffered myself to be set 
down as Sergeant, for the present un- 
til my commission could be procured. 

American lad under English ensign 
marching against his countrymen 

The next day the Company marched 
to Kingsbridge under the command 
of a Lieutenant Close, where we 
joined the rest of the Regiment, but 
so small were our numbers, that I 
have no recollection who was the 
commanding officer; — the day after 
our arrival at our Incampment there 
was an order for each Company to 
give in a Morning Report; of what a 
Morning Report was, neither Mr. 
Close or myself knew anything about 
more than we did of the Longitude, 
and I was sensible that I was the best 
scholar of the two, and being second 
in command, thought I was of equal 
rank with him, and without consult- 
ing him on the subject, I walked over 
to the tent of my relation, whose Reg- 
iment had taken up their ground on 
the left of our small (for it was a very 
small) Regiment to attain the infor- 
mation necessary to comply with the 

My friend gave me a number 
of printed copies that had been given 
him for his guide, — to wit — fit for 
duty — sick — on duty, etc., etc. I re- 
turn to my tent, and return the whole 
fit for duty, although we had neither 


arms, clothing or ammunition ; the re- 
sult of which was that there was on 
order for our Regiment to parade so 
many men for piquet. This put me 
to my wits end, to parade men with- 
out arms was ridiculous, but there 
was no time to be lost; I therefore 
went from one tent to another (for 
some of the Companies had received 
arms) got a stand of arms from one 
Company, a sick man's arms from 
another, until I had completed the 
whole with arms and marched them 
off for to this parade. Behold me 
then, for the first time in my life, a 
soldier in the British Army, com- 
manding an out piquet, in the face of 
the Rebel Army. One material cir- 
cumstance happened during the night. 
I had forgot the most essential part, 
the Parole and Countersign, which, 
when the officer of the night came 
around to visit the piquet, and if there 
had not been a more attentive mem- 
ory in my Corporal, I should have 
made a most lamentable figure. How- 
ever, all things passed on very well, 
and in the morning I marched off my 
men to their tents, not a little proud 
of my night's duty. 

British Soldiers look with 
impunity on their Yankee Recruits 

The same routine went on for sev- 
eral days, until I began to be tired of 
this fatigue, and I applied to Mr. 
Close to procure clothing, and arms 
for the men, stating the danger we 
run of being fired on as Rebels in our 
Country Clothes; he hem'd and har'd 
for some time until my patience was 
quite exhausted, and I said to him, 
"Sir, you command a Company in the 
British Army, yon are not fit to com- 
mand an English waggon." In short 
I said so much that if he or myself 
had known anything of military duty, 
I must have have been shot, agreeably 
to the Articles of War. I however 
soon learned better, as the secret will 

One day as I was walking past 
the officers mess, (for I had already 

learned so much of my duty as 
to find I was not yet to be admit- 
ted into the society of the commis- 
sioned officers) I heard them Huzza 
for the Second Battallion of Queen's 
Rangers; I had heard much of the 
Regiment as a fighting corpse, and I 
did not much like the sound. I made 
up my mind, if possible, to change 
into the Regiment with my relations, 
lying along side of us, and the morn- 
ing we were ordered for marching I 
left my tent for the purpose of mak- 
ing the application, and had got part 
of the way to my friend's tent, when, 
I beheld the Col. of that Regiment 
mount his horse and begin to belay 
the Sentinel at his Marque, over the 
head and shoulders of the man, with 
great violence. I looked with aston- 
ishment for a short time, marched 
back to my tent, and when the orders 
were given to march, I threw my 
knapsack on my back and marched, 
thanking my stars that I had escaped 
falling under the discipline of such a 
savage in the shape of a Colonel of a 
British Regiment. The Regiment 
marched to New York and went im- 
mediately on board ship. Here I had 
for the last time a sight of Captain 

I remonstrated with him, but 
he replied, "That all was going on 
well, that he should be with the Regi- 
ment in a few days, and bring my 
commission with him." I had not a 
moment longer to spare, was hurried 
on board, we sailed, and the next 
morning landed at Amboy, marched 
out to a place called Strawberry Hill, 
our small Regiment was drawn up in 
front of the Encampment of the 
Queen's Rangers, the Non-Commis- 
sioners in front of the men, and a gen- 
eral selection took place, those fit for 
grenadiers, were set apart for the 
Grenadier Company, then the Light 
Infantry, then a Company was select- 
ed for a Highland Company. The 
officers were Captain McAlpine, Lieu- 
tenant Close, Simpson, and Ensign 
Shaw. (Afterwards General Shaw of 


Upper Canada) The rest of the offi- 
cers were placed on half pay — or 
joined other Regiments; — After the 
officers by Seniority, had made a se- 
lection of the Non-Commissioned 
Officers, a Captain McKay came up 
to me, asked my name, age, etc., and 
if / could write. I happened to have 
a roll of Captain Lockwood's Com- 
pany in my pocket, which I took and 
landed him, after examining it, he 
folded it up, handed it me back, called 
a "Sergeant Purday to show me his 

Experiences of an American 
inside the British Lines 

Here all my hopes of a Com- 
mission was at an end. I was a per- 
fect stranger to every individual 
around me, not a friend to advise, or 
ask council of, no money in my 
pocket, the most inexperienced, either 
of men or manners, of any almost in 
existence. Think what my feelings 
were at this time. I have often won- 
dered how I survived the disappoint- 
ment. I however, made up my mind 
that if I ever had an opportunity to 
meet the enemy — that I would merit 
a Commission, and I applied myself 
strictly to my duty, and soon merited 
the notice of my officers who placed 
confidence in me. A few days after 
there was a great desertion of the 
Non-Commissioners, and amongst the 
rest Sergeant Purday of our Com- 
pany. From this circumstance, all 
the duty of the Company devolved 
upon me, such as making out returns 
for provisions, clothing, morning re- 
ports, master rolls, etc., as the other 
Sergeant was a drunken useless fel- 
low, who, by the by, I recognized as 
once having seen him in Danbury a 
recruiting for the American Army. 

There is one circumstance I cannot 
avoid mentioning, as it mortified my 
pride exceedingly. I had been on 
duty during the night, and as the duty 
was arduous, I came off duty very 
much fatigued. I called at Captain 
McKay's tent to have him sign some 

return, I did expect he would have 
asked me to sit down, I waited some 
time and then sat down. I had not 
sat long before Captain McKay said 
in a mild tone of voice, "Sergeant Jar- 
vis, it is very improper for you to sit 
in the presence of your officer, with- 
out you are desired to do so." I must 
leave the reader to judge of my feel- 
ings at this rebuke, altho so mildly 
given, I arose from my seat and re- 
plied, Sir, I am a young soldier, and 
I am very tired, having been on duty 
all night. I was in hopes you would 
have desired me to sit down, but as 
you did not, I was in some measure 
under the necessity, but I shall know 
better in future; — he signed the re- 
turn and I returned to my tent. In a 
few days there was an order for 
marching with four days' provisions 
for each man. The Army marched 
into the country. We fell in with the 
enemy on our route, and a partial en- 
gagement took place, and we had one 
man killed; — and I had a narrow es- 
cape myself. I was standing in the 
angle of the fence, a rifleman was in 
the opposite field on horseback, at the 
time we were forming along the 
fence. He dismounted, placed his 
rifle across his horse, fired. The ball 
struck direct in the angle of the fence 
opposite my face, and the splinters 
flew about my head and eyes. The 
Army marched to Brunswick and 
then returned again to our old quar- 

On the British firing line in 
the Battle of Brandywine 

There was nothing of moment 
after this movement until we em- 
barked for an expedition — the fleet 
sailed, as it appeared afterwards for 
the Chesapeake and about the middle 
of August we landed at the head of 
Elk River, where the Army encamped 
for some days, and here was my first 
exploit. I commanded the out piquet, 
and at daylight in the morning a body 
of American horse charged my 
Piquet. I repulsed them and took 


one Dragoon, which I secured as well 
as his horse, and which I took to 
camp with me when relieved. I was 
sent with my prisoner to General 
Howe's quarters, when the prisoner 
was sent to the Provost, the horse and 
appointments given to me, which I 
took back to the Regiment and which 
I was soon relieved of by Captain 
McKay taking to himself. This was 
an act of injustice which I did not 
much like but thought best to put up 
with it. There was little to notice 
after this until the action at Brandy- 
wine; The Queen's Rangers led the 
Division of General Kuephausen. 
We came in sight of the enemy at 
sunrise. The first discharge of the 
enemy killed the horse of Major 
Grymes, who was leading the column, 
and wounded two men in the Division 
directly in my front, and in a few 
moments the Regiment became warm- 
ly engaged and several of our officers 
were badly wounded. None but the 
Rangers and Ferguson's Riflemen, 
were as yet engaged; the enemy re- 
tired, and there was a cessation for a 
short time, to reconnoiter the enemy, 
who had taken up their position in a 
wood which skirted the road that led 
down to the River. The Rangers 
were ordered to advance, and drive 
the enemy from that position. We 
marched from the right of Companys, 
by files, entered the wood, and drove 
the enemy from it, into an open field 
where there was a large body of the 
enemy formed. Major Wymes, who 
commanded the Rangers, ordered the 
Regiment to halt and cover them- 
selves behind the trees, but the right 
of the Regiment was hotly engaged 
with the enemy, and Captain Dunlap 
came to Major Wymes, and requested 
him to let the Regiment charge or the 
two Companies would be cut off. The 
Major then ordered the Adjutant 
(Ormand) who was very glad of the 
opportunity, to desire the troops in 
our rear to support him, ordered the 
Regiment to charge. At this instant, 
my pantaloons received a wound, and 

I don't hesitate to say that I should 
been very well pleased to have seen 
a little blood also. The enemy stood 
until we came near to bayonet points, 
then gave us a volley and retired 
across the Brandywine. Captain Wil- 
liams and Captain Murden were 
killed, and many of the officers were 
wounded in this conflict. The Brandy- 
wine on each side was skirted with 
wood, in which the Rangers took shel- 
ter, whilst our artillery were playing 
upon a half moon battery on the other 
side of the River which guarded the 
only fording place where our Army 
could cross. In this position we re- 
mained waiting for General Howe to 
commence his attack on the right 
flank of General Washington's main 

Whilst in this situation Captain 
Agnew was wounded, of which 
wound he was ever after a cripple. 
Several other men were also wounded 
by the riflemen from the other side. 
Captain Agnew (he was only Lieu- 
tenant at this time) had behaved very 
gallantly when we drove the enemy. 
I saw him plunge his bayonet into the 
fellow who had killed Captain Mur- 
den the minute before. General 
Howe commenced his attack late in 
the afternoon, and this was the signal 
for our Division to advance. The 
Fourth Regiment led the Column, 
and the Queen's Rangers followed, 
the battery playing upon us with 
grape shot, which did much execu- 
tion. The water took us up to our 
breasts, and was much stained with 
blood, before the battery was carried 
and the guns turned upon the enemy. 
Immediately after our Regiment had 
crossed, two Companies (the Gren- 
adiers and Capt. McKay's) was or- 
dered to move to the left and take 
possession of a hill which the enemy 
was retiring from, and wait there un- 
til further orders. From the emi- 
nence we had a most extensive view 
of the American Army, and we saw 
our brave comrades cutting them up 
in great style. The battle lasted until 


dark, when the enemy retreated and 
left us masters of the field. We were 
then ordered to leave our position 
and join our Regiment. We did so 
and took up our night's lodgings on 
the field of the battle, which was 
strewed with dead bodies of the en- 

Fighting at Germantown under 
the colors of the King 

In this days hard fought action, the 
Queen's Rangers' loss in killed and 
wounded were seventy-five out of 
two hundred fifty rank and file which 
composed our strength in the morn- 
ing. Why the army did not the next 
day pursue the enemy, and bring 
them to action, I must leave to wiser 
heads than mine, to give a reason, but 
so it was. We remained encamped 
the whole of the next day, and gave 
the enemy an opportunity to rally his 
forces, get re-inforcements and take 
up a position to attack us, which they 
did, at Germantown, where our Army 
had encamped, sending our sick and 
wounded into Philadelphia. At this 
battle the enemy were again defeated, 
and left us in possession of the field. 
'On the morning of this action, I was 
under a course of physic, and was 
ordered to remain in camp, and had 
not the honor of sharing in the vic- 
tory of this day's battle; I was so re- 
duced from fatigue that I was re- 
turned, unfit for duty, and was or- 
dered to the Hospital, and the next 
day took my quarters at the Hospital 
in Philadelphia. I was not so ill but 
that I could walk about, and the Doc- 
tors allowed me to take a walk about 
the City every day. Whether they 
had any orders from my officers on 
that behalf I know not, but so it was 
when others had not the same indul- 
gence. I remained in the Hospital 
until I thought I was able to undergo 
the fatigue of duty and join my Regi- 

A few days after joining the 
Regiment, made an excurtion into the 
Jerseys, as far as Hattenfield, but it 
was ordered that I should remain at 

the quarters of the Regiment, which 
was at Kingsonton. The next day 
Captain Dunlap returned to the quar- 
ters ordering every man that was 
able to march to join the Regiment, 
and myself among the rest. It was 
near dark when we got to the Regi- 
ment. I was most dreadfully fa- 
tigued, and lay down to rest. I had 
hardly time to take my refreshment 
before the Regiment was ordered un- 
der arms, where we remained for sev- 
eral hours in a storm of hail and 
snow, and at last ordered to retrace: 
our steps towards Philadelphia. I. 
had marched but a few miles before a~ 
pain attacked my limbs, to that de- 
gree, that I could with difficulty walk r 
and soon fell in the rear of the Regi- 
ment, expecting every minute to fall 
into the hands of the enemy. I had 
the good luck to get up with the Regi- 
ment, who had encamped at a planta- 
tion on the banks of the Delaware. 
More dead than alive, the ground cov- 
ered with snow, I scrambled to the 
barn, got into a large mow of straw, 
covered myself up with straw, and fell 
asleep and did not wake until daylight 
in the morning. On awaking, I 
heard Major Simcoe (who had a. 
short time before, and while I was in 
the Hospital) succeeded Major 
Wymes in the command of the Regi- 
ment, and some of the officers in. 
another part of the barn, but hid from 
my sight. They soon left the barn, 
and left standing on a beam within 
my reach a bottle partly filled with 
good madeira. I soon demolished 
the contents and set the bottle up as 
before, left the barn also, and joined 
my Company. In the course of the 
day the Americans attacked us, and 
we had a smart brush with them, had 
a Sergeant (McPherson of the Grena- 
diers) and several men wounded. In 
the evening we crossed over to Ken- 
sington and took up our old quarters. 
Intimate insight into life 
in the British army in America 

I had forgot to mention one circum- 
stance, which happened at Brandy- 


wine, after the Regiment had crossed 
and was charging with enemy, Lieu- 
tenant Close found it more safe to 
take shelter under the walls of the 
battery, where he fell asleep until he 
was discovered by the Provost Mar- 
shal, and reported to the Regiment as 
killed. A party was sent out to bring 
him to camp, who awoke him from 
his slumbers. He came to the Regi- 
ment, but was obliged to leave it. He 
never did duty again in the Regiment. 
Captain McAlpine also left the Regi- 
ment for some cause, — a change took 
place in the Companies, Captain 
McKay took command of the High- 
land Company, Captain Stephenson of 
the Light Infantry. After the death 
of Captain Williams, Lieutenant 
McGill was promoted to Captain 
(now at York, U. C.) and took com- 
mand of McKay's Company. Lt. 
Shank Captain of Captain Murden's 
Company; Lt. Agnew to be Captain, 
but did no duty. The Regiment dur- 
ing the winter had severe duty once 
or twice every week to cover the mar- 
ket people coming to market, and 
often we had long marches and fre- 
quent skirmishes with the enemy, and 
took a good many prisoners during 
the winter. I found Captain McGill 
the same indulgent commanding offi- 
cer as I found in Captain McKay, and 
I found my situation as pleasant as I 
could have expected, according to the 
discipline of the Army, and I looked 
forward for more favorable prospects 
in the future. It would be endless to 
enumerate the different actions which 
took place, but there were too many, 
in which the Regiment gained great 
applause at White Marsh, and after- 
wards at Parker's Bridge, at both of 
which places we took and killed a 
good many. 

Accuses General Howe of responsi- 
bility for England's downfall 

In short we were continually en- 
gaged with the enemy more or less, 
and had General Howe during the 
winter, instead of gambling with 

the officers every night, to the utter 
ruin of many of them, attacked 
General Washington at the Valley 
Forge, where he might have done, 
the event of the War would have 
been very different, but I am only 
relating of those actions in which 
I was personally concerned. During 
the winter Major Simcoe was pro- 
moted to the rank of Lieutenant Colo- 
nel, and a Major Ross joined the Reg- 
iment. The news of General Bur- 
goyne's capture gave great energy to 
the enemy. The French also form- 
ing an alliance with the Americans, 
and sending troops to America put a 
different face on things. General 
Howe, after making a great display 
in Philadelphia, resigned the com- 
mand and went home and Sir Henry 
Clinton took the Command in Chief, 
and began to make preparations for 
evacuating Philadelphia and march- 
ing the Army through the Jerseys up 
to New York, and on 18th day of 
June 1778, the British Army crossed 
the Delaware and commenced their 
route, the Queen's Rangers always in 
the rear of the line of march. I have 
omitted to state that before we left 
Philadelphia a Troop of Horse was 
added to the Regiment. The officers 
were Captain Wickham, Lieut. McKab 
(late of York in Upper Canada) and 
a Cornet Spencer from the 17th 

Nothing of moment took place 
on our route until we came to 
Monmouth, where on the morning of 
the 28th of June, the Queen's Rangers 
met at daylight the advance army of 
the Americans under the command of 
General Lee. We had a smart brush, 
and Col. Simcoe was wounded. We 
took some prisoners and returned and 
joined the Army at Monmouth Court 
House, — Sir Henry Clinton, with five 
thousand of his Army attacked Lee 
and drove him the whole day — took 
and killed a great many of his men 
until we fell in with General Wash- 
ington's whole Army, when we re- 
treated, leaving our wounded in the 


enemies' hands. On commencing our 
retreat we had to oppose a large body 
of the enemy, and one of our field 
pieces was abandoned, and the enemy 
gave a shout. Lieutenant Shaw with 
the Highland Company wheeled 
about, charged the enemy, and 
brought off the cannon, which was 
ever after attached to the Regiment. 

Retreating with King George's 
men and dissension in the ranks 

We continued our retreat during 
the whole night and came up with the 
main Army at Middletown, where we 
halted to refresh ourselves for the 
first time in twenty-four hours. The 
•day of the battle was one of the hot- 
test days I ever felt, and we lost more 
men by drinking cold water than were 
killed by the enemy. I bore the fa- 
tigue of the day very well with only 
having again a shot through my pan- 
taloons, leaving the mark of the ball 
on the skin, or rather the powder 
without drawing blood. The Army 
continued its march, the Rangers 
bringing up the rear. The Army 
crossed over on a pontoon bridge to 
the lighthouse island, the Queen's 
Rangers embarked in flatboats and 
rowed up to New York and landed at 
Bloomingdale above New York, 
where we remained for some time 
and then crossed over to Long Island 
and took up our quarters at Oyster 
Bay. Another change had taken 
place in the Regiment. Major Ross 
liad left the Regiment. Captain Arm- 
strong promoted to the Majority, Cap- 
tain McGill went to the Grenadiers 
and Captain Agnew got his company 
soon after we came to Oyster Bay. 

Two of the Sergeants of the Horse 
(Kelly and Johnson) were convicted 
of plundering some of the inhabitants, 
was took and flogged and I was trans- 
ferred from the Infantry and to the 
Calvary. I had for my associates a 
Sergeant Prior and a Sergeant Mc- 
Laughlin, — from this moment I be- 
came a great favorite with Col. Sim- 
«coe, as well as all the other officers, 

except Captain Wickham who became 
my professed enemy, and who tried 
to find me guilty of some neglect that 
he might try me by a Court Martial, 
but I had now learned my duty, and I 
put him to defiance, and the only way 
he had to annoy me was to keep my 
pay back. However, always having 
a good supply of necessaries, I did not 
want much money. Our duty during 
the winter was not very severe, the 
harbor afforded plenty of oysters. I 
became a favorite with some of the 
principal inhabitants, and if I some 
times had scanty allowance at my 
barracks, I knew where to go to get 
the best the house afforded. Here a 
Mr. Moffet from the ,15th Regiment 
joined as Quarter Master, a rough, 
boisterous Irishman, but I knew how 
to humor him and we agreed very 
well together, — I spent the winter 
very pleasant. Our food was for 
some time rather coarse, our bread 
oatmeal biscuit full of magots. Early 
in the Spring of 1779 the Regiment 
left Oyster Bay and took up our en- 
campment above Kingsbridge, where 
we remained the greater part of the 
summer, making several excursions 
up the North River, as also to the 

Under fire with the enemy 
within ten miles of his own home 

At one time the 17th Dragoons 
and the troop of Queen's Rangers 
went as far as Pound Ridge, within 
ten miles of my father's house to 
surprise a Regiment of Dragoons, 
which we effected and made great 
havoc amongst them, and took a great 
many prisoners. I was ordered to 
flank the party, and in doing so I had 
in one instance to divide my party. 
There was a lagoon surrounded with 
bushes. I took one rout and part of 
my men the other. When I came in 
sight of them I saw them cutting and 
slashing at a single man with a female 
standing by his side. I wrode up in 
time to save the man from much in- 
jury. I afterwards brought him and 


his wife, for the female appeared to 
be so, and as he had no arms about 
him, I did not think proper to detain 
him a prisoner. I ordered him to re- 
main in his house and left him. (I 
shall have reason to speak of this man 

We returned to our quarters again 
at Kingsbridge. A few days after 
this a young man by the name of 
Vincent gave information that a 
party of the enemy were at West 
Chester, that he had narrowly es- 
caped being taken prisoner. Col. 
Simcoe with the mounted Legion, and 
the Rangers passed, ordering the In- 
fantry to follow. We came up with 
the enemy, we were ordered to form 
for the charge. In the meantime as 
the front Division were wheeling up 
I saw an American Dragoon dis- 
charge his pistol; my horse's head at 
that moment covered my body — the 
ball entered his nostril, and into his 
mouth. The blood spouted a stream, 
and my horse sank upon his haunches. 
Col. Simcoe ordered me to the rear, 
and gave the word to charge ; the en- 
emy had taken post behind a stone 
wall, I mean their Infantry, and when 
our Troops came abreast, gave us a 
very galling fire, and Captain Wick- 
ham wheeled his horse about and put 
the whole in disorder, the sequence of 
which was that the enemy got of! 
safe and we suffered severely, both in 
killed and wounded. We pursued 
the enemy afterwards, as far as By- 
ram River, and here a curious cir- 
cumstance happened — there was a 
very deep hole in the river, near the 
fording place, and the trumpetor of 
the enemy had got into it and was 
hanging by his horse's mane. I 
plunged in after him when my horse 
and self were several feet under 
water, and when I made my appear- 
ance several shots were fired at me, 
without effect, and the Trumpetor es- 
caped my grasp, as there was a large 
body on Infantry on the top of the 
hill, we found it necessary to retire. 

Destroying American property 
with the Queen's Rangers 

Soon after this a large body of the 
Army marched towards the White 
Plains. I was with a division of the 
Cavalry, leading the Column — Lord 
Cornwallis and Col. Simcoe came up- 
to the front, and I heard Col. Simcoe 
say to his Lordship, "There is a fine 
young lad who knows Danbury well.'' 
From this I took it for granted we 
were going there. We, however, 
soon took a turn to the Saw Pits in 
Horse Neck and back again to our 
old quarters without falling in with 
any of the enemy. Soon after Col. 
Simcoe took the route up the North 
River, where we fell in with a party 
at a place, I think called Kingsferry — 
when we came nigh the place I re- 
ceived orders to charge and I fol- 
lowed the enemy for some distance, 
and altho I did not myself take any of 
the enemy, I cut off the retreat of a 
good many, which were made prison- 

We returned to our camp in this 
manner. Much of our time was 
taken up during the summer, and in 
the Autumn we were moved to Staten 
Island, and took up our winter quar- 
ters at Richmond. Soon after our 
arrival at this place a quarrel ensued 
between Mr. Moffet, now an Ensign 
in the Regiment, as well as Quarter- 
Master of the Horse, with a Lieuten- 
ant (Mr. Lawrence died in Upper 
Canada) Lawrence. A duel ensued 
and Moffet was killed. Col. Simcoe 
was so enraged that he would not let 
him be buried with the honors of war. 
Lieutenant Lawrence was tried by a 
Court Martiall and Honorably Ac- 
quitted. Soon after our arrival at 
Staten Island an expedition was 
planned for destroying a number of 
boats that had been built for the ex- 
press purpose of landing the French 
Army, which the Americans were ex- 
pecting to arrive daily. It was com- 
posed of the Cavalry of the Queen's 
Rangers, the Buck's County Volun- 
teers, and the Jersey Ds ; the Buck's 


commanded by Captain Sanford, the 
others by Captain Stewart, all under 
the command of Col. Simcoe. The 
Infantry of the Rangers were to 
march into the country to cover our 
retreat. We landed at Perth Amboy, 
and we were to return by South Am- 

The Troops were to have been 
landed by ten o'clock at night, for 
which purpose we left Richmond for 
Billip's Point so as to reach that place 
soon after dark. From some cause 
or other it was near daylight before 
we landed at Amboy, and we had to 
perform the whole journey almost the 
whole way by daylight. In passing 
through a small village, as the sun 
was rising, a few men with knap- 
sacks came out of a house and our 
men took them for soldiers and com- 
menced an attack, and this gave the 
alarm; we however proceeded on our 
route. We had a Frenchman in our 
Troop, who from his broken English 
said that we were French Cavalry 
after the boats to land the French 
Army. By this means we procured 
guides who conveyed us to where the 
boats were, and we had collected a 
good number on our way, all of which 
we made prisoners as soon as we 
came to the boats and began to de- 
stroy them. There were twenty-five 
beautiful barges all fixed upon car- 
riages ready to be conveyed to any 
place where they would be wanted. 

Terrific conflict in which 
Officers almost lose their reason 

In a few minutes the boats were in 
flames, and the wheels of the car- 
riages cut to pieces, to the great dis- 
may of the guides who had conduct- 
ed us to them. We then proceeded 
to a place called Millstone, where we 
burnt a large quantity of forage, pa- 
rolled several American officers which 
fell into our hands; burnt the goal 
and relieved several of our prisoners 
who had been confined in goal, and 
then commenced our retreat, and a 

hazardous one it was, for by this time 
the whole country was alarmed, and 
from every house and corpse of wood 
we were fired upon, and at last we 
fell into an ambuscade, where we lost 
Col. Simcoe and several of our men. 

I had, a few moments before, been 
sent to Captain Sanford who formed 
our rear guard, with orders, when I 
heard the firing commence, and on 
my return I had to charge through 
the enemy ; few of their pieces had got 
reloaded and I escaped unhurt. I 
pursued as fast as my horse would 
carry me to the front to make my re- 
port, but I could see nothing of Col. 
Simcoe. I rode back and forth en- 
quiring for the Colonel. At last the 
Surgeon said, "He is dead." Dead 
said I, and are we going to leave him 
in the hands of the enemy, and I tried 
to get the men to turn about for the 
purpose of bringing him off, but I 
could not succeed. My gallant Cap- 
tain Wickham was riding about like a 
mad man, had lost his helmet and 
seemed to have lost his reason alto- 

By this time Captain Sanford 
had assumed the command, and 
we had got into some degree of order 
— we had by this time reached Bruns- 
wick Plains, and the enemy had nearly 
surrounded us — was enclosing us fast 
— Captain Stewart, our principal 
guide, had received a slight wound in 
the hand, had got confused; our men 
every moment falling, and as it was 
announced that the road to South 
Amboy was our route, no person 
could show us the way. I had already 
taken charge of Captain Wickham's 
Division. The Surgeon got fright- 
ened, leaped off his horse, put his 
white handkerchief on the point of 
his sword, and ran towards the en- 
emy, and a Sergeant Car hart fol- 
lowed him. In a few minutes we 
saw him returning and calling to Cap- 
tain Sanford. We ordered a halt. 
He came up and said to Captain San- 
ford, "Sir, the enemy will receive the 
flag, but insist that you go back to the 


ground from which I left you." Pray 
Sir, says Captain Sanford, who or- 
dered you to go with a flag, go back 
Sir to the enemy, and make your own 
terms. I shall have nothing to do 
with you." By this time we had little 
space to act upon. I saw the situa- 
tion in which we were placed, and I 
sent Sergeant McLaughlin to tell 
Captain Sanford that if he did not 
allow us to charge the enemy, we 
should all be prisoners in ten minutes. 

Cutting through the American 
Ranks in reckless onslaught 

The word was given and we cut our 
way thro the enemy and in doing so 
we fell upon the road we had been 
seeking for and we pushed forward. 
In pursuing our route we fell in with 
two men armed; one fired and killed 
a Corporal Maloy, of our Troop. 
The man was immediately killed — 
the other taken prisoner and ordered 
to run alongside the horses. I was 
ordered to bring up the rear. One 
of Captain Stewart's Dragoons had 
his thigh broken by a shot, and it was 
difficult for him to keep up with the 
Troops, who were making the best of 
their way. He was fearful of falling 
into the hands of the enemy, and 
begged of me not to leave him. I 
then put the prisoner behind him on 
his horse, and remained with them 
until our Troops were long out of 
sight. I then told the wounded man 
that I would stay with him no longer. 
You have got your pistol and can de- 
fend yourself if the prisoner should 
make any attempt to resist you, and 
overtake us as fast as you can. I then 
left them, and before I had overtaken 
the Troops they, had come up with 
the Infantry and made a halt — the 
wounded man also soon came up, but 
the prisoner had made his escape. It 
is impossible to describe the dismay 
of our Troops when they found we 
had returned without our Colonel. 

Narrow escape from Americans 
and dreary journey to safety 

On our arrival at the place for em- 
barking we found the boats ready. 
I was ordered to see all the horses on 
board, and I did not attempt embark- 
ing my own horse until the last boat, 
when he refused to leap into the boat. 
I gave the bridle to a sailor and 
jumped into the water, to urge the 
horse in. At that moment order was 
given to push off and wait for no 
man. The sailor dropped the bridle, 
took to his oar — the boat rowed away 
leaving myself and horse standing in 
the water — the enemy marching down 
to the shore. I mounted my horse 
with the intent to swim him after 
the boat, but I saw one boat yet at 
the shore. I rode to it, threw my sad- 
dle and bridle into the boat, and 
jumped on board, and had the morti- 
fication to see the enemy take posses- 
sion of the animal that had so many 
times carried me through great dan- 
ger and difficulties. I 'was happy in- 
deed to have escaped myself. We 
landed at Billip's Point, and we had 
a dreary and melancholy night's walk 
to Richmond — and took up our old 
quarters. The day after we got to 
Richmond, a man came from the en- 
emy and brought intelligence that Col. 
Simcoe was alive, his horse having 
fell on him and stunted him. This 
was joyful news to all the Regiment. 
His servant, McGill (died in Upper 
Canada a Captain in the Army) went 
out and took care of him while a pris- 
oner. They confined him in goal, 
where Col. Billip, a Loyalist was 
chained to the floor. Sir Henry 
Clinton with a part of the Army em- 
barked for Charlestown, as it after- 
wards appeared, and the Infantry of 
the Rangers were also in orders, and 
the baggage was on board — but they 
were ordered to be re-landed, and the 
fleet sailed without them, and the 
Regiment remained at Richmond all 
winter. Col. Simcoe was soon ex- 
changed, and joined the Regiment. 

The moraine after his arrival he 


came down to where the Cavalry was 
quartered — some of the officers with 
him — he said to me, "Jarvis, come to 
my quarters at 12:00 o'clock." I 
accordingly was there at the time. 
He then walked out of the Fort into 
the open field, out of hearing of any 
person, and began questioning me as 
to all circumstances which took place 
after he fell. To all of his questions I 
gave as correct account as I possibly 
could, and quite to his satisfaction, 
and then he said, "Jarvis, how did thj 
officers behave?" I answered, as offi- 
cers ought to on such occasions. 
"Well, but Jarvis, how did Captain 
Wickham behave?" Very well, said 
I, "Did he, Jarvis, did he?" Colo- 
nel, said I, do you think it possible 
that an officer of the Rangers can be- 
have ill? He looked at me with his 
piercing eyes and said, "You Yankey 
dog, you Yankey dog." After a 
short pause he clapped his hand on 
my shoulder saying, "You are right, 
you 1 are right, my good fellow. Take 
care of yourself, you are a brave fel- 
low." He then dismissed me and I 
returned to my quarters. 

Dragging cannon across 

New York harbor on ice in 1780 

After Mr. Moffet had obtained his 
Ensigney in the Regiment I was 
allowed to do the duty of Quarter- 
Master, for which Mr. Moffet allowed 
me a shilling a day, besides my other 
pay, and I still continued to do that 
duty. My friend Wickham one day 
sent for me, and said, "Jarvis, if you 
will draw a petition to the Colonel for 
the appointment of QuarterMaster, I 
and Mr. McNab will recommend you 
for it." This was so extraordinary a 
circumstance that I hardly thought 
him sincere, yet I lost not a moment, 
and after he had done as he promised, 
I waited on the Colonel and presented 
it. He read it with great attention, 
for in my petition I had stated the cir- 
cumstance of my joining the British 
Army, the loyalty of my family, and 
the promise and expectation made me 

when I first joined. After some little 
hesitating he said, "Jarvis, I have 
long had it in contemplation of giv- 
ing you promotion, and I am sorry 
that I cannot do so now, but I have 
promised it to McGill. His late con- 
duct towards me when in goal, and 
his long services with me, has induced 
me to do so, but you may rest assured 
that I will take the first opportunity 
in providing for you." This was 
rather a disappointment that I did not 
look for, but I bore it with fortitude. 

Ever after this Captain Wickham 
appeared to be a very sincere friend, 
made me a companion more than any- 
thing else, ever after so long as I re- 
mained in the Regiment. The winter 
of 1780 was a most severe one; the 
harbor of New York was even so fro- 
zen that cannon were brought from 
New York to Staten Island upon the 
ice, and during the winter a body of 
the enemy crossed from the Jerseys 
to Staten Island and invested our 
post. At the Narrows the cold was 
intense, and after remaining two 
nights and losing about forty men 
frozen to death, they returned to the 
Jerseys. Our Regiment from Rich- 
mond pursued them and took some 
prisoners. Whilst the enemy re- 
mained on the Island we were en- 
tirely cut off from any assistance 
from the rest of our forces, and were 
obliged to make such arrangements 
best calculated for our defence. 

The enemy thought best however 
not to approach us. Soon after this, 
a plan was formed to take General 
Washington, who lay some distance 
from New York, and rather attacked 
from his Army so as to make the 
attempt practicable. The 17th Light 
Horse and the Cavalry of the Queen's 
Rangers were designed for this ser- 
vice, and we marched from Staten 
Island to New York upon the ice, and 
took up our quarters at the Bull's 
Head, which at that time was quite 
out of the City. The time arrived 
and we crossed over to Elizabethtown 
Point, and after marching some dis- 


tance in the country, returned back 
without making any attempt, and thus 
the affair ended, much to my disap- 
pointment, for I had set my heart on 
this expedition, as I was to have 
taken charge of the General after he 
had fallen into our hands. We re- 
mained at the Bull's head for several 
weeks, until the harbor opened so as 
to return to Staten Island by water, 
during which time our Dragoons did 
much injury to the inhabitants, but I 
generally found out the perpetrators, 
and had them punished. One rob- 
bery they committed is of so singular 
a nature that I cannot avoid mention- 
ing it. 

With British Cavalry in 
the Surrender of Charlestown 

They went one Sunday to some 
Dutch parson's house, and finding 
nothing that suited them, they stole 
a stove and carried it off, for which 
the Commander-in-chief made Mr. 
McNab, the Commanding Officer 
(for my friend Wickham was not 
with us) pay for the stove, which he 
did before we were allowed to join 
the Regiment, which we did some 
time in the latter month of March. 
Soon after our joining, I was sent for 
to the Colonel's quarters, when I was 
informed that the Regiment were go- 
ing to embark; the Cavalry were to 
remain behind. He then asked me, 
"if I had any inclination to go with 
the Regiment." I expressed a desire 
to go. He said, "Well, my boy, you 
shall go, and you shall have a com- 
mand. You shall have fourteen men ; 
those you shall chose out of the whole 
Troop, and I will place Sergeant Mc- 
Pherson (this was the Brother of the 
one that was killed before we left 
Philadelphia) with fourteen rifle men 
to act in conjunction with you," and 
he ordered me at the same time to 
make out a list of the men I chose to 
take with me. I did so and gave it to 
him. He examined it and said, "You 
have made a very good choice; you 
have left out Maloy, I thought he 

would have been your first choice." 
So he would, Sir, if we should be 
fighting the whole time, but he will 
always be getting into some scrape 
and disgrace me and my party. How- 
ever I found it was the wish of the 
Colonel and I at last consented. 

We soon embarked, me with my 
men, saddles and appointments, and 
after a passage of fourteen or fifteen 
days, we arrived at Charlestown. We 
landed on James Island, crossed over 
above the City, and took up our quar- 
ters at the Quarter House six miles 
from Charlestown. I lost no time in 
procuring such horses as fell in my 
way, and had my men mounted and 
our business was to make patrols into 
the country, but we never came in 
contact with any of the enemy during 
the siege, which continued until the 
1 2th of May. After the town surren- 
dered, the Rangers marched into the 
country as far as Four Hole, when 
the Infantry halted and Captain Saun- 
ders, with my Cavalry, pushed con- 
siderable farther and passed for 
Americans, being dressed in green. 
At one Plantation we took a number 
of horses, and among the rest a very 
fine stud horse, which I mounted and 
rode for a few miles, when he at once 
halted and I could hardly get him 
along. He had not been rode for 
many years, and I foundered him, 
and was obliged to take to my former 
horse. There was little to excite the 
attention of the reader during our 

We took up our quarters at Dor- 
chester for some time. The people 
from the back country coming in 
daily and taking the Oath of Allegi- 
ance, and before we left Charlestown 
it was again to appearance a British 
Colony. We soon left Charlestown 
and sailed for New York. During 
the passage I discovered there was a 
negro man and woman on board, and 
when we came to Staten Island I 
landed with my men and horses whilst 
the Regiment proceeded on and 
joined Colonel Kuephausen, who was 


in the Jerseys, and during the ab- 
sence of the Regiment, two men, who 
it appeared had a claim on them for 
their support at least, came to me and 
said there was a man who wished to 
purchase the negroes. My answer 
was not to do anything without the 
approbation of Mr. McGill, who was 
the only officer then in the Garrison. 
They obtained his approbation, and 
they sold them, and the only hand I 
had in the matter was to divide the 
money between them, and I thought 
nothing more of the matter for some 

British soldiers search for 

hidden money on American estates 

During the forepart of the sea- 
son we were incamped at Kings- 
bridge, at a place called Odle's Hill, 
where one day some of the soldiers in 
finding a mouse under a stone they 
were induced to search for more. At 
last they undertook to turn over a 
large one, and at last succeeded, when 
there was the greatest shout and 
scrabbling imaginable. There was a 
deposit of money to the amount of 
many hundreds of dollars, which was 
soon distributed among the soldiers 
according to their good fortune in 
collecting what came within his grasp. 
The money was claimed by Mr. Odle, 
the proprietor of the farm, but he 
got no satisfaction. Col. Simcoe 
however told him if he had any more 
money out of doors to bring it into 
the house and it should be safe. He 
went and pulled down a place in the 
stone fence, and took out a jar full of 
gold, the consequence of which was 
that he had hardly a rod of stone wall 
about his farm that was not examined 
before daylight the next morning. 

We remained in this situation until 
the fate of Major Andre, where we 
were waiting until his return to take 
possession of the Fort at West Point, 
when we were removed on to Long 
Island, which we traversed from New 
York until we arrived at East Hamp- 
ton. Here we remained until our 

Army evacuated Rhode Island, after 
the French Fleet had returned from 
that place, when the Queen's Rangers 
retired as far as Oyster Bay ; the Cav- 
alry remained at Satauket, under the 
commanding of the Commanding 
Officer of the 17th Dragoons. Here 
again I met with the most discourag- 
ing circumstances, and it was a won- 
der how I escaped. I had been tak- 
ing orders, and, as is the custom, was 
proceeding to my officer's quarters to 
show him the orders, when, after go- 
ing some distance on my way, I heard 
some person calling after me. I 
turned around and saw an officer and 
two men following me, and as they 
came up to me the Officer said, "Is 
this the man?" They replied "Yes," 
and without giving me time to reply, 

Jealous English officers cause 
court martial of American recruit 

I was ordered to the Guard House, 
where I remained all night. How- 
ever, I was released the next morn- 
ing — thro the interference of my Offi- 
cer. Some person had killed a hog 
belonging to a Colonel Floid, and 
these two men declared that I was the 
person. I applied for a Court Mar- 
tial to prove my innocence, but this I 
did not obtain. Soon after we were 
ordered to join the Regiment, and as 
we came near the town of Oyster Bay, 
I was sent forward to announce their 
approach. As I entered the town, I 
was congratulated by all the Officers 
on my promotion. "I was not in or- 
ders," they said, "but no doubt I 
should be the next day, as they had 
seen the orders from Headquarters." 

I therefore proceeded to Colonel's 
quarters with a delightful sensation, 
expecting the same congratulation 
from him, but alas it was quite a dif- 
ferent reception that I met with, for 
after I had delivered my message, he 
with a stern countenance said to me, 
"Young man, what is this you have 
been doing? I understand you have 
been selling negroes." Indeed, Sir, I 
have not, I replied. Some of the men 


have, not me, I assure you Sir. His 
only reply was, "Go to your Troop. 
Sir." I obeyed. The Cavalry was 
camped at a village about two miles 
from Oyster Bay. Imagine what my 
feelings must have been at this mo- 
ment, but I had yet a much greater 
mortification still. The next day 
there was a Court of Enquiry. A 
Captain and two Subalterns. I was 
examined ; I told my story, as it hap- 
pened, except how far Mr. McGill 
was concerned, but one of the men 
flatly told the Court that McGill had 
given them leave to sell the negroes. 
I was then again called and exam- 
ined as to that fact. To this I refused 
to answer. Whatever I have done I 
must be the sufferer, for I would say 
nothing that would in the least in- 
jure Mr. McGill. "Captain Shank, 
who was President of the Court, 
urged me to say how far the story 
given by the men was correct, for it 
might do away with the charge 
against myself, otherwise he feared it 
would be the means of my losing my 
promotion." I replied that I had 
already said what I should say, let the 
consequence be what it would. On 
this the Court broke up, and what re- 
port they made I never knew, but I 
rather suspect that McGill must have 
been examined, and denied giving any 
such leave from what took place after- 
wards. The next morning after the 
men were assembled for the morning 
parade, Colonel Simcoe called me to 
him, and laying his head down on the 
neck of his horse gave me one of the 
most severe reprimands I believe man 
ever received, and told me decidedly 
"that I had lost my promotion and his 
countenance forever. Go Sir and 
join your Troop." I returned to my 
duty more dead than alive. One of 
the Officers, I think it was Mr. Mc- 
Nab, was going to New York the 
next day, and I took the opportunity 
of writing my relation, a Mr. Jarvis 
who was in the Commissarist, and in 
my letter gave him a true statement of 
facts, enjoining him to secrecy; that 

he was not to divulge it until after my 
death — for I determined the first ac- 
tion that gave me opportunity, either 
to sacrifice my life or retrieve my 
character — at all events I do not think 
I should long have survived. I lost 
my appetite, and my sleep went from 
me; my frame decayed, and in a few 
days I was a complete skeleton. 

One evening after parade was dis- 
missed, both Mr. McGill and myself 
were desired to attend the Colonel, 
and after all the officers had retired, 
he then taxed McGill of giving the 
men liberty to sell the negroes, which 
he denied. The Colonel then turned 
to me and said, "Jarvis, did he not 
give them leave?" I replied, No Sir. 
He gave me one of those stern looks, 
which spoke volumes, taking a letter 
fiom his pocket handed it to me say- 
ing, "Is not that your handwriting?" 
I was thunderstruck, and it was some 
time before I could answer. "Speak 
Sir, speak, is that your letter?" and 
"Is what you have stated true?" I 
then answered, Sir it is my letter, and 
since I must answer, the contents are 
true, but Sir give me leave to say that 
if I could have imagined that my 
friend would have betrayed me and 
the confidence that I had placed in 
him, I would have suffered death be- 
fore I would have wrote that letter 
now in my hands. "Go to your 
Troop," was his reply. What he said 
to Mr. McGill I forbear mentioning. 

Defeat of Conspiracy and 
Promotion of American Soldier 

Not long after this I was one even- 
ing ruminating over my misfortunes, 
in a retired part of our quarters, seat- 
ed upon a stone in the dusk of the 
evening, when I was accosted by a 
voice familiar to me, and embracing 
me round the neck at the same time, 
saying, "Dear Jarvis, all is well again, 
I am sent as a messenger of peace to 
you, but you must keep it secret that 
I give you the information. Captain 
McKay has sent me to say to you that 
your promotion will take place". I 


was so much overcome that it was 
some time before I could speak, and 
when I did, I said to McPherson. 
don't sport with my wounded feel- 
ings, I have already received my sen- 
tence, and I shall not long survive it. 
"I tell you Jarvis I have said noth- 
ing but the truth." "Mind what I 
have said, don't let it be known that 
I gave you the good news." He then 
left me and returned to his Company. 
In a few days the Regiment again 
marched and crossed over to Staten 
Island, and took up our old quarters 
at Richmond. The next morning I 
saw my name in the orderly book as 
QuarterMaster in Captain Saunders' 
Troops, with orders for embarkation. 
An expedition was formed under 
General Leslie, of Virginia, and 
amongst the Troops that composed 
the Army was one Troop of the 17th 
Light Dragoons, Captain Saunders, 
Lieutenant Wellson, Cornet Merritt, 
QuarterMaster Jarvis and a few men 
of the old Troop of the Queen's Ran- 
gers. Captain Saunders was former- 
ly from Virginia and he went to that 
place for the purpose of recruiting; 
clothing, saddles and appointment 
were placed under my care for the 
completion of a full Troop of fifty 
strong. We soon sailed and Captain 
Saunders with the other Officers and 
men landed at Norfolk, and marched 
to that part of the country where he 
had formerly resided. I was ordered 
to remain with the baggage until fur- 
ther orders. Captain Saunders, after 
traversing the country, and procur- 
ing a number of very fine horses, took 
up his quarters at Kemp's Landing, 
to which place I was ordered with the 
baggage and stores. I had hardly 
got into good quarters before we were 
again ordered to march and we sup- 
posed for, a short expedition only — 
and a Company took possession of my 
quarters in my absence, but was to 
surrender them on my return, which 
however never took place. We em- 
barked for Charlestown, myself, men, 
stores and horses in one vessel and the 

Officers in another. On our leaving 
Norfolk Captain Saunders had plun- 
dered more horses than he was 
allowed to put on board. He, there- 
fore, distrubted them to his Officers 
and among the rest, gave me a very 
fine horse. 

At sea we had very boisterous 
weather, our vessel sprang a leak — 
never so crazy a vessel went to sea. 
To save our lives, I threw thirty 
fine horses overboard, but saved every 
Officer a horse. With great diffi- 
culty we got safe into port; every 
person was down working at the 
pumps, and had not been for a fortu- 
nate circumstance of having several 
green ox hides on board, which we 
cut up in strips, and the Captain lash- 
ing himself over-board and nailing 
the strips over the seams of the vessel, 
by which means with great exertion 
we could keep the water under, we 
would have been lost. We arrived 
safe at Charlestown, when Captain 
Saunders with what men he had was 
ordered to Georgetown. I was or- 
dered to remain with the Stores, set 
the sailors at work making new cloth- 
ing for recruits and also to recruit, 
but left no money with me to recruit 
with. The consequence was, I never 
recruited a man for him whilst I re- 
mained in the Troop. He also took 
the horse from me, with a promise to 
give me another when I joined him 
again, but as that was not the case I 
lost my horse. About the time that 
Captain Saunders went to George- 
town, a party of Americans dashed 
into the town, and made Colonel 
Campbell of the King's American 
Regiment, who quartered outside the 
Garrison, a prisoner, and paroled hirn 
and retired without any other person 
falling into their hands. There was 
at the time a Captain Campbell who 
was recruiting a Troop of Dragoons 
at Georgetown, and who brought the 
news of Colonel Campbell's capture 
to Charlestown. He wished to re- 
main at Charlestown in some busi- 


He procured an order for me 
to proceed to Georgetown, with the 
orders vesting Captain Saunders with 
the Command of the Garrison, and 
giving Major Grant of the King's 
Americans leave of absence. Captain 
Campbell kept one horse, and sent his 
servant with one as a guide. I pro- 
ceeded on and met an escort at the 
Santee, who conducted me to George- 
town, where I delivered my dispatches 
to Captain Saunders, and the next 
morning returned in company with 
Colonel Campbell and Major Grant 
tmder an escort as far as the Santee 
on our return. After our arrival at 
Charlestown, Major Grant made me 
a present of a little horse, of little 
value, which I afterwards exchanged 
with a Hessian Officer for a very 
smart white pony. This enabled me 
to ride about the country and amuse 
myself, overseeing my squad of Tail- 
ors at work, and at the same time in- 
structing them in the carbine exer- 

Experiences in charge of 
Uniforms of King's fighters 

Soon after this Captain Camp- 
bell made another visit to Charles- 
town, and was to take back with him 
several suits of clothing, saddles and 
appointments for some recruit Cap- 
tain Saunders had obtained. They 
were to go part of the way by water, 
and I had them put on board for that 
purpose, and called on Captain Camp- 
bell to sign a voucher for them. He 
flew in a violent passion, swore bit- 
terly that he would do no such thing. 
You won't Sir was my only reply, I 
shall order them on shore again, and 
left him for that purpose, but when 
the men came on shore, and before the 
things were landed, Captain Campbell 
came down to the shore in company 
with some of the Officers of the 71st 
Regiment, and I heard Captain Camp- 
bell say to them that there was the 
most obstinate fellow (meaning me) 
he ever saw in his life, and mentioned 
the circumstance. One of the gentle- 

men replied in these words, "I'll tell 
you what Campbell, the young gentle- 
man knows his duty. Suppose on the 
way, those appointments, etc. should 
fall into the hands of the enemy, and 
he should be called upon for a state- 
ment of the stores in his charge, and 
he could procure no vouchers, the 
consequence would be that he would 
be broke and dismissed the service." 
After some explanation and a prom- 
ise to indemnify me in case they 
should be lost and to get Captain 
Saunders' certificate and send me, I 
ordered them on board the vessel 
again, and I soon received Captain 
Saunder's certificate of his receiving 
them, and all was well. A short time 
after this I was one day taking my 
usual ride, I fell in with a Major Fra- 
ser (he had formerly belonged to the 
Rangers) who after the usual saluta- 
tions said, "Jarvis, I am glad to fall 
in with you. I have been wishing to 
see you for some days." I wish I had 
known it Major, I hope it was noth- 
ing disagreeable, for of late I have 
only got out on one difficulty to fall 
into another." "No, I assure you," 
he said. "It was on a subject I hope 
much to your advantage." I am hap- 
py to hear it I replied, as I have been 
a useless animal for this some time 
past, and I should like for some em- 
ployment for the good of the service 
than I am now engaged in. He then 
said, "Captain Campbell has been 
speaking with me, and requested me 
to solicit you to accept a Lieutenancy 
in his Troop." 

Commanding Cavalry and procuring 
sheep for British soldiers 

This was a matter so unexpected 
that I could hardly think him in 
earnest, and then mentioned the 
circumstance which happened at our 
last interview. "Perhaps that is 
the very cause why he is so desirous 
for you. to join him." After some 
enquiry on what establishment his 
Troop was raised, and his advice how 
he thought I should act on a matter 


of such consequence, he "advised me 
to write to my Commanding, Officer, 
who no doubt would give me such ad- 
vice as would be acceptable to me," 
and if he gives you leave, I advise you 
by all means to accept of Captain 
Campbell's offer." I wrote to Cap- 
tain Saunders, received a favorable 
answer, called on Captain Campbell, 
who went with me to the Inspector 
General's office, had my warrant 
made out and put in General orders 
until the Commander-in-Chief should 
signify his pleasure, to whom a rec- 
ommendation was sent, and which 
was by him confirmed. Captain 
Campbell furnished me with plenty of 
money, and I earnestly set about re- 
cruiting, and in a short time we mus- 
tered twenty-six Dragoons with 
which number we were ordered to 
take the field, after procuring horses 
and appointments. This was at the 
time that Lord Rawden fought the 
Americans and defeated them at Cam- 
den, and the first service I performed 
was to escort Colonel Balfour to the 
Santee where we met Lord Rawden. 
After having an interview with his 
and after having an interview with his 
Lordship, we returned to Charlestown 
and his Lordship, after disposing of 
his sick and wounded, proceeded with 
the Army to relieve our post at 
Ninety-Six which was closely be- 
seiged by the Americans. In the 
meantime, a re-inforcement of three 
Regiments arrived from England, the 
3rd, 19th and 30th Regiments. The 
19th Regiment, Captain Saunders' 
Troop, which had been removed from, 
Georgetown, and Captain Campbell's 
Troop were ordered to Monks' Cor- 
ner to relieve the Garrison there, who 
went on to join Lord Rawden. At 
this point the Commissary, who 
wished to join his Lordship, invested 
me as Commissary, and gave me pos- 
session of the Stores, and for some 
time I was both Commissary and 
Commanding Officer of the Cavalry, 
and during that period I marched into 
the country and procured a large 

drove of beefs and sheep for the 
Army, which so pleased General 
Coats who commanded, that he urged 
me strongly to take a commission in . 
his Regiment, but for sundry motives, 
not worth mentioning here, I de- 
clined. I continued for some weeks 
to perform this double duty, but 
found too fatiguing to discharge both. 
I wrote to the Commissary General 
to send a person to relieve me. At 
this time we were re-inforced with 
the South Carolina Regiment, who 
for their gallant conduct at Camden, 
were made Cavalry. This re-inforce- 
ment made the Cavalry of great con- 
esquence at this post, and we had 
soon an opportunity to try our metal. 

Scouting: with Redcoat dragoons 
on trail of Americans 

General Coats had received intelli- 
gence that the enemy intended an 
attack upon our position at two places 
at the same time, and in a very short 
period. I was sent for by the Gen- 
eral, who directed me to take four 
Dragoons and a few Militia and pro- 
ceed on the road that lead to Charles- 
town, and go until I should fall in 
with the enemy, if they were between 
Monks' Corner and Goose Creek. I 
set off a little before sunset in a heavy 
shower of rain, and before I had pro- 
ceeded far found that my Militia men 
had left me, and I was reduced to my 
four Dragoons, but as my object was 
intelligence more than fighting I pro- 
ceeded on. I soon discovered six or 
eight men advancing towards me, 
and when they came to a certain dis- 
tance, challenged me. I said a friend. 
"What friend?" To the King. At 
this declaration one of them dis- 
mounted and placed his rifle across 
his horse. I charged his rifle, missed 
fire. He mounted and with his com- 
rades dashed into the woods. I soon 
came up with him, and by a well di- 
rected stroke laid him in the dust. I 
ordered my man to secure him, and 
push forward after the rest. I had 
nearly overtaken another, when my 


horse, unfortunately, got entangled in 
a grape vine, and the man escaped ; as 
the day was so far spent, I could not 
see to pursue the enemy any further. 
I set to camp with my prisoner, and 
gave him up to the General. He con- 
firmed the information before re- 
ceived. It was my turn for duty that 
night, and my orders were to patrol 
on the road leading to the Santee, and 
I did so, but discovered none of the 
enemy during the night, but in the 
morning about sunrise I discovered 
that a large body of men had ap- 
proached near the Garrison, and had 
taken off the road to gain our right 
flank. I galloped back as fast as T 
could, but before I reached the Camp 
the enemy had drove in our Sentinels, 
and were destroying the bridge to 
prevent our retreat on that route, and 
then they retraced their steps and 
took up their position on the road that 
lead to the Santee. We remained 
idle during the fore part of the day, 
but hearing that the American Horse 
were at a plantation, and their horses 
were running loose about the field, 
Major Fraser, of the South Carolina 
Dragoons, was ordered with the 
whole Cavalry to proceed and recon- 
noiter the Troop. I commanded (for 
Captain Campbell was absent) led, 
except the advance guard commanded 
hy an Officer. We soon came in 
sight of the enemy and charged. The 
Officer with the advance — his horse 
fell and threw his rider — I said to 
Major Fraser, I'll take charge of the 
advance, did not wait to hear any 
reply, but set off. I rode a very fleet 
horse and soon gained the advance, 
and pressed hard on the enemy, who 
left the road and took the woods. I 
soon came up with one, and my Cor- 
poral on the other side, and we both 
made a blow at the same time and 
gave the fellow his quarters. I heard 
a shout in my rear, looked round, and 
found myself in the rear of a large 
body of the enemy. In wheeling my 
horse round I broke my stirrup 
leather and came to the ground. 

Encounter with Revolutionists 
and a flag of truce 

However I recovered my seat and 
then pressed to regain the front of the 
enemy, or I must be taken prisoner, 
and I was indebted to the fleetness of 
my horse for my escape. I had nearly 
gained the front of the enemy before 
they discovered me, and they called 
me to surrender; not yet, thinks I, a 
little more running first. I found I 
gained fast upon our Troops, who 
were retreating in good order. I re- 
covered the roads a few rods in front 
of the enemy. They fired several 
shots after me without injury. We 
met our Infantry with a piece of ord- 
nance. We wheeled about and 
checked the enemy, and then retired 
to Camp. By this time our piquet at 
the bridge leading to Charlestown 
were attacked, and I was ordered to 
direct Captain Bell, who commanded, 
to retire, which he did with no other 
loss than one of his Officers slightly 
wounded in the arm, which he was 
very fond of carrying in a sling for a 
long time after. We remained until 
night, when we burned our stores, and 
commenced our retreat through a bye 
road that the enemy had no knowl- 
edge of. During the night the 
Troops got separated, and the wag- 
gons which were heavily loaded broke 
down one after the other. Captain 
Campbell, Paymaster of the 19th Reg- 
iment, with the Military chest fell into 
the enemy's hands, with all the heavy 
baggage of the Regiment. We pro- 
ceeded on until daylight, when we 
took up a position at a plantation, 
flanked by a navigable stream, over 
which there was a bridge which we 
passed, and placed a piece of cannon 
to guard the bridge. The Cavalry 
had unbridled their horses at the plan- 
tation, and the Infantry began to 
cook their breakfast. The enemy 
charged over the bridge and cut the 
sentry at the cannon down, and then 
dashed into the wood. The 19th fell 
in, some without their coats; great 
confusion ensued, and they began to 


give ground. The Cavalry mounted 
and really forced them to face the en- 
emy. Major Fraser then had some 
consultation with General Coats, took 
advantage of a high field of corn, and 
set off and left the 19th to their fate, 
and pushed for Charlestown, got a 
re-inforcement and returned to look 
after the 19th Regiment, who after we 
left them General Coats drew up his 
men in the open field, and waited for 
the enemy, who came on and were re- 
pulsed several times, and at last re- 
treated over the bridge, and sent a 
flag of truce for leave to bury their 
dead. Had the Cavalry been with 
the General, on the retreat of the en- 
emy, we might no doubt have made a 
glorious day of it, but so it was — they 
lost all their baggage, but had gained 
their credit, which in some measure 
they had tarnished in the morning. 
I had made up my mind that they 
would all have been taken prisoners. 

A Loyalist and a Patriot 
in Death Duel on Battlefield 

We all marched to Charlestown and 
in a few days Captain Campbell's 
Troop were drafted into the South 
Carolina Regiment, but before this 
took place, the Regiment had taken 
a Colonel Haines, who was executed 
as a traitor. Captain Saunders also 
with his and Captain Campbell's 
Troop made an excursion into the 
country and attacked a body of the 
enemy at Snipe's Plantation — we ap- 
proached the place at sunrise in the 
morning, found the gate leading to 
the house secured with a large ox 
chain, and the fences each side made 
very strong, which it took some time 
to demolish under a heavy fire from 

the enemy. We at last succeeded, 
and the enemy retreated back into a 
large rice field, where they were over- 
taken and very few of them escaped 
with their lives, and only one man 
taken prisoner, who was so shame- 
fully mangled that we could not bring 
him away — one of the enemy, who 
had nearly gained a wood, discovered 
that no person was following him but 
myself, waited for me, and when I 
had got at a certain distance, levelled 
his rifle. I expected at least he would 
have killed my horse. To turn from 
him was to me certain death. I 
therefore dashed towards him. He 
fired and missed me and my horse, 
and before he could raise his rifle he 
was a dead man. We returned to 
our quarters with a few horses which 
we had taken. We were now sta- 
tioned at Dorchester, twenty miles 
from Charlestown, with some Troops 
of Infantry. % Captain Campbell's 
Troop now became a part of the 
South Carolina Regiment and we 
with some Hessian Troops and the 
30th Regiment formed a body of 
Troops for an expedition towards 

The remaining pages of this re- 
markable manuscript reveal an aston- 
ishing story of conditions in the Brit- 
ish Army, and relate many incidents 
hitherto unknown to American his- 
tory. The experiences of Colonel 
Jarvis of Connecticut as a fighter in 
the King's ranks against his own 
countrymen, for the sake of his fath- 
er's principles and his own, is one of 
the most important documents of the 
period. Its closing pages will be re- 
corded in another chapter. 


Covertly in music is a cry 

And hidden in the slow fine toil of brush 

A. stifled eagerness, an untaught rush 

Of soul to voice a passion and to die; 

Unsought, unbid, an outlawed legacy, 

A. sudden shriek that stabs the brooding hush 

But slinks away at its own nudity 

And chokes the fountain's fierce extorted gush. 
Too like a lonely warrior on the field 
Who seeks a fair opponent for his lance, 
But finds all knights are stooping in a dance 
And stilled the ancient sturdy clang of shield. 
So as his untamed sword will never tame 
Undrawn he bears it from their sluggard shame. 


Mother of the First President op the United States 

Transcribed from Clerk's Office at Fredericksburg, Virginia, by 
Mrs. Helen Cook Porter, of Baltimore, Maryland 

IN the name of God! Amen! I, Mary Washington, of Fredericksburg, in the 
County of Spotsylvania, being in good health, but calling to mind the uncer- 
tainty of this life, and willing to dispose of what remains of my worldly estate, 
do make and publish this, my last will, recommending my soul into the hands of 
my Creator, hoping for a remission of all my sins through the merits and medi- 
tation of Jesus Christ, the Saviour of mankind ; I dispose of my worldly estate as 

Imprimis. — I give to my son, General George Washington, all my land in 
Accokeek Run, in the County of Stafford, and also my negro boy George to him 
and his heirs forever. Also my best bed, bedstead, and Virginia cloth curtains 
(the same that stands in my best bed-room), my quilted blue and white quilt and 
my best dressing-glass. 

Item. — I give and devise to my son, Charles Washington, my negro man Tom, 
to him and his assigns forever. 

Item. — I give and devise to my daughter, Bettie Lewis, my phaeton and my 
bay horse. 

Item. — I give and devise to my daughter-in-law, Hannah Washington, my 
purple cloth cloak lined with shag. 

Item. — I give and devise to my grandson, Corbin Washington, my negro 
wench old Bet, my riding chair, and two black horses, to him and his assigns for- 

Item. — I give and devise to my grandson, Fielding Lewis, my negro man, 
Frederick, to him and his assigns forever, also eight silver tablespoons, half of my 
crockery ware and the blue and white tea china, with book case, oval table, one 
bedstead, one pair sheet?, one pair blankets and white cotton counterpain, two 
table cloths, red leather chairs, half my peuter and one-half of my kitchen furni- 

Item. — I give and devise to my grandson, Lawrence Lewis, my negro wench 
Lydia, to him and his assigns forever. 

Item. — I give and devise to my granddaughter, Bettie Carter, my negro 
woman, little Bet, and her future increase, to her and her assigns forever. Also 
my largest looking-glass, my walnut writing desk and drawers, a square dining 
table, one bed, bedstead, bolster, one pillow, one blanket and pair sheets, white 
Virginia cloth counterpains and purple curtains, my red and white tea china, tea- 
spoons, and the other half of my peuter and crockery ware, and the remainder of 
my iron kitchen furniture. 

Item. — I give and devise to my grandson, George Washington, my next best 
glass, one bed, bedstead, bolster, one pillow, one pair sheets, one blanket and 

Item. — I devise all my wearing apparel to be equally divided between my 
granddaughters, Bettie Carter, Fannie Ball and Milly Washington, — but should 
my daughter, Bettie Lewis, fancy any one, two or three articles, she is to have 
them before a division thereof. 

Lastly, I nominate and appoint my said son, General George Washington, 
executor of this, my will, and as I owe few or no debts, I direct my executor to 
give no security or appraise my estate, but desire the same may be alloted to my 
devises, with as a little trouble and delay as may be desiring their acceptance 
thereof as all the token I now have to give them of my love for them. 

In witness thereof, I have hereunto set my hand and seal the 20th day of 
May, 1788. 

Witness, John Ferneyhough. 

Signed, sealed, and published in the presence of the said Mary Washington 
and at her desire. 

Jno. Mercer. 
Joseph Walker. 

the Progeny of m Saxon Kings in America 


Honorable DWIGHT TRACY, M.D., D.D.S. 

New England Genealogical Society— New York Genealogical and Biographical Society- Connecticut 

Historical Society— New London County Historical Society— The Founders of Norwich, 

Connecticut, Society— Connecticut Society Sons of American Revolution 



■-■■'•■. ;.: 


Exhibit 1— The birthplace of "William Tracy who came to Virginia in 162c— At the 
time of the Domesday Survey it was occupied by the great-grandson of KiDg 
Ethelred— Print from rare engraving in 1712 when the estate was in possession of 
William Tracy, descendant of Saxon Kings and progenitor of theTracys in America 

SOME years ago I heard the tra- 
dition that the ancient Tracys 
in America were of royal de- 
scent; that the blood in the 
veins of these first American settlers 
was that of the old Saxon kings. 
During my long life I have listened 
to countless narratives pertaining to 

the Tracys, and for a generation I 
have given heed to them all and have 
followed every clue to its minutest 

One of the earliest traditions that 
came to me was that the Lieutenant 
Thomas Tracy, who appears first in 
the records of Salem, Massachusetts, 


Le Sire de Traci, a Norman Baron, went to England with William the Conqueror and 
fought in the Battle of Hastings in 1066— His granddaughter, Grace de Traci, married 
Lord Sudeley, John de Maigne, son of the Lord of Toddington, connected with the 
royal line of Saxon kings— Rare print from an engraving made in 1840 in London 

in 1636-7, and died at Norwich, Con- 
necticut, on November 7, 1685, was of 
noble birth and that his ancestors 
lived on the Toddington estate in 
Gloucestershire, England. Although 
this tradition was wholly unsupport- 
ed by evidence, I took up the clue and 
began a systematic research. I found 
it frequently stated that Thomas 
Tracy was the pioneer of the Tracy 
family in America, but early discov- 
eries led me to believe that his father 
came with him to the New World. 

After thirteen years of continuous 
investigation, during which I have 
devoted my entire labors to establish 
the Tracy lineage, I am here pre- 
pared to state that the Tracys are of 
royal descent and that their blood is 
one of the noblest strains of the Old 

I shall here lay before you my 
proof — not mere inferences but gene- 
alogical evidence supported by exact 
transcripts and facsimiles from an- 
cient records and documents. As my 
investigations completely upset the 

voluminous genealogical dicta re- 
garding the Tracys in England, and 
wholly disagree with the mass of ma- 
terial that has been collected and pub- 
lished on the subject, I realize the ne- 
cessity of establishing my contention 
beyond doubt. This I shall do with 
photographs of original letters, docu- 
mentary proof from official records, 
corroborated by sundry testimonies 
from authoritative sources, establish- 
ing the genealogical fact that the 
aforementioned Thomas Tracy who 
died at Norwich, Connecticut, was 
born in Gloucestershire, England; 
that he was the son of William Tracy, 
esquire, of Hayles Abbey, and his 
wife Mary Conway of Arrow, War- 
wickshire ; that this William Tracy 
was the third son of Sir John Tracy, 
the knight of Toddington castle, and 
his wife Anne Throckmorton. With 
this established, the line runs back in 
unbroken succession to Egbert, the 
first Saxon king of all England. 

The lineage which I shall here 
prove by the majority of authorities is 
as follows : 


Connecting with the Tracys in America through William Tracy of Virginia 
in 1620 and Thomas Tracy of Massachusetts and Connecticut in 1636 

1. Egbert, first King of all England, reigned 800-838, his son 

2. Ethelwolf, 839-854, his fourth son 

3. Alfred the Great, 871-901, his second son 

4. Edward the Elder, 901-925, his second son 

5. Edmund I, 941-946, his second 

6. Edgar, 951-975, his first son by second wife 

7. Ethelred, 978-1015, his youngest daughter Princess 

8. Goda, married first Walter de Maigne, (de Medantine, de Man- 
tese, etc.) a Norman Nobleman. 

9. Rudolph de Maigne, Earl of Hereford. 

10. Harold de Maigne, Lord of Sudeley and Toddington. 

11. John cle Maig-ne, Lord Sudeley, married Grace de Traci, dau. of 
Henry de Traci, fuedal Lord of Barnstaple and grandau. of Le Sire de 
Traci a Norman Baron who went to England with William the Conqueror 
and was in the battle of Hastings 1066: his name is in the roll of Battle 

12. Sir William de Traci, son of aforementioned John de Maigne and 
Grace de Traci, who assumed his mother's name of Traci ; High Sheriff, 
1269; Knight, 1289. 

13. Sir William de Traci, High Sheriff, 13 19. 

14. Sir Henry de Tracy. 

15. Sir Henry de Tracy. 

16. Sir John Tracy, High Sheriff, 1359 to 1362. 

17. Sir John Tracy, High Sheriff, 1363-8-70; Knight of the Shire, 
32-37-40 — and 43 of Edward III. 

18. Henry Tracy, Esquire. 

19. Sir John Tracy, High Sheriff, 1379. 

20. Sir William Tracy, High Sheriff, 1416; m. Alice de la Spine. 

21. Sir William Tracy, High Sheriff, 1442-3. 

22. Sir William Tracy, High Sheriff, died ante 21 ; Henry VII, High 
Sheriff 15 13, m. Margery Pauncefort 1449. 

23. Sir Henry Tracy, High Sheriff, m. Alice Baldington. 

24. Sir William Tracy, Knight, m. Margaret Throckmorton. 

25. Sir William Tracy, m. Agnes Digby. 

26. Sir Henry Tracy, m. Elizabeth Bridges. Will proved Sept., 1557. 

27. Sir John Tracy, Knight, m. Anne Throckmorton. Knighted 1574. 

28. Gov. William Tracy, of Hayles Abbey m. Mary Conway. He 
qualifies for the Societies of Americans of Royal Descent and Colonial 
Governors. Immigrated to Virginia in 1620. 

29. Lt. Thomas Tracy, of Massachusetts and Connecticut, m. three 
times. Children all by first wife whose name is unknown. 

30. Daniel Tracy, m. 1st Abigail Adgate, Sep. 9, 1682. 

31. Daniel Tracy, m. Abigail Lefrmgwell, Mar. 14, 1710-11. 

32. Samuel Tracy, m. Sybil Lathrop, May 17, 1750. 

33. Zebediah Tracy, m. 1st Eunice Chaplin Jan. 10, 1788. 

34. Thomas Chaplin Tracy, m. Maria Safford, Dec. 1, 1819. 

35. Dr. Dwight Tracy, m. Jane Vanderbilt Fry, May 25, 1857. 

36. Dr. William Dwight Tracy, m. Margaret Prescott, Sep. 7, 1904. 

37. Dwight Prescott Tracy — William Ward Tracy. 


In proof of the unbroken chain alogists have disagreed on certain 

from Egbert, the first Saxon king, points ; but the main contention is so 

down twenty-eight generations to Wil- well established that these exhibits are 

liam Tracy (28) of Hayles Abbey, conclusive proof. (Exhibits 2 and 3.) 

who married Mary, the daughter of The Tracy lineage, as given by 

Sir John Conway, of Arrow, County former genealogists of the family, 

of Warwick, sister of Lord Conway, I was substantially correct, down to the 

present a photographic reproduction children of Sir William Tracy, 

of the two pages from Britton's Tod- Knight (24), who married Margaret 

dington, published in 1840, and an Throckmorton. They (the genealo- 

English authority. In investigating gists), assumed that the line from this 

these lines I find that the gene- Sir William (24) was through his 

The T CODINGTON, or Tracy Family, is descended, on the paternal side, from Ethelred, whose daughter, Goda, married Walter, 
Larl of Mauntz, a noble Norman. From this marriage came Ralph* who was created Earl of Hereford by his uncle, Edward 
the Confessor. Harold, son of Ralph, married Maud, daughter of Hugh Lupus, Earl of Chester, and nephew to William the r 
Conqueror. This Harold, who settled at Sudeley and Toddington, had two sons, Ralph and John; the latter of whom married 
Grace, daughter of William de Traci, natural son of King Henry the First. Their offspring were Ralph and William ; the last ; 
assumed his mother's name of Traci, and retained the family arms of Sudeley, with an escalop-shell for difference. 

King Ethelred. 


Ralph, Earl of Hereford, lived in the reign of King Edward the Confessor. 


Harold,* Baron of Sudeley. 

John de Svdeley, Lord of Sudeley— Grace, daughter of William de Tracy, or Traei, Baron of Barnstaple. 

Ralph, Baron or Sedeuy, founded the Priory William de Traci, held Toridingtnn, &c. of his Brother Ralph, 

of Ebtjsury, in ihe County of Warwick. by the service of one knight's fee, temp. Henry II. f 

For this Pedigree, vide page v. =f 

Oliver Tracy, 1201, paid scutage the 2d of King John, as one of the Knights of Gloucestershire. 


Sir William Tracy, 12fi»; made High Sheriff of the County of Gloucester by the Baron* of the Earl of Leicester's party, in opposition to M. de 

Besaite, a French knight, who was put into that office l.v the king's jiartv. He was one of the Knights of Gloucestershire, I2U9; commanded in Scotland 

under Edward the First, whither he was accompanied hy his kinsman, Ralph de Sudeley; and was thrice High Sheriff of Gloucestershire. 

Sir William TraCY, granted in ward to Laurence Tresham, 129fl, was present at the tournament held 
at Barnstaple by Edward the Second ; made High Sheriff of the County of Gloucester, 1319. 

! I 

Henry Tracy. . Margery=John Archer, of Vi 

Tito jias Tracy, High Sheriff of Gloucestershire from 135!) I 

Sni John Tracy, Knight, High Sheriff of the County of Gloucester, 13fi3, «8, 70 ; Knight of the Shire. 32,37, M, and 43d of Edward III., hy whom he 
was knighted, and appointed to secure the low lands between Bristol and Gloucester. He gave the advowson of Toddington to the Abbey ot Hailes, 




27th Edward III. 

Henry Tracy. 

John Tracy, High Sheriff of the County of Gloucester, 1379. 
William Tracy, High Sheriff of the County of Gloucester, 1395. 

£ Continued nest page.] 

• "At the time of lhe Conqueror's survey, Harold, son to Ralph, Earl of Hereford 
> in King Edward the Confessor', days suffered the Welsh to enter that city and 
ov it t>y fire), heme. |.<.>„ ,v ,1 i.Uhe lordship of Borhentotvin Berkshire ; }Vlche, 
,'orcesUrshirc; t'eh crje.ti.i I. and lierrel..n. in Warwickshire; as also of Sudletfc 
Todmtune, in L.lomcM.Mnre. had hi, at Sudlegc ; and afterwatds 

ICvllCl 5 ortier, — cruou.Vi,t: b IKIWWWi vol i. i>. •*.*). ] 

t This Wm. de Traci, with Fit2ur*e, Morvile, and Brito, or Britton, murdered 
:ket on the jOlh December, 1170, »i Canterbury. I 

Exhibit 2— Photographic Reproduction from Genealogical Chart by J. Britton of London in 1840 


.ah Tracy, High Sheriff of ».W County of Oknu-es'er. 

.eifiSS of Sir firry lie la Sjoue, »-ho r.iarrit.-.l the liaiigh', 

.41 C j Bum mot 1 

f and coheiress 
of De la Spine 

efenee of the fvitlm. MI8; marneii AHct>, daiiglu 
wheuce tins T.-tie-ys hare a right to quarter the an 

iff of the County 
id $443. 

es ifeSJAS 

John Trace, iiv,,- e 
27th K. H'eo.Vi: 

r.h' , ; r {,.,,;,(■. I;,!?,. srio, ..>i Uir.Ai.E1 

.i M reformed , < w -. f 

io,ui.I he hoihw! v.-itooui ' sr.o>t.,n..o ( 
rh of Come, l»-; f) g eon- i County of 6 

-oh U'.-.c<-lr.-. he, 

; if 


Shi Jo.. a TsiAiv. Krh.hoS .« .-,-. 
hy Q.iuo. Bhr.ei.etii, Ki-7-5; . Tor,., ko.orun 
Co fi .- 

fe^'OI Illi-.S lilt-", Jli-Ji Kiii'.-l- 

h-eth Oh, i;»;il; hur, at Tod. I 


l ',("'- :'~~ L -~— 

s.r John Tr.ACV, kiii K i.iec=--r-.\j.-N-K. .hi. o 
i.v ,C,r,.t-s 1. liiih.i ; iii.h : Sir The;,. 
ShtihT of Olos. se.o-e ye ,r : iev, Kt.. oh 1 = 
oreaioh Vi«",„;>iA' T.'iACV oh i;,.-id.(.h..Su«o 

WittSAM Tti.u V-.-- . .hi -f Si.- 

I iJiohv. ... ! oie,h :i, 
: County of Warwick, 

HCSST T»ACY. ViSh .hi.;, |/ Ai .0TIi. ..h.ooi.ior... 
.feted oth fei.. 1io>.;; i Johi. Cooes, first Lord 
pi-ore.l sept, 1.557- j Chand..-. of S.iuiehey. 

of n.iiir.- 
of H'or 

0«w Tracy, 24 
»ar. Catherine I 


iu.h.ii T 
a .'.look, 

mar. John mar, 

Baynhauu Wfflis 


Alice, mar. Richard Tracy. 

gau,Es% - Thomas' hu CV 

Clmhote. B« 

Sir Thomas Wihhee Tr.vv. Ai.tio.ov Traev. Porashv. married fki- Merr. oi.,rrled ist.S 

Tracy, Kt. Oh. mxr. Marv, da. Oh. S.P. joiaol, eh.iest m>s, of Sir Win', Hohv ; 2«S. S: 

mfoou<te),S.F. «f Sir John Con- Henry Traev, Echnut Bray. 2diy, Horatio Yens, Bans 

» ,-. ihiii.siv.ofSt 

at. A. row, Wa.ivicK^i,. 

Tiihiirv. ':.-. 
he had 5 day 

Exhibit 3— Continuation of Chart from preceding page, completing record of William Tracy, who married 
Mary, daughter of Sir John Conway, of Arrow, County of Warwick, sister of Lord Conway— The record 
stating that he died without issue is disproved in exhibits on following pages, and this William Tracy 
of Hayles, who came to Virginia in 1620, is proven to have had a son Thomas Tracy with him in America 

third son Richard, down to a 
Thomas ; and that this Thomas, was 
the Thomas Tracy who was on rec- 
ord, first in Salem, Massachusetts, 
1636-7, etc. 

My discoveries prove that the line 
continued from this Sir William 
(24), not through Richard, but 
through his, (Richard's) eldest 
brother, Sir William (25), the heir to 
the Toddington and Sudeley estates ; 
and so on down through the eldest 
sons to William Tracy, Esquire (28), 
the third son of Sir John Tracy, 
Knight (27), who married Anne 
Throckmorton ; and that this William 
Tracy (28) came to Virginia Sep- 
tember, 1620, in the ship "Supply" 
with his young son Thomas (29), 
etc., where he was a Councillor of 
State and Governor of Berkley Col- 
ony or Hundred. He arrived in Vir- 

ginia, before the Pilgrims landed in 

This line, from Sir William 
Tracy, Knight (24), down to Lieu- 
tenant Thomas (29) of Norwich, 
Connecticut, constitute the "missing 
link," in the line which has been so 
long sought, and which completes the 
pedigree chain, and indissolubly con- 
nects the descendants in America of 
this Governor William Tracy (28) 
and his only son Thomas (29), later 
Lieutenant in Norwich, Connecticut, 
with their Royal ancestors, the Saxon 
Kings of England. 

Britton in his Toddington chart, in 
the account of the children of Sir 
John Tracy, Knight, (No. 27 in this 
paper) records that William Tracy 
(28) (brother of Sir Thomas Tracy, 
Knight) married Mary Conway, etc., 
and died s. p., that is without issue. 


This "without issue"' statement is 
proved to be an error by the records 
of the Virginia Company (Exhibit 7) 
which show that the William Tracy 
(28) who went to Virginia in 1620 
was a brother of Sir Thomas Tracy, 
Knight (Exhibit 11) and that he took 
with him in the ship "Supply" his 
wife Mary, daughter Joyce and 
son Thomas (29) and this Todding- 
ton chart of Britton's shows that the 
parents of these two brothers — Sir 
Thomas, Knight, and William (28) 
who married Mary Conway, etc., 
were Sir John Tracy, Knight, and 
Anne Throckmorton his wife. 

William Tracy, Esquire, (28) was 
born in the Toddington Manor-house, 
where his ancestors had lived for 
more than four hundred years. 

Sir Robert Atkyns, in his history 
of Gloucestershire written in 17 12, 
gives the following interesting ac- 
count of Toddington, on page 409 
and a picture of the Manor-house, as 
it was in 17 12. (See Exhibit 1) : 

This parish lies in the lower part of 
Kiftsgate hundred, six miles distant north- 
east from Tewksbury, four miles north 
from Winchcourt, and fourteen miles 
north-east from Glocester. Earl Randulfe 
held Todintun in the reign of King Wil- 
liam the Conqueror, his son held it in the 
same reign. It was taxed at ten hides ; 
there were twenty-one plow-tillages, 
whereof three were in demean; there were 
two water-mills, and fifty measures of salt 
belonging to the manor. This together 
with the manor of Sudeley, paid a yearly 
rent of 40I (pounds) in King Edward's 
reign. The manor of Todington, at the 
Norman conquest was held of the manor 
of Sudeley. The abbe of Tewksbury had 
a grant of Court-lest, waifs and felons 
goods, in the reign of King William the 
Second, and their grant was allowed in a 
writ of Quo Warranto brought against 
them 15 Ed. I. 

The family of the Tracys have been very 
anciently lords of this manor, and is de- 
scended from the blood royal of the Saxon 
kings of England. Ethelred, son of King 
Edgar, obtained the crown of England at 
twelve years of age, 979. His reign was 
remarkable for his long and bloody wars 
with the Danes, and for the general mas- 
sacre of them in the year 1002. He died 
1016 and left eight sons and four daugh- 
ters. Goda, the youngest of king Ethel- 
red's daughters was married to Walter de 

Maigne (or de Mantine or de Mantes or 
de Mantz etc.) a nobleman in Normandy. 
Ralph (Rudolph etc.) son of Goda and 
Walter de Maigne was Earl of Hereford. 
Harold son of Ralph was lord of Sudeley; 
and the Tracys do now give the same arms 
as this lord Sudeley gave, only with an 
escollup shell for difference. John the son 
of Harold married Grace the daughter of 
(Henry de) Traci, lord of Barnstaple in 
Devonshire. William Traci, second son 
of John, lived in the reign of King Henry 
the Second, and took his mother's name 
Traci. He held lands of his brother Ralph 
de Sudeley by one knight's fee, and was of 
the same name (de Maigne) and is sup- 
posed by some to be one of the four 
knights who murdered Thomas Becket 
archbishop of Canterbury. Oliver Tracy, 
son of William, lived in the second year 
of King John, and had issue Sir William 
Traci of Todington, who lived in 17 Ed. I. 
and was granted in wardship of Lawrence 
Fresham 1298. He was high-sheriff of 
Gloucestershire 1319. John Archer son of 
John of the ancient family of Archers in 
Warwickshire married Margaret daughter 
of this Sir William Tracy of Todington, in 
the reign of Edward the Second. (And 
son down.) 

To give a full understanding- of this 
ancestral estate, from which I am to 
prove the Tracys in America came, 
and to further corroborate the evi- 
dence that it was the home of the 
Tracys in England, I quote these lines 
which I find in a volume published in 
London in 18 10, written by Edward 
Wedlake Brayley and John Britton, 
entitled "The Beauties of England and 
Wales ; or Delineations Typographi- 
cal, Historical and Descriptive," vol- 
ume 5, page 658 : 

The manor of Toddington, at the time 
of the Domesday Survey, was held by 
Herald, grandson of Goda, youngest 
daughter of Etheldred. His son John de 
Sudeley, married Grace, daughter of 
Henry de Traci, Lord of Barnstaple, in 
Devonshire, in the reign of King Stephen, 
and it has continued in their successors till 
the present time ; being now the property 
of Charles Hanbury Tracy, Esq., who in 
the year 1798 married the Hon. Henrietta 
Susannah, daughter and sole heiress of the 
late Lord Viscount Tracy. Toddington 
House, the ancient seat of this noble fam- 
ily, is a spacious building; it was erected 
about the latter end of the seventeenth 
century and is now undergoing some re- 
pairs to adapt it to the present style of liv- 
ing, it having been lately partly destroyed 
by fire. The gardens and pleasure grounds 


- p h r •- * 


Print from engraving made in 1840 when the estate was in possession of Lord 
Sudeley who was Charles Hanbury Tracy, descendant of the anc'ent Saxon Rulers 

are disposed in the modern style; the park, 
which lies on the south of the Manor- 
house is well planted, and includes about 
150 acres; it abounds with rabits. In the 
chancel of Toddington Church are pre- 
served nine figures of Apostles decently 
finished, and about eighteen inches in 
length, supposed to have been brought 
from the Chapel of Hayles Abbey. 

The manor of Todington has contin- 
ued in the name of Tracy from the begin- 
ning of the reign of Edward the first to the 
present time (1810) which is the space of 
four hundred and fifty years, as their an- 
cestors were more anciently of Gloucester- 
shire and were lords of Sudeley. The 
church is in the deanry of Campden ; it is 
a vicaridge worth 40 1. yearly. The lord 
Tracy is the patron . . . William de 
Tracy presented to this church 53 Henry 
III. Sir John Tracy gave the advowson 
and an acre of land to the abbey of Hayles 
37 Ed. III. The abbey of Hayles pre- 
sented to Todington 1357. . . . The 
church hath a tower on the south side. 
The old church hath lately been pulled 
down by the present Lord Tracy, who has 
erected a neat new church, and decently 
adorned it. Stanley Poutlage is a chapel 
annexed to this church : it belonged to the 

abbey of Evesham, and was rebuilt by Sir 
John Tracy 1635. The bishop of Worces- 
ter, in the year 1403, did settle a composi- 
tion with the abbot of Hayles, for the 
maintenance of the curate of Toddington. 
There is an effigies in the chancel for Sir 
John Tracy son of Henry and of Eliz- 
abeth his wife, daughter of the (first) 
Lord Shando, (John Bridges). He died 

1591. ••.-.. 

The parish is eight miles in compas;. 
it consists of very rich meadow, pasture 
and arable land ; it is bounded by the 
brook Carran, which runs into the Avon 
above Tewksbury. There are forty-eight 
houses in this parish and about two hun- 
dred inhabitants whereof six are freehold- 
ers. . . . 

In final corroboration of the Tracys 
at Toddington, I present this para- 
graph from page 769 of the "New 
History of Gloucestershire," printed 
by Samuel Rudder in England in 

The river Isbourne runs through it (the 
Parish) from Winchcombe, in its course 
to the upper Avon, which it joins a little 


below the town of Evesham in Worcester- 

This village lies in the vale, and is dis- 
tinguished for the richness of its soil, but 
more particularly for its being the resi- 
dence of the lord viscount Tracy. His 
lordships house is large and handsome, 
•and was built about the close of the last 
century since which it has undergone but 
little alteration. There is a large oak 
chimney-piece in the great hall, brought 
from Hayles Abbey, where it was set up 
by the Hobbys. (William Hobby was the 
first husband of Mary Tracy youngest 
sister of William Tracy of Hayles and Vir- 
ginia), as appears by a large scutcheon in 
the center of it, divided into six quarter- 
ings, the first being the Hobby's arms, viz. 
A fess between three hobbies or hawks, 
but the colours are not expressed in the 
carving. The hall windows are ornament- 
ed with painted glass, brought from the 
same place, and among other things have 
in them the arms of France and England 
quarterly and those of Richard duke of 
Cornwall in a large scutcheon, viz. Or, an 
eagle display'd with two heads, sable and 
round, Ricard, Plantagenet Semper augus- 
tus fundator Nostcr. 

Toddington exhibits a very extraordi- 
nary instance of an estate descending for 
upward of seven hundred years in the male 
line of the same family, in uninterrupted 
succession. The present noble proprietor 
is descended from the blood of the antient 
Saxon Kings of England. . . . [Then 
follows the lineage.] 

Henry Tracy, eldest son of William, took 
to wife Elizabeth, second daughter of John 
(Bridges) first lord of Chandos of Sude- 
ley, ancestor to the duke of Chandos and 
dying in 155 1 left issue — John Giles, Ed- 
ward, Francis and Nicholas ; and a daugh- 
ter Eleanor, wife of William Kingston, of 
Quenington in this county, esq. 

Sir John Tracy, eldest son of Henry, 
was knighted by queen Elizabeth, in her 
progress to Bristol, 1574 and in the 20th 
year of that reign, 1578, was high sheriff 
of the county of Glocester, and died in 
1591. By Anne his wife, daughter of sir 
1 nomas Throckmorton of Corse-court, 
knight, he left issue five sons, viz. John 
his heir; Thomas, William (of Hayles) 
Anthony and Henry; and two daughters 
Dorothy married, first, to Edward Bray, 
of Barrington in this county and Secondly, 
to Sir Edward Conway, of Arrow in War- 
wickshire, created lord Conway (brother 
of William Tracy's wife Mary Conway of 
Arrow), and Mary, weded first to Mr. 
William Hobby, and secondly, to that re- 
nowned general, sir Horatio Vere, baron of 

In the preceding evidence appears 
the statement that "the abbey of 

Hayles was presented to Toddington, 
1357." As it is in the record of this 
abbey that I shall begin to establish 
the relations which connect this line 
of nobility with the American Tracys, 
I here present my investigations of 
Hayles Abbey. (See Exhibit 4.) Sir 
Robert Atkyns, on page 246 of his 
"History of Gloucestershire," pub- 
lished in 1712, makes this record and 
gives a picture of the Abbey as it was 
at that date : 

This parish lies in the lower part of 
Kiftsgate hundred, two miles distant north- 
east from Winchcomb, and seven miles 
east of Tewksbury, and thirteen miles 
north-east from Glocester. It is so called 
from Haly, which is Saxon for Holy. 
This manor, at the Norman conquest, fared 
like the rest of England. It was taken 
from a Saxon proprietor and given to a 
Norman. ... It afterwards came to 
the crown, and the inhabitants thereof 
were then discharged from the hundred of 
Winchcomb, 10 Hen. III. King Henry the 
Third granted it to his brother Richard 
earl of Cornwall, who in this place founded 
the famous monestery of Hayles 30 Hen. 
III. in the year 1246. This great earl was 
elected king of the Romans. He had es- 
caped a shipwreck ; and in performance of 
a vow made in the extremity of danger he 
erected this monestery, and placed therein 
twenty Cistertian Monks, and ten converts, 
which he brought fromBeavlieu in France: 
\t was dedicated to the Virgin Mary, and 
All Saints, by the bishop of Worcester, the 
fifth of November in the year 1251, in the 
presence of the King Henry the Third, the 
queen, thirteen bishops, many noblemen 
and three hundred knights. This great 
earl and his wife were buried here. He 
died 1 271 ; she died in the year 1261 ; so 
that the church of Hayles contains the 
ashes of an emperor and an empress. Ed- 
ward earl of Cornwall, son of the founder, 
was likewise buried in this church, 
whose burial was performed with great 
solemnity in the year 1300; King Edward 
the First, and a great concourse of noble- 
men, attending at the funeral. The church 
and most of the buildings was consumed 
by fire in the year 1271, which was but 
twenty years after the first foundation; yet 
the loss was estimated at 8000 marks. . . . 
The abbot and convent of Hayles paid an 
annual rent of 16/. 16.?. lod. y 2 for Pinnock- 
shire, 27 Ed. I. which rent was the same 
year settled by the king on queen Margaret 
as part of her dowry. The abbot of 
Hayles was made a mitered abbot and 
summoned to parliament 1294. Adam le 
Hunt grants twenty solidates of land in 




Exhibit 4— Hayles Abbey became part of Toddington in 1357 and occupied by William 
Tracy when he became interested in New World exploitations which resulted in his 
financial ruin and the establishment of the Tracys in America— Rare print in 1712 

Hayles to the abbey thereof 13 Ed. II. 
The abbot of this monestery took part 
against King Henry the Fourth, and was 
hanged.' Abbot Whaley was the last 
abbot, who in hopes of a pension, surren- 
dered it to the king Henry the Eighth the 
twenty-fourth of December, 31 Hen. VIII. 
This monestery was valued at Disolution 
at 357/- 7s. 8d y 2 . Edmond, the son of the 
founder, gave some of Christs Blood to 
the abbey; and at the Disolution it was dis- 
covered to be the blood of a duck; which 
was weekly renewed. This forged miracle 
had been practiced in this monestery for 
many ages ; and it was affirmed of it, that, 
if a man was in mortal sin and not ab- 
solved, he could not see the blood; but as 
soon as he was absolved, he might plainly 
discern it. The priest shewed it in a cab- 
inet of crystal, richly adorned; both sides 
whereof seemed alike, yet one side was 
composed of thicker crystal than the other; 
and until the penitent had paid for as many 
masses as the priest thought fit, he pre- 

sented towards him that part of the cabi- 
net with the thicker crystal, when nothing 
could be seen ; but when he paid well, then 
the thin and transparent side was turned 
towards him, and then to his great joy he 
could discern the blood. This miracle had 
much enriched the monestery. One of the 
cloisters is yet remaining (1712). After 
the disolution of the abbey, the scite of the 
monestery, with the manor, Hailes wood 
Pinnock's wood, and Hailes park, were 
granted to sir Thomas Seimore 1 Ed. VI. 
who being attainted, the scite of the mon- 
estery, with the rest of the lands, was 
granted to William, marquis of Northamp- 
ton. The manor afterward came to Wil- 
liam Hobbey, esq. [He was the first hus- 
band of William Tracy's youngest sister 
Mary Tracy] who built a little chapel not 
far distant from the abbey, wherein he lies 
buried; he died 1603 aged 103. The 
Tracys soon after became lords of this 
manor. William Tracy, esq. was lord of 
this manor in the year 1608. The lord 



Tracy of Toddington is the present lord 
thereof who has a very large house in this 
place, which was heretofore the habitation 
of the abbot, as appears by many religious 
figures and inscriptions in the rooms of the 
house. . . . 

In relation to Hayles Abbey, I 
quote also this paragraph, showing 
its historic significance, from Henry 
Branch's volume entitled, "Cotswold 
and Vale, or Glimpses of Past and 
Present in Gloucester," published in 
1905, page 148: 

The history of that famous Abbey as 
sketched by Canon Bazeley, is full of the 
elements of interest, and indeed romance, 
and the exquisite fragments of the conven- 
tual buildings that remain together with 
the carved bosses from the vanished 
Church which are shown in the little Mu- 
seum close to the ruins, attest the magnifi- 
cence of what was for centuries a specially 
favored Monastery and a place particularly 
sacred to the mediaeval mind. Thousands 
of pilgrims annually visited from all parts 
of the country the shrine which contained — 
the faithful never doubted it — a phial of 
Holy Blood. Of course they believed, for 

if they had so far given evidence of scep- 
ticism as to enquire the grounds of authen- 
ticity, they would have been told that when 
Edmund, the second son of the Founder, 
purchased some of the Holy Blood of 
Jesus in Germany, and sent a portion of 
it to Hayles, he accompanied the priceless 
gift by a certificate from the Patriarch 
of Jerusalem, Urban, afterwards Pope. 
Though certainly in much fewer numbers, 
there are pilgrims to Hayles still — ecclesi- 
ologists, lovers of art, intelligent sight- 
seers, whose gratitude to Canon Bazeley 
and Mr. St. Clair Babberley for their de- 
voted labors is at the time of writing min- 
gled with regret that, from exhaustion of 
the fund or other reasons, excavation 
should have ceased, it is to be hoped but 
temporarily. Hayles, be it added, would 
be worth a visit if only for its exception- 
ally quaint little Parish Church, built by 
Ralph Worcester in the reign of Stephen. 
Its more obvious points of interest in- 
clude tiles and old glass from the Abbey. 

With the family seat established at 
Toddington, I now turn again to Wil- 
liam Tracy, of the twenty-eighth gen- 
eration, who was born at Toddington,. 
and emigrated to America in 1620. 
The first record of him in Hayles is 
from "The Names and Surnames of 
all the Able and Sufficient Men in 
Body fit for His Majesty's Service in 
the Wars within the County of 
Gloucester," compiled by John Smith, 
in August, 1608, in the sixth year of 
the reign of James the First, giving 
his servants and retainers on pages 
84-85 : Hayles 

William Tracy Esqr. 

Charles Townsend gent. 

John Rawles 

John Hicks Servants to the said 

John Staube William Tracy, Esqr. 

John Worley 

Henry Carnall 

William Carnall 

Thomas Jeffrey 

William Sexton 

Sir Horatio Vere Knight hath one 
launce, one light horse, two Corslets, three 
muskets and two Calyv's furnished. 

Britton's chart shows that Wil- 
liam Tracy's youngest sister mar- 
ried this distinguished General Hora- 
tio, Lord Vere of Tilbury (See Ex- 
hibit 3), and the paragraph given 
above shows that William Tracy was 
not the owner but a resident of 
Havles. The form of ownership in 


all the records of that period expli- 
citly states the ownership. I do not 
know of an instance where it is omit- 
ted. If William Tracy had been the 
owner, as stated in one of the preced- 
ing quotations from an eminent his- 
torian, which I am inclined to believe 
was merely a hasty conclusion with- 
out proof, the record of Hayles would 
read : ''Hayles, of which William 
Tracy, esq.., is Lord." This fact 
it fails to state. When William 
Tracy was married, his father, Sir 
John Tracy, knight, gave him Hayles 
not in fee, but as a residence, and 
there he lived until he went to Vir- 
ginia in September, 1620, and in the 
usual course of events his children 
v/ere born in Hayles. The ownership 
of Hayles fell to his oldest brother, 
Sir John Tracy, Viscount of Rath- 
coole (See Exhibit 3), who had sev- 
eral children. 

William Tracy, Esquire, (28) was 
one of the first of those of gentle 
blood to become interested in the de- 
velopment of the New World, and he 
became actively engaged in promot- 
ing the settlement of Virginia. In 
the "Records of the Virginia Com- 
pany," January 26, 1619, now pre- 
served in the Library of Congress, 
volume I, appear these entries : 

3 Seu'all paire of Inden. for land 

allowed of 
Mr. Deputy informed the Courte that 
three severall paire of Indentures for land 
was demanded of the Company, one by 
Robert Heath esquire Recorder of this 
Citty. The Second by William Tracy of 
Gloucestershire esqr for Transportation of 
500 persons (page 296). 

and his Associates for Transportation of 
500 Persons. . . . 

At a Great and General Quarter Count 
Holden for Virginia at Sr Edward Sandys 
House neer Aldensgate the Second of Feb- 
ruary 1619 (page 303). 

3 Grants of land 
The Third of Grants of Land he ac- 
quainted them of fower seu-all paire of 
Indentures lying all ingrossed before them 
granted one to Mr Robert Heath Recorder 
of London and his Associates, the s'cond 

4 Paire of Indentures allowed 
to Doctor Bohune, James Swift and their 
Associates for Transportation of 300 Per- 
sons. The Third to William Tracy esquire 

28 Jum'i (June) 1620: William Tracy of 
Hayles Esqr. to be Councell of Estate in 

Supply of Councellors in Virginia 
Vppon notice from Sr George Yeardley 
yt the Councells in Virginia must needs be 
supplied, the Court hath now chosen mr 
Thorpe, mr Nuse, mr Pountus, mr Tracy, 
mr Daved Middleton, and mr Bluett to be 
of the Councell of Estate in Virginia (page 

Likewise the Councellrs of Estate in Vir- 
ginia propounded in the forenoon were 
again by ereccon of hands confirmed, 
namely (same as above). 

A Praeparative Court Held for Virginia 
in the Afternoon the xjth of June 1621 
(page 383). 

Sir Edwin Sandys further signified that 
itt was then allso taken into their consid- 
eracon and thought fitt that the Counsell 
of State in Virginia should assemble fower 
times a year each Quarter once for one 
wholl weeke together to advise and con- 
sult upon matter Counsell and State and of 
the generall affairs of the Colony and as 
there shall come to order and determine 
the greater matters of controversee grow- 
inge and arising between the Plantations 
there being now added a good number of 
new Counsellrs to the former, namely, (as 
before specified) (page 479). 

Whereas Credible information hath been 
given of the Death of Doctor Bohune mr 
Ouldsworth, and mr Tracy late chosen to be 
of Counsell of State in Virginia, . . . 
(page 520). 

At a Court Held ye 24th October 1621 : 
mr John Smith moved that whereas mr 
William Tracye afore his goinge over to 
Virginia zvas arrested 200U {pounds) prin- 
cipall debt for wch he put in bayle wch 
suit hath since proceeded and bine psecuted 
soe as the said cause was ready for 
iudgment whereof stay was made vntill 
some witnesses might be brought in to 
certify of the said mr Tracyes death. In 
respect whereof and for that hee hath re- 
ceaved information by tres that the said 
William Tracye dyed in A prill last hee 
desires, notice of such as came lately from 
Virginia that may be ready vppon occa- 
sion to witness the death of the said gen- 
tleman touching wch the Company prom- 
esed' to procure him as many as they could 
hereof, (page 535). 

Evidence of the intimate relations 
of William Tracy of Hayles with the 


Virginia promotion, his ultimate im- 
migration into America, and his influ- 
ence as a counsellor and finally gov- 
ernor of the first permanent English 
settlement on the Western Hemis- 
phere, is conclusive in the ancient let- 
ters in his own handwriting and 
almost indecipherable documents in 
which he is frequently mentioned. 
The originals are deposited in the 
Lenox Library in New York in charge 
of Mr. Wilberforce Eames, Librarian, 
to whom I am much indebted for the 
privilege of taking photographic cop- 
ies. Many of the letters are nearly 
past translation and to preserve their 
contents as a contribution to early 
American history they have been 
transcribed and published in the Bul- 
letin of the New York Public Library. 
The first one which I shall introduce 
is a letter written on April 15, 1620, 
by William Tracy to John Smith in 
which it appears that Smith had ad- 
vised Tracy to buy Throckmorton's 
share in the Virginia colony of Berke- 
ley Hundred and showing that he 
(Tracy) was acting on his (Smith's) 
advice : 


I was glad of yor letter & ye good nues 
of Virginia, but sori ye ship is not re- 
turned god send her a hapi Coming & all 
ouer bisnes hapili to go on to gods glori 
and oner good there is a gust Caues yt I 
canot met at gloster, as yo lone me Con- 
dem me not so do I intret my Cosin barkli 
what so ever yo to agre on I will Con- 
sent vnto be Canes I am asured yo will 
do nothing vnfitting yo selves Yf I may 
know wher to met my cousin barkli ye 
first nite I will not fayle & it may be goe 
a long with him to london Yf not with 
yo yf yo go from ouer parts, but at lon- 
don there shall we haue tim suffisient to 
determen all I am now binding my men 
I haue at lest 20 promised me ye most part 
I am suer of. there is no dout of more 
then wee men at this to Cari. ti all of 
yousefull trads so yt we may leaue those 
yt ar of lest imployment tel ye next going 
do as you plese with Sr William Throk- 
mortun I will do nothing but as yo aduise 
me Yf I proue not ferm & faythful let 
me not be held worthi ye nam of a Cris- 
tion this hoping this may geve yo satis- 
factions I rest 

Yors in all asurance 

15 Aprill 1620 Willi Tracy. 

[Addressed:] To my worthi frind Mr 

John Smith this nibli 

[Endorsed:] Mr Tracys letter 1620 

That William Tracy of Hayles did 
purchase Sir William Throckmorton's 
share in the Berkeley Hundred Plan- 
tation in Virginia in 1620, for which 
he paid £75, is witnessed by the fol- 
lowing accurate transcript from the 
original indenture : 

This Indenture made the seventh day of 
May, 1620, in the xviijth yeare of the 
raigne of our sou<?raigne lord king James 
of England ffrance and Ireland and of 
Scotland the liijth Betwene Sr Willm 
Throkmorton of Clowerwall in the County 
of Gloucester knight and baronet of the 
one parte And Willm Tracy of Hayles in 
the said county Esq; of the other parte. 
Wheras the said Sr Willm Throkmorton 
Si George Yardley knight Richard Berk- 
ley Esq; George Thorpe Esq; and John 
Smyth gen. did procure from the Treas- 
orer and company of Adventurers and 
planters of the city of London for the first 
Collony in Virginia by the advise and con- 
sent of the Counsell of the same One In- 
denture of Covenants and grants sealed 
with their Comon seale bearinge date the 
third day of ffebruary in the xvjth yeare of 
his maties said raigne of England and of 
Scotland the lijth for their better enablinge 
and incouragement for plantacon in Vir- 
ginia aforesaid And for dyu<?rs other 
causes purposes and intents As in and by 
the same Indenture more at large it doth 
and may appeare. . . . Nowe this In- 
denture witnesseth that the said Sr Willm 
Throkmorton for and in Consideracon of 
the some of 75H of lawfull mony of Eng- 
land well and truly before hand payd by 
the said Willm Tracy . . . hath given 
granted assigned and set over . . . 
vnto the said Willm Tracy his executors 
administrators and assignes All and singu- 
ler the interest benefit property and advan- 
tage whatsoever which he the said Sr 
Willm Throkmorton nowe hath or by any 
wayes or meanes whatsoeuer shall or mav 
have or make of from by or by reason of 
the said Indenture or of any grant clause 
covenant sentence or agreement therein 
contayned eyther for the present or here- 
after to come. 

Early in 1620 William Tracy was 
granted a Captain's commission for 
"a voyag intended to Virginia:" 

Whereas wee the Treasuror Councell and 
Company for Virginia for the better ad- 
vzuncement and supporte of that Planta- 
con haue given leaue vnto such as shall 


furnish out our good Shipp of Bristoll 
called the supply of the burden of Three- 
score and Tenn Tuns or thereabouts to 
passe with all convenient expedicon vnto 
Virginia, William Tracy Esquire beinge 
ordained to be the master and Captaine 
therof and to Comaund and governe the 
said Shipp and Marryners and alsoe all the 
passengers put abord for the said voyage 
to be landed in Virginia for a particular 
plantacon beinge to the number of sixty 
five persons or thereabouts with, all such 
necessary provisions as are shiped for their 
vse and necessary releife We doe there- 
fore hereby Charge and Comaund him to 
take his direct course accordinge to his 
best skill and knowledge vnto the said 
plantacon in Virginia and there to land 
and put on shore all the said persons and 
goods soe shipped of what kind soeu<?r. 
Straightley chargeinge and Comaundinge 
the said William Tracy to sett saile from 
England with the first oportunyty of wind 
and to make all possible speed he may to 
the port intended and not to Interupt any 
shipinge of the subjects of any of his 
Maty ffrends or allies or any other who- 
soeuer duringe his said voyage. . . . 
In wittnesse whereof wee haue herevnto 
annexed our Comon Seale. Dated by or- 
der of a generall Court houlden for Vir- 
ginia the twelfth day of July in the yeare 
of our lord God .1620. And in the eigh- 
teenth yeare of the kings Maties raigne of 
England fraunce and Ireland And of Scot- 
land the three and {fiftieth. 
Sealed in presence of. 
Fra : Carter 

Sr Consider I haue manie bisnesis & non 

to helpe me. . . . 

[Addressed:] To my asured frind mr 

John Smithe at ye blue lion in Chan- 

ceri lane this. 
[Endorsed by J.Smith:] Mr. Traceys l^re 

about his dispatch into Virgynia, June 

.1620. .18. Jac. sent mee to London. 

It is evident that William Tracy of 
Hayles invested heavily in the devel- 
opment of the New World for nearly 
all of his letters are of a business na- 
ture regarding Virginia investments 
and bespeak his honor and financial 
integrity in meeting all obligations 
promptly. This transcript from a let- 
ter in 1620 upholds this contention: 

tomorrow by gods leaue shall I paye yo a 
iooli at leste before at seuerall times 95 ye 
rest with all spede shall be sent in as I 
haue agred with yor man. so yt within 10 
dayes I hope to pay vnto yo 300H with vt 
allredi payd . . . Yf yo all will Con- 
sent I doute not but yt yo will take paines 
& Car for ouer bisnes & I will requit yo 
with my paines in Virginia & so will rest 
in all asuranc 

Yor ever Willi Tracy 
I canot her whether my cosin barkli haue 
taken a ship or not Yt Care must be on 
yo to my bisnes will not suffer me to seke 
after on & without on all is nothing good 

It is in a letter written by William 
Tracy just before sailing for America 
in 1620 that he mentions his family, 
"my wife & dauter & sun." It is this 
"sun" that I prove to have been Lieu- 
tenant Thomas Tracy of Massachu- 
setts and Connecticut. Therefore I 
call especial attention to Exhibit 6 
which is an exact photographic repro- 
duction from the original letter. Ow- 
ing to its eccentric orthography it is 
here translated according to accepted 
version of handwriting experts in the 
service of the Lenox Library at New 
York. I contend that the mention of 
the "dauter" first, giving her preced- 
ence over the "sun" is a positive indi- 
cation that she was the older. It was 
the irrevocable custom of the period to 
give the sons precedence. Under a 
monarchal system in which heredity is 
law and the lines of descent are estab- 
lished through the males, the daugh- 
ters were never mentioned first ex- 
cept through a distinct superiority of 
age. In an instance of this kind it is 
definite proof that the daughter must 
have reached maturity while the 
"sun" must be still in childhood ; 
otherwise this precedence of female 
over male could not have occurred in 
a family bound fast to the laws of 
heredity and cherishing as sacred 
their descent from the Saxon Kings. 
While nothing has been found that 
gives the dates of birth of either 
of William Tracy's children, I shall 
continually corroborate this statement 
that the "sun" was in his childhood 
when his father came to America in 
1620, and the daughter had reached 
maturity. This is the translation of 
the letter that establishes their exist- 
ence : 

non more glad of yor recoveri then I 
god Continue ye increse & Continuanc of 








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Exhibit"6— Postscript to letter written to his intimate friend, John Smyth, first 
day of September, 1620, in which he enumerates his family accompanying him on 
his departure for Virginia— Original in the archives of Lenox Library, New York 

all helth & hapenes to yo I will say 
litell becaues I hope god will bring yo 
spedili hether wher yo will find gret 
necleckte hath bine such as will hould vs 
her 12 dayes at lest, such things as yo 
writ to haue baut shale be I haue retorned 
yo ye boke & 2 writings receued of yo 
I shall be glad to se yo knowing then mi 
despach will be much ye soner which, is yt 
I most desier so hasting to rest with 
god send yo well so do I bid yo god nite 
ener being Yors in all loue 

Willi Tracy 
1. September 

•Commend me to mrs. smith & ye rest & 
tell them yf I must eate shepes mogets 
with them a bord at bristoll thay shall 
eate at land in Virginia pocahikiti with me 
in ernest they shall be wellcom & wee will 
part goyfulli 

I haue in my Compani 4 maid saruants 3 
maried wmes & 2 young Children my wife 
& dauter & sun remem mr Portar & Con- 
sider ouer ship will hould but 45 men 
men being ye mor excelent & yousefull 
Cretuers twer 111 to Chauing for wemen 
ther Cannot be Convenientsi of rome for 
all thes a suer yor selfe mr palet I hop 
will be with mi sune. 
[Addressed:] To mi asured frind mr 

John Smith this. 
[Endorsed :] mr Traceys lettre 2. sept. 

1620. from Bristoll. 

To still further corroborate the con- 
tention that the order of precedence 
could not have been carelessness, es- 
pecially with a man in whom the laws 
of heredity were religiously observed 
as sacred and in whose veins flowed a 
blood that for twenty-eight genera- 
tions had held its nobility through 
these laws, I introduce an accurate 
transcript from another letter written 
at another date in which William 
Tracy observes the same form of pre- 
cedence "my wife, dauter & sune:" 

. . . my howsold will be my wife 
dauter & sune 4 mayd saruants & 6 men 
so then for ye rest as mani or as fewe as 
yo will mr palet & mr gilfort must be to 
more of my Compani so I shall be .16. 
parsuns at lest, my mening is all these 
shall be Imployed in ye Comon bisnes 
twer good to make them 30. I haue sente 
yo letters to Consider of so leaueing yo to 
god Yor ever asured 

Willi tracy. 
I would Cari .10. or 12 dogs yt would be 
of gret youse to vs. let me know yf thay 
will let vs Cari them. 
5 Juli .1620. 
[Addressed:] To my asured worthi good 

frind. mr John Smith this. 
[Endorsed:] . . . July .1620. 


l>j &#.&***■*>**?-- 



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in M0 %\rvr***U.fc. 





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Exhibit 7— Record of his death, April 8, 1621; the marriage of his daughter, Joyce, 
and her tragic death; and the return of his son, Thomas Tracy, to England— The 
marginal notes are in the handwriting of John Smyth— Original in Lenox Library 

The arrival of William Tracy of 
Hayles, and his wife, daughter and 
son, in America is evidenced in the 
photograph of a portion of a page of 
the record of the Virginia Company 
preserved by John Smith. I call 
your attention to Exhibit 7, which 
is the original list of "men nowe 
sent for plantacon in Virginia," and 
is dated "3 September 1620." In 
this document the names of the chil- 
dren are revealed. The marginal 
notes, recording deaths, are in the 
handwriting of John Smyth : 
3 September A list of men nowe sent for 

1620. plantacon in Virginia. 

Willm Tracy Esqr 

(dead .8. Apr. 1621.) 
Mary Tracy his wife 

[slayne and dead written by Smyth in 
the margin and then stricken 
Thomas Tracy their sonne 

(returned for Engl.) 
Joyce Tracy their daughter 

(married to Capt. Nath. Powell, both 

The investments of William Tracy 
in Virginia proved financially disas- 
trous. He was continually called upon 

for funds in promoting the colony and 
pathetic appeals show that his entire 
estate was consumed in the New 
World speculation which proved a to- 
tal financial loss. Consequently the 
son, Thomas, recorded in Exhibit 7, 
was ultimately left destitute in Amer- 
ica, as witnessed by letters. This is 
a translation of Exhibit 8 : 

I woulfd] say mor but know not what 
my wif 'is ouer whelme with grefe at bris- 
toll we onli haue this vn sarten hop yt ye 
fayer will fornish vs with a ship, mr barkli 
layes all ye fait on yo but all ye burden 
lieth on me. yo haue nibli he hath stok L 
haue nothing but verginia & yt am I held 
from to hue in shame & disgrase in Eing- 
land for gods loue howld mr felgate sarten 
to go with vs & yf we must go from bris- 
toll which is my desier mak hast doune & 
help me a man by all menes & by gods 
help it will be for ouer good I hau to hun- 
dered & od pounds & ye 3 in mr Webbes 
hand this will I ingage for to furnish & 
forward this Jorni leaue me not I will 
neuer leaue yo but be as I ought & so will 
rest Yors Willi Tracy 

14 Juli. .1620. 

[Addressed:] To I hope my frind yt will 
not leaue me mr John Smith this 

So serious became the financial 
straits of William Tracy through his 


^ m***, • fo ^' WT *££ 


In supplementing my investigations with this autograph of Lieutenant Thomas Tracy 
I desire to protect the absolute accuracy of my contentions. On page 217, under Exhibit 
1, it should be stated that the William Tracy living at Toddington in 1712 was a cousin of 
the progenitor of the Tracys in America who had come to Virginia ninety-two years 
before. In using the term "Tracys in America" I refer of course to those who are 
descended from the first immigration. Other branches from immigrations later than 
those of William Tracy of Virginia in 1620 are not necessarily included in my discussion. 
For instance, there was one, Stephen Tracy, who came to Plymouth, Massachusetts, in the 
ship "Ann" in 1623, who has distinguished descendants through America, among them 
being General Benjamin Franklin Tracy, former Secretary of the Navy of the United 
States. It may be possible that there is a relationship, but my investigations have not yet 
allowed me to definitely settle this matter. I therefore desire to have it fully understood 
that I use the term "Tracys in America" in referring only to those who are descended from 
the first Tracy in America, who was William Tracy of Virginia. I believe it is customary 
and permissible to give the descendants of the progenitor of the family name in America 
this distinction. In speaking of Thomas Tracy on page 244 it should be definitely stated 
that his political service was in the Connecticut Legislature and not in Massachusetts as 
might be erroneously inferred. 

I have collected, principally from original sources, a large amount of very valu- 
able data concerning the American Tracys and their marriage alliances which I am hoping 
to publish some time in the future. Many lines are incomplete and I hope all persons, of 
whatever name, who have any connection with the family, will help to complete the great 

Dwight Tracy, 

22 Sacramento Street, 

Cambridge, Massachusetts. 

I [ J( ■ 



UNEAGB T " ROm " "<*« **** o F C0„ KTICUT 




Virginia exploitation that he became 
involved in debts which resulted in 
much humiliation. In a letter written 
to him by Timoth Gate, a kinsman, in 
1620, these facts are made plain : 

Good cosyn I beare a parte in my mind of 
your vnhappines I receued a \ettre from 
my brother Cuynter which my cosyn 
Bridges brought me vnto Ockle the con- 
tents was that I should take such security 
for his mony as I thought fitting from 
thence I went with him vnto Cleeue from 
thence to Beckford vnto mr Wakemans 
house and there I toocke all his part of 
tobacco assigned vnder hand and seale 
before Wittnesses with mr Wakemans 
consent, my brother vpon my knoledg 
was content to take 2000 pound of his to- 
bacco, he hath formely told me soe and 
writt soe vnto me my cosyn was content 
to passe his corne or any thing he had for 
your releaf but I thought that sufficient 
and that yt would content him I am hartily 
sorry he should deale thus cruelly with 
you I writt vnto my brother what I had 
donne and that he would release you ac- 
cording vnto his \ettre for my cosyn Rob 
Bridges he is soe sensible of your hin- 
derance and his owne discreditt by your 
Arrest that he seemeth vnto me as I pro- 
test vnto you infinitely perplexed in his 
mind he hath travelled twise vnto my 
brother and backe agayne little meats and 
rest serveth his turne. he would doe any 
thing in his power to free you he voweth 
vnto me and I am confident he will per- 
forme yt if you can procure any suerties 
he will with all speed possibly he can se 
them discharged. If he should be slack I 
will remember him but he is as carefull of 
you as he can be and would vndergoe any 
losse or paynes to free you but vpon the 
suddayne he cannot doe what he would or 
should doe herin if you will write vnto 
me to speake vnto any f rend you haue here 
If my payns care and best furtherance 
shall not be wanting for I desyre god to 
bleshe me and myne as I wishe your well- 
fayre I hope the Sea wilbe more mercifull 
vnto you then your frends are hire I hope 
after this storme you shall have fayer. 
weather my prayers and best endevors 
shalbe for you 

I rest 
your kinsman 

in affection 
Tim Gate 
Ockle Sept 22th 
[Addressed:] To my worthie good cosyn 

mr Willia Tracy att Bristol these. 
[Endorsed:] mr gates l<?^re to mr wyntour 

The burdened state of mind and the 
embarrassment which William Tracy 
of Hayles suffered because of his ven- 

ture in financing the American expedi- 
tion is confessed in a letter which he 
wrote to his friend, John Smith, in 
which he feared that he might be 
forced to remain in England in want 
and gave way to his discouragement 
with the words : "When all is gone I 
cannot live." 


Yf yor help be not more then mr barklis I 
am vndon piti my destresed Case, & sum- 
thing yor own Credit is Ingaged to se me 
prouided to go & those ther releued. my 
trust is in yo and out of ye trust in yo did 
I prosed, in much grefe do I writ ease 
my hevi hart or kill it outrit. let me go on 
ani condisions I yeld to yor desier thoth 
vnfit I should run so gret a dainger & yo 
go on sartenties do yor will so I may not 
stay to zvant at home mr barkli will not 
send but by ye poule & tun & is of yor 
mind yt I should hier ye ship by ye moneth 
to tari her will be mor lose therefor helpe 
yf yo Can posibel mr barkli will Consent 
but to Cari 20 men do yor best to get me 
& 10 parsunes or as mani or as few as yo 
Can or think fit When all is gon I Can- 
not Hue therefor send me wher I must 
leue my trust is in yo fayle me not I 
Can say nomore but leaue all to yor des- 
cresion & rest 


Willi Tracy 
14. Juli. 1620. 

I leaue much to mr felgat to discorse who 
sawe mr bark[l]ies carig. 

We lose all ouer men yf we go not nowe 
besids putting the[m] out of work & me 
out of creditt. 
[Addressed:] To my worth good frind mr 

John Smith this. 
[Endorsed:] ... 14 July 1620 by 

Toby felgate. 

William Tracy was held for a debt 
of 200 pounds incurred in fitting the 
ship "Supply" for the voyage to 
America. Placing this responsibility 
on William Tracy was unjust as the 
debt was contracted for the company 
and not for the personal advantage 
of William Tracy. There was an 
agreement that certain amounts should 
be paid by certain persons in furnish- 
ing the ship which was sent out from 
Bristol in September, 1620, under the 
command of William Tracy. This 
transcription from the original books 
of the company at that date proves 
that William Tracy had paid his 
share : 


Sent to mr Tracy vpon 

his lettres after I 

was come to Nibley 

to be supplyed, 

whilst he lay for 

wynd at Crockampil 

with all his company 

&c xli 

Smo total of this 
wholl charge 
disbursed till this 
ships departure 

.18. Sept. 1620. 702H us 6d 

Wherof 4th part is 175H 12s iod ob. 
Of which, iiijta pars of 

175I1 12s iod ob. mr 

Berkeley and his 

pa7'tners have payd 

but 50H 

The residue beinge 

125I 12s iod ob. is to 

be cast upon mr 

Tracy by agreement. 
Of which 4ta pars of 

175H 12s iod ob. mr 

Smyth hath payd the 

wholl for mr Thorpe. 
Of which 4ta pars of 

175I1 12s iod ob. mr 

Tracy hath payd the 

wholl by the hands 

of mr. Smyth. 

Almost driven to desperation by his 
financial encumbrances, William 
Tracy pleaded with his worthy friend, 
John Smith of Nibley: "Send me 
away and by God's leave your good 
shall be equal with mine. ... I 
have put myself out of all means to 
live here :" 


My estat is such yt I must stir yo on be 
yond good mannars, neuer mor I hop to be 
trobelsum but euer laboring to make satis- 
faksion. send me away & by gods leaue 
yor good shall be equall with mine, in 
god my Chefe trust is nex yo as his Chefe 
instrument to finish this work as yo loue 
me youes all menes to take a ship tel yt be 
don I shall not be meri. blam me not for I 
haue put my selfe out of all menes to Hue 
here & am dayli in extrem expensis which 
wekneth my to wek purse for so gret a bis- 
nes good Sr haue a felow feling with me 
by this yo may se my longing hart to be 
gon to ye plase wher my bisnes is. I know 
you vnderstand faythfullness & Constanci 
is such yt I ned say no mor- so will refer 
to yor best Car all this gret bisnes & euer 
rest Yors to comand 

2 August 1620. Willi Tracy. 

[Addressed:] To my worthi good frind Mr 

John Smith of nibley this. 
[Endorsed:] Mr Tracyes lettre .Aug. .1620. 

In the midst of the financial diffi- 
culties of William Tracy, one John 
Bridges writes a letter to John Smyth 
in which he speaks of William Tracy 
as his cousin and offers financial 
assistance. It must here be noted 
that in Exhibit 3 it is shown that the 
grandfather of William Tracy mar- 
ried Elizabeth, daughter of John 
Bruges or Bridges, first Lord Chan- 
dos of Sudeley. It is through them 
that I shall later produce corrobora- 
tive evidence that Thomas Tracy of 
Massachusetts and Connecticut was 
the son of William Tracy and Mary 
Conway left destitute in Virginia. 
The following letter and Exhibit 9 
are here presented to still further 
vouch for the relationship of William 
Tracy, of Hayles and Virginia, and 
the Bridges : 


Nidinge to send these letters to my 
cosine Tracy, I spake with mr Thorne, who 
tould me that by Sr Willm Throkmorton, 
and your selfe my cosin Tracy was sett at 
libertie — which did not a little reioyse me : 
I will not trouble you with many lines in 
this letter, by cause yf my cosine Tracy be 
gon, I desire you to opene his letter, yf he 
be with you I knowe he will acquaint you 
with what I haue writ : I desire that you 
will directe me what course to take for 
the remouinge of the action into the Chan- 
sery, and I will followe it with all speed, 
or yf your selfe will be pleased to followe 
it, all chardges shallbe mine, thus beinge 
sorry for the wronge dune unto my cosine 
Tracy by that basse extorcioner winter, I 
desire to heere from you and will ever rest 
your assured louinge ffrend 
Jo: Bridges 
Castlett the 23th 
of Sept. 1620 
[Addressed:] To my mutch respected 

ff rind John Smith, esqr. : at nibley be 

these deliured. 
[Endorsed:] mr Bridges .1. lettre to mee 

Sept .1620. [with seal] 

The confidence which the Virginian 
investors reposed in William Tracy is 
demonstrated by his appointment as 
governor. The original document 
addressed to George Thorpe, Mr. 
Tracy's coadjutor, and signed by 
Richard Berkeley and John Smyth, is 
preserved at the Lenox Library, and 
' a photographic reproduction of a por- 


<ps~ Pj 


tL*& +ut&L iwJS-' <t*H&* 


Exhibit g— John Bridges to John Smyth, September 23, 1620, in which he 
speaks of William Tracy of Hayles as his cousin and offers financial assistance— 
This letter also helps to identify Thomas Tracy of New England in 1636 as 
the lost son of William Tracy of Hayles and Virginia— Original in Lenox Library 

tion of it is here presented in Exhibit 

[After our very harty comendaaons : wee 
send herewith vnto you, a Comission to 
discharge the governem^wf and authority, 
which last yeare was by vs and yourselfe 
conferred vpon Captayne Woodleefe wher- 
to your ownee hand and seale is to be 
affixed, if you have cause to make vse 
therof, which, we leave to the wisdome of 
yourselfe and Mr Tracy we have conferred 
the wholl gouernement of all our people 
and affayres ioyntly by one other Comis- 
sion vpon yourselfe and Mr Tracy accord- 
inge to the tenor of the former to cap- 
tayne Woodleefe] makinge noe doubt of 
your prudent vsage therof, profitably also 
for yourselves and vs. . . . With our 
affectionate comendaaons we bid you har- 
tely farewell and rest 

Yor assured loving frends 
Rich. Berkeley. John Smyth. 
Stoke Saturday 
10 Sept. 1620. 

The financial misfortunes of Wil- 
liam Tracy of Hayles did not shake 

the faith of his colleagues, who held 
him in high esteem for his services to 
the first permanent English settlement 
in America when it was in dire need 
and about ready to abandon the conti- 
nent and return home after years of 
poverty, famine and massacre. This 
is shown by the agreement between 
Richard Berkeley, George Thorpe, 
William Tracy and John Smyth, in 
which Thorpe and Tracy are selected 
as governors of the colony on August 
28, 1620: 

Item it is further agreed that for the bet- 
ter augmentacon of the number of their 
said servants and collony already in Vir- 
ginia That another ship called the supply 
shall in the month of September nowe next 
followinge be sent from the said port of 
Bristoll furnished at their like equall costs 
and charges in all things with .540. persons 
or therabouts, And that the authority and 
governem^rcf of the said men and all others 
eyther already in Virginia or hereafter to 




Exhibit 10— Instructions from Richard Berkeley and John Smyth to George Thorpe, 
September 10, 1620— This document qualifies for membership in Society of Colonial 
Governors— The original is now in the archives of the Lenox Library in New York 

be sent and of all other their affayres in said Willm or any two of them shall agree 

Virginia shall be in the said George Thorpe vnto and determyne of in wrytinge, wherto 

and Willm Tracy Joyntly as sole gou<?rn- they the said Rich Berkeley and John 

ors and directors of all manner of busi- Smyth faythfully promise to submit them- 

nesses there soe longe as they two shall selves without longer contradiccon argu- 

agree in one and not be divided in opyn- ment or gaynsayinge. Given Enterchange- 

ion. . . . ably vnder their hands and seales the day 

*f$+ X L& #^&SS&, ^r aJLi&JZo J? *^- K?**- ^A ,w£* oJSsT 

Hn'Wc^.jL kc^>-<£*r'ir\j- VT>v^4^t^ W^-cr^O (vtrj-vilA* ih* tb- <s\r *w-c^ -\*J &-v ...--■*- -> 

..j| _ ^3 fte^iri |i^t flwIoW A%inft^ .* y . . ■ - 


f r 

Exhibit 11— Written August 28, 1620, appointing William Tracy a Governor in Virginia 
and mentioning him as brother of Sir Thomas Tracy, Knight of Toddington, and son 
of Sir John Tracy of Toddington, direct descendant of Saxon Kings— Lenox Library 

In concluding this agreement a and yeare first above written. (August 

record is made of the relationship of 28 '^?- r • " j u 

T X7 -. ir rj, 1 c-- n-i m^ This foregoing record corroborates 

William Tracy and Sir Thomas > Tracy, the di £ in 5 the chart offered as 

knight as brothers. See Exhibit n Exh f bit * at the beginning of this 

in which these lines appear: argument, in which the lineage of 

In case of disagreement it is agreed that William Tracy of Hayles and Vir- 
tue resolucon determynacon and proceed- • j { f y ohn Bridges , who 

mge shall be as Sr Willm fhrokmorton & • ■, ** j -1 . r cv -i- 1 

knight and baronet Sr Tho : Roe knight married Mary, daughter of Sir John 

and Sr Tho: Tracy knight brother. of the Conway, of Arrow, County of War- 


wick, sister of Lord Conway, is a 
direct descendant in unbroken line of 
succession to Egbert the first Saxon 
King of all England. Britton's chart 
records William Tracy as dying with- 
out issue. I have proven this errone- 
ous by William Tracy's own hand- 
writing and by the records of Vir- 
ginia. He had a son and his name 
was Thomas as witnessed in Exhibit 


In this same Exhibit 7 it will be 
found that John Smyth in his own 
handwriting entered a record of Wil- 
liam Tracy's death on April 8, 1621, in 
the midst of his financial misfortunes 
in Virginia; that his wife, Mary (Con- 
way) Tracy, was "slayne and dead," 
but these words are stricken out ; that 
his daughter, Joyce, married Captain 
Nath. Powell, and both were slain; 
and finally that the son, Thomas 
Tracy, "returned for England." 

With this tragical ending of the 
American speculations of a scion of 
the House of Ethelred, the Saxon 
King, I rest this first part of my argu- 
ment and turn to Lieutenant Thomas 
Tracy of Massachusetts and Connecti- 
cut, from whom the Tracys in Amer- 
ica descend, inasmuch as it is proven 
that the Tracy expedition to Virginia 
not only proved a financial disaster but 
ended in a tragedy. 

The words "slayne and dead" writ- 
ten by John Smyth alongside of the 
mother's name shows conclusively that 
she was not in Virginia and that her 
whereabouts was unknown by her late 
husband's associates. ' It is evident 
that John Smyth, who was one of the 
closest friends of her husband, had 
heard that she was "slayne and dead ;" 
but the crossing out of the line signi- 
fies that he later found that she was 
living and therefore obliterated the 
entry. If she had been living in Vir- 
ginia, John Smyth would have known 
it. It is a safe conjecture that she 
had gone back to England after her 
husband's death, where in the usual 
course of events she would have re- 

turned to her kin at Arrow in War- 

Be this as it may, the record expli- 
citly states "Thomas Tracy their 
sonne returned for England." Ex- 
haustive searches in the ancient rec- 
ords of England, in parish books, 
courts of chancery, English grave- 
yards, and fugitive papers and letters 
in antiquarian archives, have failed to 
give one word that even mentions his 
return to England. Eminent Ameri- 
can and British genealogists have 
gleaned the country to find an entry 
that would throw any light upon the 
existence of Thomas Tracy in Eng- 
land after he had departed from Vir- 
ginia and "returned for England." 

In 1636, there entered the town of 
Salem, Massachusetts, an Englishman 
by the name of Thomas Tracy. He 
had been in Watertown, Massachu- 
setts, and came to Salem with refer- 
ences from citizens of Watertown. I 
here present Exhibit 12, which is a 
photograph of a portion of the book 
of the Salem, Massachusetts, Records, 
and contains this entry : 

By the Towne represent, 2d of the first 
mo. 1636-7. p 38. 

Tho : Trace Reed for Ihabitant vpon 
a Certificate from diners of water Towne. 
And is to have 5 acres of Land, [which he 
may hane laid out when he hath a ticket 
from me that he hath paid me.] In short 
hand by the Town Clerk, pp 40-81. 

De Lands or By the Towan repre- 

rec. in inhabitants sentative the 23th 

of the nth mo. 
Anno 1636 
Mathew Waller Receiued for an Inhabi- 
tant fr a Certificate from mr Atherton 
haugh. pp. 40-81. 

Thomas Trace ship Carpenter reffered to 
Certifficate. pp 40-81. 
[40 Die mensis [*9*] 10 1637. p 60. 

It is agreed that the marsh & meadow 
Lands that hane formerly laved in comon 
to this Town shall now be appropriated to 
the Inhabitants of Salem, proportioned out 
vnto them according to the heads of their 
families. To those that haue the greatest 
number an acre thereof & to those that 
haue the least not aboue haue an acre, & 


/ #t # 



Exhibit 12— From Town Records of Salem, Massachusetts, in which his name is enrolled 
as an inhabitant— This document with much corroborative evidence discovers the missing 
son of W.lliam Tracy, who returned to England after his father's death in Virginia 

to those that are between both 3 q'ters of 
an acre, etc. 

When the list of those receiued allot- 
ments was written by Roger Conant he 
placed first the figure denoting the number 
in the family and then the name of the 
head of the family . . . the figures fol- 
lowing the names denote the allotment. 
Thomas Tracy receiued 2 (quarters) or 
half an acre, p 101. 

This Thomas Tracy, a ship carpen- 
ter, was received in Salem upon the 
"certificate of divers of Watertown." 

The fact that he was accepted shows 
that his sponsors were responsible 
parties. Who were some of the lead- 
ing residents of Watertown at that 
date? In 1636-7 we find among the 
estimable citizens one John Bridge ; 
his wife, Elizabeth ; his son, Matthew 
Bridge ; another William Bridges ; one 
John Smith, senior, John Smith, jun- 
ior, Francis Smith, and a Thomas 
Smith — all well-bred Englishmen, 

« - - /At 4 . 


>-£)' 'd^v^rv.'lt 



H'Jl *+*> pipa**- !^-^r ; ft?** P 


-g&Jrfr Mxrsrtfl 



U>i4*x*Z2L- ^ 

'*^&^ < *4**tP^ n ' 


Exhibit 13— From the Town Records at Salem, Massachusetts, and confirming the records 
that William Tracy of Hayles lost his entire estate in Virginia — His son, Thomas, 
was apprenticed as a ship carpenter with members of the Smyth family in New England 



prominent in the community. The 
Smiths were wealthy shipbuilders and 
large land owners. John Bridge 
was the first deacon of the first church 
in Watertown and was a leader in the 
administration of public affairs. 

The names Bridges and Smith have 
been frequently mentioned in the nar- 
ration of the experiences of William 
Tracy of Hayles and Virginia. In 
Exhibit 3, it is shown that his grand- 
father, Sir Henry Tracy, married 
Elizabeth Bruges, also written Brugge, 
Bridge, Bridges, Brydge and Brydges, 
who was the daughter of John Bruges, 
the first Lord Chandos of Sudeley. 
In Exhibit 9, one John Bridges, a 
wealthy descendant of this old Eng- 
lish family, offers aid to William 
Tracy about to sail for Virginia in his 
financial difficulties and speaks of him 
as his cousin. Throughout the entire 
financial embarrassment of William 
Tracy, in promoting his American in- 
terests, we find his "worthy" and 
"good" friend is John Smith or Smyth 
with whom he conducts a confidential 
correspondence. Exhibits 5, 6, 8, 9, 
10, all show the close relations of 
the Tracys and Smiths. In Exhibit 
7, it will be noted that it was John 
Smith who recorded the death of Wil- 
liam Tracy, his daughter, the record 
of his wife, and the record "Thomas 
Tracy their sonne returned for Eng- 

Then comes the silence of the Eng- 
lish records in which Thomas, this 
young gentleman, is never mentioned, 
until in 1636 there appears in Amer- 
ica one Thomas Tracy in a com- 
munity with the Bridges and Smiths, 
persons of influence and wealth. The 
Smiths are rich shipbuilders ; this 
Thomas Tracy is a ship carpenter. 
(See Exhibit 13.) 

The genealogical evidence seems to 
me complete. Thomas Tracy of 
Watertown and Salem, is the missing 
son of William Tracy of Hayles and 
Virginia. The proof is much more 
conclusive than that required in many 
cases at law where circumstantial evi- 

dence with less documentary proof 
frequently sends a man to his death. 
The identification is so strong that 
eminent genealogists and lawyers to 
whom I have referred my exhibits 
pronounce it conclusive. 

By unimpeachable exhibits, many of 
which are in the handwriting of the 
parties in question, it is proven that 
William Tracy of Hayles and Vir- 
ginia did not die without issue; that 
his son was in childhood; that his 
daughter was in maturity when 
through financial disaster and death 
of father and sister the boy was left 
destitute and "returned for England." 
That he did not remain in England 
is shown by the failure of the British 
records to mention him either in par- 
ish or politics, in property interests 
or trade, in marriage or death — not 
a word testifying to his existence in 
England, and this, coupled with the 
fact that he was the grandson of an 
Honored Knight, is evidence that he 
could not have remained in England. 

About fifteen years after the death 
of William Tracy in Virginia there 
appears the record of a youth who has 
just learned the trade of ship carpen- 
ter in Watertown where the Smiths 
are wealthy shipbuilders, and where 
the Bridges are an influential family 
Weighing the facts carefully, consid- 
ering all the elements of the narrative, 
can there be any more reasonable con- 
duct on the part of Thomas Tracy, 
who had been left destitute as the son 
of William Tracy who had lost all in 
the Virginia promotion, than to turn 
to his father's friends for assistance? 
These Smiths and Bridges in Massa- 
chusetts, branches of the old English 
families of friends and relatives of his 
dead father, knowing of the boy's 
plight, send for him to come there, 
and assist him to become self-support- 
ing by teaching him the trade of ship 
carpenter in their own shipbuilding 
yards, and vouch for him when he 
starts out to make his own way in the 
world and goes first to Salem. The 
fact of his being a ship carpenter has 


by some been considered to militate 
against the claim of his being of gen- 
tle birth; but with the explanation of 
the circumstances attending his early 
life it strengthens his identity and ac- 
centuates his independence of charac- 
ter and shows an honorable ambition 
to work out his own destiny as the true 
son of a true father. His second com- 
ing to America under the circum- 
stances is very much to his credit. 
Instead of settling down at his home 
in the position of the "poor relative" 
he chose to give up the luxurious sur- 
roundings to which he was born and 
brave the privations and dangers of a 
pioneer in the new world, of which he 
must have had a very vivid recollec- 

It is significant that the disappear- 
ance of the young son of William 
Tracy of Hayles and Virginia, is sim- 
ilar to the still more mysterious com- 
ing of the young man Thomas Tracy 
to Massachusetts, and these mysteries 
both occupy the same period of years. 
This period must be the connecting 
link that makes the boy the man. Ex- 
haustive searches in Watertown and 
Salem, Massachusetts, and in Weth- 
ersfield, Saybrook and Norwich, Con- 
necticut, prove that there is abso- 
lutely nothing in his American public 
record which taken by itself gives any 
clue to the place of his nativity, or 
whence or when he came to America. 

Many searches have been made in 
England and America without posi- 
tive results. 

The movements of Thomas Tracy 
after he became an inhabitant of Sa- 
lem are clear. That he became a man 
of strong character and a substantial 
citizen is shown by his long life of 
activity. The record of the division 
of the swamp lands in Salem (see Ex- 
hibit 14) show that Thomas Tracy 
was a single man in 1637, for it re- 
cords him as a family of "1." He 
removed to Wethersfield, Connecti- 
cut, and came into the possession of 
land. He next removed to Saybrook, 
Connecticut, and shared in the first 
division of land there about 1639, and 
in the second division he was granted 
land adjoining his house. The name 
of his first wife, the mother of all of 
his children, is not known. He was 
probably married about the time he 
settled in Saybrook, where all of his 
children were undoubtedly born. The 
list of their births, if there was one, 
has not been found. He removed to 
Norwich, Connecticut, in 1660, with 
his seven children. As his wife is 
not mentioned it is probable that she 
had died. After his final settlement 
in Norwich, Connecticut, he was con- 
stantly employed in the public affairs. 
He was one of the first Deputies to 
the General Court and served twenty- 
seven sessions ; he was Lieutenant of 

y& er^fi 


4~ ^ 


7* ffi** ff&v&* 

2 *\y**y 



Exhibit 14— From the Town Records in Salem, Massachusetts, in which Thomas 
Tracy is granted two quarters of an acre as an unmarried man's share in the allotment 


Dragoons and Commissary, etc., and 
his services qualify his descendants 
for the Societies of the Colonial Wars 
and Colonial Dames. While neither 
he or any of his descendants occupied 
the position of the chief corner-stone 
in the new nation, he and they did 
form a substantial part of the founda- 
tion and superstructure of the Con- 
necticut facade. 

Thomas Tracy married three times, 
for the record is given of his third 
wife, Mary (Foote) (Stoddard) 
Goodrich. She was the widow first 
of John Stoddard and second of John 
Goodrich of Wethersfield, Connecti- 
cut. Goodrich, as an inducement for 
Widow Stoddard to marry him, made 
an ante-nuptial agreement with her 
binding his heirs, if she survived him, 
to pay her four pounds per year dur- 
ing her life. She outlived him five 
years and the heirs forgot their obli- 
gations. There was a lawyer named 
Pitkin living in Hartford at the time 
and Thomas Tracy was a Deputy to 
the General Court there from Nor- 
wich, Connecticut. A letter indicates 
Tracy had a personal interview with 
Pitkin and engaged him to collect the 
claim and agreed to write him a state- 
ment of the claim. Pitkin brought a 
suit for the amount of the claim with 
interest and got judgment against the 
Goodrich estate and levied on a piece 
of land in Wethersfield which the 
Court ordered the Sheriff to deed to 
Tracy, which he received in satisfac- 
tion of all claims, September 2, 1685. 

Mr Pitkin that which my wife haue re- 

scaud of her legacy that her husband 

Goodrich Gave her dnreng her life the 
first year shee resued fower pound the sec- 
ond year shee reseued two pound Eighteen 
shillings and that is all that hau ben re- 
seued. Thomas Tracy's wife died Aprill 
1680. Thomas Tracy Dyed Aprill 1680 5 
years 20-00-0 


This is the only sample of Thomas 
Tracy's writing extant. 

He died in Norwich, Novem- 
ber 7, 1685. His age at death is not 
given, and no record has been discov- 
ered that gives any clue to the date 

of his birth. His children who shared 
in the distribution of his estate, were : 

John, (Serg.) b. about 1642; m. Mary 
Winslow Jun 17, 1670. 

Thomas, (Serg.) b. about 1645; m. Sa- 
rah ? 

Jonathan, (Lieut.) b. about 1648; m. 
Mary Griswold Jul 11, 1672. 
Miriam, b. about 1649; m. Ens. Thomas 
Waterman Nov — , 1668. 
Solomon, (Dr.) b. about 1650; m. 1st Lydia 
Huntington Nov 23, 1676. 
Solomon (Dr.) m. 2nd Sarah (Bliss) Slu- 
man Apr. 8, 1686. 

Daniel, b. about 1652; m. 1st Abigail Ad- 
gate Sep 19, 1682. 

Daniel, m. 2nd Hannah (Backus) Bing- 
ham Nov 4, 1712. 

Samuel, b. about 1654; unm. d. in Nor- 
wich, Conn Jan 11, 1693. 

John Tracy was the richest of the 
family and a very large landholder in 
New London and Windham Counties, 
Connecticut. He inherited his father's 
carpenter's tools, which indicates that 
he was a builder. He did not take a 
very active part in the management 
of public affairs. Thomas and Jona- 
than settled in Preston, Connecticut, 
on land given them by their father, 
which was granted him by the General 
Court for assisting Uncas when he 
was besieged in his fort by the Naran- 
sets. They both took an active part 
in the town and church affairs, and 
Jonathan was town recorder and clerk 
from the organization of the town till 
his death, 171 1. Solomon was the 
second doctor in the town and a lieu- 
tenant of the first train band, and Dan- 
iel was the Beau Brummel of the fam- 
ily — twenty-three ruffled shirts were 
enumerated in his inventory, and a 
sword and belt. As he did not belong 
to the train band, he must have used it 
as a dress adjunct and the insignia of 
the gentlemen. The boy, Samuel, 
died young. 

The American records of the early 
Tracys are voluminous and fairly 
complete ; they present no perplexing 
problems and the lines are intact, but 
eminent genealogists have been at a 
loss to account for the boyhood of 
Lieutenant Thomas Tracy of Massa- 
chusetts and Connecticut, and the for- 
bear of the Tracys in America. The 


most notable of the exhaustive investi- 
gations in England was made by 
Judge Frederick Palmer Tracy of 
San Francisco, California, the first 
genealogist of the Tracy family. 
The eminent jurist was also a clergy- 
man, and while preaching in Wil- 
liamstown, Massachusetts, in 1844, 
his eyesight failed and he went 
abroad. When in England he vis- 
ited Toddington and was received 
with all the courtesies due kin- 
ship by Lord Sudeley, the Right 
Honourable Charles Hanbury Tracy, 

' / 

7" i . 


&\ EX 

M\" -~ ■ \ '""' * X - l ' 





Lord Sudeley was Charles Hanbury Tracy and in- 
herited the heraldry of the royal line— Sir Thomas 
Tracy, Knight, inherited the shield and mask, front 
view and crest— William Tracy, Esquire, of Virginia 
1620, from whom the Tracys in America descend, 
has inherited the shield, mask, profile and crest 

Lord of Toddington Manor. In his 
searches there he did find a Thomas 
Tracy, a younger son of the same gen- 
eral family of Tracys, who was unac- 
counted for, and who was evidently of 
the same generation as our Lieutenant 
Thomas Tracy and a descendant of 
the Toddington family. As there 
w T as nothing to conflict with the as- 
sumption that he was the Thomas 
Tracy who came to America he 
thought he was very probably the 
same person. Judge Tracy communi- 
cated the result of his researches to 
Chancellor Walworth, who was then 
compiling his notable "Genealogy of 

the Hyde Family," and he was so im- 
pressed with its importance that he 
presented the matter in full in his 
Ethelred down to and including Sir 
William Tracy, knight (24), who was 
one of the first of the gentry to adopt 
the reformed religion and willed his 
soul to God without the intervention 
of a priest, has not been broken, but 
from him the line down to Lieutenant 
Thomas Tracy is erroneous and dis- 

The reason Judge Tracy could not 
find the right Thomas Tracy was be- 
cause Thomas's father, William 
Tracy, left England without having 
either the births or baptisms of 
his children recorded in the local 
public records. The identification 
must be by circumstances, condi- 
tions, events, and irrefutable evi- 
dences that connect the boy with the 
man. The absence of this birth rec- 
ord led Britton in his account of Tod- 
dington to say that the William Tracy 
who married Mary Conway died s. p. 
(without issue) which misled the 
searchers by its falsity as a record. 
This book, "Historical and Descrip- 
tive Accounts of Toddington, Glouces- 
tershire (England), the Seat of Lord 
Sudeley," by John Britton, F. S. A., 
1840, dedicated to "The Right Hon- 
ourable the Baron Sudeley" (Charles 
Hanbury Tracy), contains the sub- 
stantially true lineage from Ethelred 
down to Lieutenant Thomas Tracy. 
The statement that William Traci was 
a natural son of King Edward is not 
confirmed by earlier and later authori- 
ties. There are other minor discrep- 

The direct evidence, with its docu- 
mentary bearings, its cumulative cir- 
cumstances, and the mass of collateral 
and corroborative records, proves con- 
clusively that the missing period in the 
lives of Thomas Tracy, son of Wil- 
liam Tracy of Hayles and Virginia, 
and Thomas Tracy of Massachusetts 
and Connecticut, links them as one 
and the same person, connecting the 



strange disappearance of the boy with 
the stranger appearance of the man. 
To weld these links in the chain still 
more firmly it is well to finally con- 
sider the narrative chronologically 
from its approximate dates. 

In 1620, when William Tracy pro- 
moted the Virginia adventure his son 
was a mere child. It has been shown 
that if he had been far advanced in 
boyhood his father would have given 
him the male's precedence over his 
sister. It is not probable that he was 
more than ten years of age, and it is 
more probable that he was younger. 
To find a working basis for this chron- 
ological test an approximate may be 
placed at eight years of age. 

It required from five to seven years' 
apprenticeship to learn the trade of 
ship carpentry, and it generally began 
as soon as the boy could prepare lum- 
ber and understand the construction of 
sea-faring vessels. If the eight-year- 
old missing Virginia boy was appren- 
ticed to the trade he would have be- 
gun at about sixteen or seventeen 
years of age, and when he completed 
his time would have been about 
twenty-four years old. In 1636, 
Thomas Tracy, the ship carpenter at 
Salem, was an unmarried youth and 
must have been about twenty-four 
years of age, which is proven by the 
complete records of his later years. 
In 1637, when, according to the rec- 
ords, he was unmarried, he would 
have been twenty-five years of age. 
In 1639 (twenty-seven years of age), 
he was living in Saybrook, Connecti- 
cut, was married, and shared in the 
division of land. In 1660 (forty- 
eight years of age), he was in Nor- 
wich, Connecticut, and had seven 
children. He served twenty-seven 
terms in the General Assembly (there 
were two sessions per year), and died 
at seventy-three years of age in 1685. 

If Thomas Tracy, the missing Vir- 
ginia boy and scion of a gentle family, 
was eight years of age when his father 
promoted Virginia in 1620, he would 

have been just seventy-three years of 
age in 1685, the recorded date and the 
approximate age of Lieutenant Thom- 
as Tracy, the ship carpenter and legis- 
lator of Massachusetts and Connecti- 
cut, at the time of his death. 

Choose your own approximate 
dates, based on the facts, and make 
your own computations from any con- 
clusions you may find in the evidence, 
and the result is equally convincing. 

I apply this chronological test to 
ascertain whether or not it will agree 
with the established facts. It proves 
them so mathematically accurate that 
all possibility of coincidence is re- 
moved. The genealogical link is 
welded. The chain from the Saxon 
Kings through William Tracy, gov- 
ernor of Virginia, and his son, Thomas 
Tracy of Virginia, Massachusetts, and 
Connecticut, is complete, and the de- 
scendants of Thomas Tracy in Amer- 
ica are the progeny of the Saxon 

The lineage is supported by proof 
more tangible than that of many 
accepted assumptions of science. It 
has a greater preponderance of docu- 
mentary evidence than and relies less 
on faith and suppositions than much 
which we are required to accept from 
therapeutics, astronomy, dynamics, 
and even theology. I believe that in 
the days to come genealogy will be- 
come an established study in the 
science of heredity, but it cannot de- 
mand more formidable proof than the 
established sciences on which life it- 
self depends. 

With the lineage of Lieutenant 
Thomas Tracy, who died at Norwich. 
Connecticut, in 1685, established, and 
the mystery of his early life cleared, it 
is apropos in way of recapitulation to 
recall some of the near kinsfolk : 

His Grandparents: Sir John Tracy, 
Knight, Lord of Toddington and Hayles 
Abbey ; Anna Throckmorton, daughter of 
Sir Thomas Throckmorton. 

His Parents: William Tracy, Esquire, of 
Hayles Abbey; Councillor of State for 
Virginia and Governor of Berkeley Hun- 
dred; Anne Conway, daughter of Sir 


John Conway and sister of Lord Viscount 

His Uncles: The Right Honourable, John 
Tracy, First Baron of Rathcoole ; Sir 
Thomas Tracy, Grand Usher to the Queen ; 
The Right Honourable, Edward Conway, 
First Lord Viscount of Conway Castle, 
"Lord President of His Majesty's Most 
Honourable Privy Council ;" Sir Edward 
Bray; Sir William Hobby. 

His First Cousins: 

The Right Honourable, Robert Tracy, 
Second Baron of Rathcole, M. P. ; The 
Right Honourable, Edward Conway, Sec- 
ond Baron of Conway Castle, M. P. ; Sir 
Thomas Conway, Lieutenant Colonel in 
the Army ; Frances Conway, married Sir 
William Pelham, Knight; Brilliana Con- 
way, married Sir Robert Harley, Knight; 
Heligawarth Conway, married Sir Wil- 
liam Smith, Knight. 

His First Cousins, one remove: 

The Right Honourable, John Tracy, 
Third Baron of Rathcoole ; he married 
Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas, First Lord 
Leigh, and had The Right Honourable, 
William Tracy, Fourth Lord Viscount of 
Rathcoole and the Lord of Toddington 
'and Hayles Abbey 1712 ; The Right Hon- 
ourable, Edward Conway, First Earl of 

He had no Brothers; his only sister; 
Joyce Tracy, married in Virginia, Captain 
Nathaniel Powell, "a man of culture who 
kept an account of the occurrences in the 
Colony which were freely used by Cap- 
tain^ Smith in his History of Virginia." 

The Tracys in America are so 
closely related to the Conways of Brit- 
ish peerage that it is of interest to 

know something of these near kins- 

The royal lines from the Tracys, 
Conways and the Bridges shoot out 
into so many directions that the blood 
is found in many of the first fam- 
ilies of Great Britain and Amer- 
ica. It is a blood that has produced 
men in all lines of the world's activity, 
that has been the maker of kings of 
an empire and conscientious citizens 
of a republic. 

It would be a pleasure to me to con- 
tinue this narrative indefinitely from 
the resources I have accumulated in 
thirteen years of continuous research 
on this one subject — records, as the 
Psalmist says, of those things "which 
we have heard and know and our 
forefathers have told us . . . that 
generations to come might know them, 
even the children which should be 
born, who should arise and declare 
them to their children." 

I inscribe these words to all those 
who are "looking forward to poster- 
ity with a knowledge gained in look- 
ing backward to ancestry," with the 
admonition of the great Edmund 
Burke who once remarked : "Those 
who do not treasure up the memory 
of their ancestors do not deserve to be 
remembered by posterity." 


Accurate Transcript of Original Document in Possession of 
MARY R. WOODRUFF, Orange, Connecticut 

Know all men by these presents that I ZachariahThomlinson, of Stratford in the 
County of fairfield and Colony of Connecticut innewengland, for the Consideration 
of eight barrils of good merchantable pork allready in hand Reed of Joseph Wood- 
ruff of Milford which is to my full satisfaction and contentment, Do relinquish, 
release and pass over unto him the Sd Joseph Woodruff and to his heirs and assigns 
forever, all my right, title and Interest in, and unto the Servitude of one Certain 
malatto boy named Job, aged nine years, born of an Indian woman named Nab, to 
have and to hold Sd Malatto boy free and clear from all Claims and Demands made 
by me or my heirs and further I the Sd Zachah Thomlinson Do for my Self and my heirs 
Covenant with him the Sd Jos. Woodruff and his heirs that he and they Shall 
Quietly and peaceably possess and enjoy Said Malatto boy Job without the Least 
Interruption or molestation from by or under me or my heirs forever. In witness 
whereof I have hereunto Set my hand and Seal, this 21st Day of May Anno Dom. 
1765. Signed, sealed and Delivered 
In presence of 

Abner Judson (Signed) ZACH: TOMLINSON. 

William Pixlee 


Cbe Early Steamships Along M Atlantic Coast 



After life-long investigations into the History of Steam Navigation and the Rise of American Commerce 
which have been recorded in eight articles in The Connecticut Magazine 

I WISH to say a few words here 
regarding steamshipping on the 
Atlantic coast. It has been 
demonstrated in these pages that 
John Fitch of Connecticut is the in- 
ventor of the steamboat, that Con- 
necticut holds at least six, and nearly 
all, of the prior claims during the ex- 
perimental days of steam navigation, 
that it was Junius Smith of Plymouth, 
Connecticut, who promoted the idea 
of trans-Atlantic steam navigation 
and that a Connecticut engineer and 

The "New York" built in 1822 for service 
between Southern and Northern ports- 
Later ran on Long Island Sound and along 
the Maine coast where she was finally lost 

captain piloted the first steamship to 
cross an ocean. I have now prepared 
for my next article the full record of 
Robert Fulton, intending to establish 
his proper position in the development 
of steam navigation. I shall then re- 
turn to Connecticut waters and record 
the interesting story of steam naviga- 
tion on the Housatonic river and 
other waterways in this common- 
wealth which did more for steam- 
boating in days when it needed sup- 
port than any other commonwealth in 
the world. 

I will here briefly speak of the 
earliest days of steam navigation 
on the Atlantic Coast southward from 
Long Island Sound. I shall not enter 
into the subject exhaustively but 
merely outline its earliest inception. 

After experimenting on the rivers 
and on Long Island Sound, the navi- 
gators of steam vessels dared the 
ocean. In 1819 the "Robert Fulton," 
an American full-rigged steamship, 
built in New York for David Dunham 
and others, made regular trips be- 
tween New York and New Orleans, 
via Havana. She was one hundred 
and fifty-eight feet long and was 
equipped with an Allaire Works, 
"square" engine. She ran for a num- 
ber of years with more or less regu- 
larity, and without mishap. 

One of the first steamship lines to 
be established on the Atlantic Coast 
was the route between New York and 
Norfolk, now covered by the magnifi- 
cent steamers of the Old Dominion 
Line. The so-called "steam brig" 




"New York," a two-masted craft, full- 
rigged on the foremast only, built in 
Norfolk, Virginia, in 1822, by W. A. 
Hunter, for Thomas B. Rowland and 
others, was the vessel used. She had 
a fifty horse-power lever beam engine 
built in the foundry of Daniel Dod, 
Elizabethtown Point, New Jersey, 
and, as was usual in those days, she 
had a copper boiler. She began run- 
ning between Norfolk and New York 
in the fall of 1822 and on October 31 
of that year the Evening Post said : 
"The steam brig 'New York,' Captain 
Churchward, arrived at Norfolk early 
on Sunday morning, making her pas- 
sage in thirty-six hours from New 
York to the Capes." To-day the pas- 
sage is made in about eighteen hours 
by the Old Dominion boats. 

The "New York" ran on the New 
York-Norfolk route for about a year, 
and later ran on Long Island sound 
and on the coast of Maine, where she 
was finally lost. 

Following the "New York" the first 
steamship to ply regularly between 
New York and Norfolk was the 
"Roanoke," a twin-beam engine pad- 
dle-wheeler of one thousand, one 
hundred tons, which began operations 
in the year 1851. She was built for 
the New York & Virginia S. S. Com- 
pany, by Westervelt & McKay, New 
York, and continued in the line until 
the Civil War, being taken over in 
1 861 by the Confederate States' Gov- 
ernment and turned into a gunboat. 
In 1864 she again appeared in the 
merchant service, being placed on the 
New York and Havana Line. On 
September 29, 1864, when a few miles 
out from Havana on the homeward 
passage, a Confederate naval officer 
and several men, passengers on the 
boat, took possession by force and ran 
her into Bermuda. Putting to sea 
again, a sailing vessel was sighted 
and made to come to, when all the 
passengers and crew of the "Roa- 
noke" , were transferred and the 
steamer set on fire. She burned to 
the water-edge and sank. 

Thomas E. Rowland, an inaugurator of the original 
service between New York and Virginia— From an 
old daguerreotype owned by his son,Thomas B. Row- 
land, of Norfolk, Virginia 

The "Jamestown," a mate to the 
"Roanoke," was one of the prominent 
vessels of the Old Dominion Line in 
the fifties. She was a craft of one 
thousand, five hundred tons, built by 
Westervelt & McKay, of New York, 
with two beam engines from the Mor- 
gan Iron Works. The New York 
Evening Post of date June 4, 1853, 
said: "The pretty steamship 'James- 
town,' now at the Morgan Iron 
Works, will probably make her first 
trip between this port and Norfolk on 
June 18. She was built by Mayor 
Westervelt, under the superintend- 
ence of Captain William Skiddy. She 
has a very handsome model, very 
sharp at the bows, and a round stern. 
For a figure-head she has a huge 


The ' Home" — An old engraving showing her in the northeast gale on her third trip for Charleston, South Carolina, 
on November 9, 1837 — Through some accident to her machinery she was driven ashore near Cape Hatteras and about 
one hundred persons were drowned— Captain Elihu Bunker, who built the "Fulton" of i8t3, and is connected with the 
early history of Long Island Sound, condemned the owners of the "Home" in an official government report, but the 
report of an engineer, W. C. Redfield, freed them from all blame 


The "Pulaski" — An old engraving picturing the tragedy on June 14, 1838, when the notable steam packet was on her 
third trip from Savannah, Georgia, to Baltimore, Maryland —She was twelve hours out of Charleston, South Caro- 
lina, when one of her boilers exploded — The ship broke in two parts and sank with one hundred and ten persons, the 
largest number lost up to that time on any steam-propelled vessel 



dragon, with the bowsprit issuing 
from its mouth. On the wheel-house 
is a representation in carved wood of 
the scene of Pocahontas saving the 
life of Captain John Smith. She has 
a large and airy dining-room, situated 
on the main deck, which is lighted 
and ventilated by twenty-two win- 
dows. The accommodations are so 
ample that one hundred and twenty- 
eight persons can be seated at the 

The "Jamestown," w ith ner con_ 
sort, the "Yorktown," were seized by 
the Confederate States' Government 
at the outbreak of the Civil War, and 
fitted as gunboats, the machinery and 
other vital parts being protected by 
iron plate. The "Jamestown" was 
one of the vessels attached to the Vir- 
ginia "Merrimac" when it played such 
havoc with the Federal fleet in Hamp- 
ton Roads, and also when the "Mer- 
rimac" and "Monitor" had their noted 
battle in the same waters. The 
"Jamestown" was subsequently sunk 
in the James river, with other craft, 
to obstruct the channel leading to the 
upper James. 

Another of the early lines was that 
established between New York and 
Charleston. The boats on this route 
were known as "steam packets" and 
were but little fitted for the service. 
There was the "David Brown," built 
to run between New York and Red 
Bank, New Jersey, which was placed 
upon this run in 1832 ; then came the 
"William Gibbons," named for the 
man who had broken the Fulton-Liv- 
ingston monopoly on the Hudson and 
thus opened up the navigable waters 
of the country to all men for all time. 
The first of these two did good service 
for quite some time arid afterwards 
went to the West Indies where she 
was worn out in 1845. The other 
boat was lost in 1836. After these 
boats came the "Columbia" and the 
ill-fated "Home," the first coastal 
steamer whose loss entailed any great 
sacrifice of human life. This was in 
1837 and the very next year one of the 
toilers of the "Pulaski," running be- 

tween Baltimore and Savannah, ex- 
ploded when about twelve hours out 
from Charleston, where she stopped 
for freight and passengers, and the 
ship broke in two parts and sank, 
causing the death of one hundred and 
ten persons. 

I record these tragedies only for the 
purpose of showing the wonderful 
progress that has been made in steam 
navigation since its invention by John 
Fitch of Connecticut. In its early 
days it cost many human lives to per- 
fect the science of propelling vessels 
by steam. Unfortunate as were these 
tragedies their victims were sacrifices 
on the altar of progress. 

From each tragedy there developed 
some important improvement in the 
construction of ships or machinery 
until to-day the records of accidents 
on land and sea show that the travel- 
ers on the sea are proportionately far 
safer than those who are journeying 
on land. In truth the records show 
that more people are injured in their 
own homes and in passing through 
our public streets than on the steam 

It is just one hundred years since 
Robert Fulton placed steam naviga- 
tion on a sound financial basis as a 
profitable business investment and 
every year of this first century has 
been one of marvelous strides. The 
ships of yesterday and the ships of to- 
morrow are relatively like chips on 
the billows and magnificent floating 
palaces replete with all the luxuries 
known to a palatial civilization. 

In the experimental days the crude 
craft was at the complete mercy of 
the storm. To-day it masters the 
storm and flashes its messages to land, 
communing with the continents 
through the weird science of wireless 

The story of coastal navigation is 
one of much interest and the few 
notes I have here narrated are merely 
to record certain incidents from 
which may be traced the perfection 
and safety of travel on the sea on this 
completion of its first century. 




Hartford, Connecticut 


AIL to the honor of woman, 
Sisters and mothers and wives, 
Hail! to the name of the nobler race 
That leads the nobler lives. 

Out in the open we battle, 
Free, where the sun shines clear. 
We do not watch and wait at home, 
Haunted with nameless fear. 

Where is there faith like a woman's — 
Purer than beaten gold — 
Or courage to enter the shadow of death, 
Are there men with hearts so bold ? 

She cannot fight in the open, 

Free, where the sun shines clear, 

She wrestles with foes far greater than ours,, 

She conquers the awful fear. 

We have read of the courage of heroes 
Who follow at Duty's call, 
Who face the fight with power and might, 
Soldiers and sailors and all — 

We honor the man of strenuous life, 
We place him above the^rest, 
But what of the woman of womanly ways,. 
Whose fortitude is the best? 

Then take this word to our women, 
Sisters and mothers and wives, 
Take this word to the nobler race, 
That leads the nobler lives. 

Men, when you enter the battle, 
Free, where the sun shines clear, 
Pray God for a woman's courage 
To suffer and conquer fear. 





Poem written by Miss Frances M. Caulkins of New London, January n, 1868 

On Say brook's wave-washed height 

The English lady sleeps, 
Lonely the tomb, but an angel of light 

The door of the sepulchre keeps. 

No roof — no leafy shade 

The vaulted glory mars, 
She sleeps in peace, with the light on her bed 

Of a thousand kindly stars. 

She sleeps where oft she stood, 
Far from her native shore, 

Wistfully watching the bark as it rode, 
To the home she should see no more- 

By grateful love enshrined 
In memory's book heart-bound, 

She sank to rest with the cool sea wind, 
And the river murmuring round. 

And ever this wave-washed shore, 
Shall be linked with her tomb and fame, 

And blend with the wind and billowy roar, 
The music of her name. 

IT was when a great revolution was 
about to break out in England, 
and men began to think more of 
the new country beyond the sea, 
settlements had already been made in 
Massachusetts under the auspices of 
the Plymouth Company, and that com- 
pany had transferred to Robert, Earl 
of Warwick, its rights to a tract of 
land further south, and on March 
19th, 1 63 1 -2, the Earl of Warwick ex- 
ecuted a deed by which he conveyed to 
certain persons the said lands forming 
the valley of the lower Connecticut 
and extending to the sea. Among 
the grantees first mentioned in this 
company were the Right Honorable 
William, Viscount Say and Seal, 
Right Honorable Robert, Lord Brooke, 
Sir Richard Saltonstall, John Pym 
and John Hampden. 

On the 7th of July, 1635, John 
Winthrop, the younger son of the gov- 
ernor of Massachusetts, was appoint- 
ed by this company to be "governor of 
the river Connecticut and of the har- 
bor and places adjoining for the space 
of one year after his arrival there." 
John Winthrop arrived at Boston in 
the fall of 1635 an d at once undertook 
the work of the settlement at the 
mouth of the Connecticut river. He 

was to build a fort with houses, not 
only for soldiers and laborers, but 
"houses also for men of quality." 

John Winthrop sent a vessel and 
twenty men to the mouth of the river, 
where a settlement had already been 
made; the vessel arrived just in time 
to prevent the Dutch from landing on 
the 24th of November, 1635, and pos- 
session was taken in the name of the 
company who held the title. A little 
later, in honor of Lord Say and Seal 
and Lord Brooke, the name of Say- 
brook was given to the settlement, 
which is the oldest town name in Con- 
necticut. With John Winthrop came 
Lyon Gardiner, an English engineer 
who had been in the service of the 
Prince of Orange, who was to build 
the spacious fortifications and to lay 
out a great city. 

The company that planned this en- 
terprise belonged to the nobility and 
gentry of England. Feeling the op- 
pression in civil and religious affairs 
they determined to seek freedom and a 
new home in America. It was ex- 
pected in the spring there would 
"come from England three hundred 
able men, whereof two hundred should 
attend to fortification,, fifty to till the 
ground and fifty to build houses." 




The winter of 1635 was a ver y 
severe one ; the Connecticut river was 
frozen over before the settlers came 
and the snow was so deep that there 
was great suffering among the settlers 
of Hartford, who came by land from 
Cambridge at the same time. Little 
could be done but provide for the 
safety and comfort of the colonists at 
the mouth of the river. The long 
winter passed, and, with the welcome 
spring, came not the three hundred 
men who were expected, but only two 
or three, among them George Fen- 
wick, who was sent out by the com- 
pany, of whom he was a member, to 
inspect the fort and neighboring 
country. He returned to England in 
the fall. 

Lyon Gardiner was greatly disap- 
pointed and later removed to the 
island which bears his name, where he 
made the first English settlement 
within the limits of the present state 
of New York. His son, David, was 
born in Saybrook on the 29th of April, 
1636, the first white child born in Con- 
necticut. The grinding stones of the 
windmill Lyon Gardiner erected in 
1636 remain on the same spot, a mile 
north of the fort. 

In July, 1639, George Fenwick re- 
turned to America, bringing with 
him his bride, Alice Apsley, formerly 
the wife of Sir John Boteler, from 
whom she had by courtesy the title 
of lady. With them came members 
of their household and several gentle- 
men with their servants. They sailed 
from England in one of two vessels; 
after a voyage of seven weeks they 
arrived in New Haven harbor and are 
said to be the first vessels anchored 
there. Whitfield and the Guilford 
planters were of the party. Fenwick 
was the only one of the patentees who 
came to America. His associates 
abandoned their purpose of crossing 
the ocean at the brightening prospects 
of the Puritan party at home. 

Mr. Fenwick and his wife made 
their home at Saybrook ; the house, we 
read, was "a fair house well fortified ;" 

it stood within the fort near the bank 
of the river, where it flows into the 
sound, a beautiful spot. Lady Fen- 
wick was fond of flowers and planted 
them all about her home; that there 
were apple and cherry trees we know 
from the following extract taken 
from a letter Mr. Fenwick wrote Gov- 
ernor Winthrop in May, 1641 : "If we 
have anything that could pleasure you, 
you should freely command us as 
I am pretty well stored with cherry 
and apple trees of the apples you sent 
me last year, but the worms hath in a 
manner destroyed them as they came 
up." We read also of pet rabbits and 
a "wonderful herb garden." In Octo- 
ber, 1639, three months after the Fen- 
wick's arrived from England, he wrote 
Governor Winthrop: "I am lastly to 
thank you kindly, on my wife's behalf, 
for your great dainties; we both de- 
sire and delight much in that primi- 
tive employment of dressing a garden, 
and the taste of so good fruits in these 
parts gives us good encouragement." 

Lady Fenwick was often seen rid- 
ing horseback or at practice with her 
"shooting gun," a tall, graceful 
woman, with a wealth of auburn hair. 
Brought up in the midst of wealth and 
refinement she bravely adapted herself 
to the new life. 

The household consisted of Mary 
and Elizabeth Fenwick, sisters of Mr. 
Fenwick ; Master John Higginson, the 
chaplain of the fort; Eleanor Selby, 
the nurse, and an Indian servant, 
Obed. Lady Fenwick's daughter, 
Elizabeth, was born shortly after com- 
ing to this country. Annah Wolcott 
Griswold, daughter of Henry Wolcott, 
the settler of Windsor, and wife of 
Matthew Griswold, the settler of 
Lyme, and ancestor of two Connecti- 
cut governors; Mrs. John Winthrop, 
whose home at this time was on Fish- 
er's Island, and Mrs. Lake, a sister of 
Mrs. Winthrop, were Lady Fenwick's 
associates. Living at such a distance 
rare, indeed, were the hours they spent 
together. At the few social gather- 
ings of those days Lady Fenwick was 



the life and center of interest. She 
united with Rev. Thomas Hooker's 
church in Hartford, and carried her 
little daughter, Elizabeth, there to be 

Eight years passed ; what they were 
to this refined woman we cannot well 
imagine — the desolate land, the fear of 
the Indians, and the longing for home. 
Unselfish in her thought and work for 
others; taking a great interest in the 
people of the settlement and giving 
the best of herself for the advance- 
ment of the new country ; disappoint- 
ed that other members of her hus- 
band's company did not join them, but 
courageous and strong through it all, 
Lady Fenwick lived the life of the 
American colonist. There were days 
when the river was dark and forbid- 
ding; the waves thundered upon the 
shore, and the wind, with gathering 
fury as it swept across the miles of 
barren fields, moaned and howled 
about the fort ; then it was that Lady 
Fenwick gathered her little daughter 
'closer in her arms as she sang an old 
cradle song, thinking of the land be- 
yond the sea, and seeing again the old 
familiar faces and the beautiful fields 
of England. 

The winter came when the days 
were still, so still ; the snow lay white 
and heavy all about them and the river 
was frozen over and the sea seemed 
so far away. Little Elizabeth, in her 
warm coat and hood, threw crumbs to 
the snowbirds and played with her pet 
rabbits as she walked up and down be- 
fore the door with good Master Hig- 
ginson. But it was not always win- 
ter; there came bright sunny days 
with the spring; the river sang upon 
its way, the waves came rippling in, 
the apple and cherry trees were full of 
buds; Lady Fenwick cared for her 
flowers and planted the precious seeds 
brought from England, but, best of 
all, she loved to work in that "won- 
derful herb garden," wherein grew 
everything for medicinal and house- 
hold use. Thomas Pell, the "chirur- 
geon" of the fort, taught Lady Fen- 

wick the use of the herbs and in cases 
of illness she well knew how to care 
for the sick. 

Mr. Fenwick, in the absence of the 
other patentees, had acted as ex-ofn- 
cio governor for some years, and in 
December, 1644, he made an agree- 
ment with the General Court at Hart- 
ford by which he ceded to the colony 
of Connecticut the fort at Saybrook, 
with its appurtenances, and all lands 
in the colony claimed by those propri- 
etors interested in the Warwick pat- 
ent; with the stipulation we read in 
"Connecticut as a Colony and State" 
that Mr. Fenwick was to have posses- 
sion of all buildings belonging to the 
fort for a period of ten years, and re- 
ceive for a like term a duty on all 
corn, biscuits, bacon, and cattle ex- 
ported from the mouth of the river, 
which ended the independence of the 
colony. And it was probably at this 
time that Mr. Fenwick gave to Con- 
necticut its seal, representing a vine- 
yard of fifteen vines, supported and 
bearing fruit ; above the vines a band 
issuing from the clouds holds a label 
with the motto: Svstinet qvi trans- 
tvlit. Changes have been made in the 
seal, and the order of these words has 
been altered and they are now below 
the vines, and around the circumfer- 
ence is the inscription: Sigillum Rei- 
publicae C onnacticutensis , the latter, 
too, having been changed; in colo- 
nial days, the word Coloniae being in 
place of Republicae. The late Charles 
J. Hoadly said that in a paper, "writ- 
ten in 1759 by Roger Wolcott, some- 
time governor, he tells us that his 
stepfather, Daniel Clark, informed 
him that the seal was given by George 
Fenwick to the colony." Mr. Hoadly 
adds that Daniel Clark "was likely to 
be well informed on the subject, for 
he was born about 1623 and was secre- 
tary of the colony for several years 
between 1658-1666." 

It was not long that Lady Fenwick 
could endure the severe winters or the 
life of a colonist; she died soon after 
the birth of her daughter, Dorothy, 



who was born November 4th, 1645, 
and was buried on a small hill within 
the enclosure of the fort. A table and 
chair taken from Lady Fenwick's 
house in the fort can be seen in the 
Acton Library at Saybrook; also a 
coil of her hair. 

Mr. Fen wick, soon after the death 
of his wife, disappointed and discour- 
aged, returned to England ; his two lit- 
tle daughters and their nurse followed 
shortly. Before leaving this country 
Mr. Fenwick committed the care of 
Lady Fenwick's grave and the setting 
of her monument to Matthew Gris- 
wold, and also promised to send a suit- 
able inscription for the stone, but this 
he never did, political affairs at home 
receiving all his attention. It was not 
until the year 1679 tnat a simple, 
brown-stone monument with sloping 
sides, resting on three pillars, was 
erected over the grave by Benjamin 
Batten of Boston, son-in-law to one 
of Mr. Fenwick's sisters; the receipt 
for its cost, seven pounds, given by 
Matthew Griswold, is on record in 
Saybrook ; it was nearly two hundred 
years later that the words, Lady Fen- 
wick, and a cross were cut upon the 

After Mr. Fenwick returned to 
England he became a colonel in the 
Parliamentary Army and was elected 
a member of Cromwell's Parliament; 
the trial of Charles I. He died in 
1657 and was buried at Berwick-on- 
the-Tweed. His epitaph in the 
church at Berwick reads thus : 


of Brinkburn, Esq. 

Governor of Berwick in the year 


Was a principal instrument of caus- 
ing this church to be built, and died 
March 15th, 1657. 

A good man is a public good. 

Lady Fenwick's daughters lived and 
died in England. The little Elizabeth 
married her cousin, Rodger Fenwick 
of Stanton, and the baby, Dorothy, 
married Sir Thomas Williamson of 
East Markham. Of the other mem- 

bers of Lady Fenwick's household, 
Mistress Elizabeth Fenwick married 
Captain John Cullick of Hartford ; as 
there is no further record of Mistress 
Mary it is supposed she died soon 
after Lady Fenwick. 

Master John Higginson became 
pastor of the church in Guilford, 
where he married Sarah, a daughter 
of Rev. Henry Whitfield of Guilford, 
the marriage, according to tradition, 
taking place in the "old stone house" 
built in 1640, and still standing. The 
Henry Whitfield State Museum claims 
to possess the first town clock which 
told time in that town, and in the state 
from 1 726-1893. The church to 
which good Master Higginson minis- 
tered owned and housed the clock 
which was built by a native mechanic, 
and to this church also belonged the 
first steeple and bell in Connecticut. 

Obed, the Indian servant, lived and 
died in Saybrook, on the spot known 
as "Obed Heights." 

Soon after the death of Lady Fen- 
wick the fort and buildings were 
burned. A new fort was built on the 
bank of the Connecticut river ; it was 
taken away in 1870 and Lady Fen- 
wick's remains, after resting in that 
lonely spot over two hundred years, 
were removed. Bits of wood and nails 
from the coffin were found, together 
with the bones in a good state of pre- 
servation, and a heavy braid of hair 
with two small curls. The bones were 
placed in a new coffin and carried to 
the old village church, where appro- 
priate services were held. The re- 
mains were re-interred with the old 
stone over the grave at the entrance of 
the village cemetery, one of the oldest 
and most historic in the state. Just 
beyond is the summer colony of Fen- 
wick named in honor of this gentle 
noble-woman, the influence of whose 
life is like the lingering fragrance of 
the lavender, that, in crossing the 
fields where the old fort stood, on a 
summer's day, one may now and then 
gather from that "wonderful herb 
garden" of those far-away days. 

first $ilbouetti$t$ in America 

Earliest Extant type of Pictorioiogy j> Brown's Itota&ie 
Collection of Portraits of Distinguisftea Americans 



or Nbw Haven, Connecticut 

r I ^HE first American photogra- 
I pher was the silhouettist, and 
i the early Americans, with all 
the strength and weakness of 
human nature, went to him for their 
portraiture, much as the modern Amer- 
ican sits before the camera to-day. 
The earliest extant type of Pictoriol- 
ogy, found upon the Egyptian mum- 
my-cases and Etruscan pottery, is the 
silhouette. It passed down the genera- 
tions until Madam Pompadour, a 
woman of French society, had her 
profile made in black upon a white 
ground by simply casting a shadow 
with a lamp, and it immediately be- 
came the fashion throughout France 
to have one's profile "a la Pompa- 

It was about this time that Etienne 
de Silhouette, financial minister of 
Louis XV, inaugurated his rigid sys- 
tem of economy which came so near 
to parsimony that his name was used 
as an appellation for everything cheap 
or shabby. The plain black profiles 
were so inexpensive and so common 
among all classes of people that the 
aristocracy finally exclaimed in dis- 
dain : "It's too Silhouette." 

The first silhouettist to begin busi- 
ness in America was Charles Wilson 
Peale in Philadelphia, more than a 
century ago, and here American soci- 
ety gathered to sit for portraits. The 
distinguished men of the day also 
patronized Peale and one of the most 
famous of his silhouettes is that of 
George Washington. 

One of the most noted silhouettists 
to come to America was James Hu- 
bard, an English youth of seventeen 

With Keproductions prom Brown's Original Silhouettes 

years, who landed in New York un- 
der special "management" a few days 
after the arrival of Lafayette in 1824. 
He was made the subject of much 
comment in the newspapers and trav- 
eled about the country exhibiting his 
"Hubard Gallery" in which for fifty 
cents the visitor was "entitled to see 
the exhibition, hear the concert, and 
obtain a correct likeness by Master 
Hubard, cut with common scissors in 
a few seconds, without the aid of 
drawing or machine." 

So lucrative seemed the* "new pro- 
fession" that many men entered it, 
not only profiting financially but also 
making the acquaintance of the exclu- 
sive families of the period. One of 
these was William Henry Brown, who 
was born in Charleston, South Caro- 
lina, May 22, 1808, and became a 
genius in the quaint art of portrait- 
ure. In his travels through the prin- 
cipal cities of the United States he cut 
the silhouettes of the most eminent 
citizens. So adept did he become 
that with a single glance of the eye 
he could photograph on his memory 
the profile and figure of an object and 
reproduce it months or even years 
afterwards with absolute accuracy. 
He was brilliant in conversation and 
his fund of reminiscences of promi- 
nent men gave him entree into the 
first homes of America. Brown accu- 
mulated money rapidly and spent it 
lavishly, but at the close of his career 
left a remarkable collection of silhou- 
ettes of many distinguished Ameri- 
cans. On the following pages four 
of the most characteristic silhouettes 
are reproduced from the collection in 
the Brown "Portrait Gallery." 


Portrait Gallery of famous Americans 

SILHOUETTE of Daniel Web- 
ster taken in the zenith of his 
greatness in the United States 
Senate, when he was about 
fifty-seven years of age. Webster was 
much pleased with this portrait and 
wrote to Brown, the silhouettist : 
"My friends unite in saying that the 
one you took of myself is a striking 
likeness. I cannot, however, see its 
resemblance to the original, as I do 
in all the others. It is an old and 
very true saying 'that if we could see 
ourselves as others see us/ etc." 
Brown in his notes gives these im- 
pressions of Webster: "He is rather 
above the ordinary stature. His fore- 
head high and broad, resting as it 
were upon a lowering brow, is strik- 
ing and peculiar. His eyes are dark 
and deep-set, his lips rather thin and 
generally compressed. His whole 
countenance is grave, and marked 
with the impress of dignity and close 
thought. His hair is black and his 
complexion rather dark. To stran- 
gers, his general appearance is stern 
and forbidding, yet when speaking in 
public, his countenance is occasion- 
ally pleasing and attractive. In con- 
versation he is at times free and com- 
municative, but more generally, re- 
served and attentive to the sentiments 
of others. He is polite and solid 
when conversing with those with 
whom he is not well acquainted, and 
when among those whom he knows 
well, he is som